Krim

of these articles is concerned with the Ukrainian peninsula Krim, for further meanings sees Krim (term clarifying).
Autonomous Republic of Krim

АвтономнаРеспублікаКрим
АвтономнаяРеспубликаКрым
Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti
Flagge Krims Wappen Krims
Detail detail
Europakarte – Lage von Krim
Ukrainekarte – Lage von Krim
Wahlspruch: “Процветаниевединстве” - “Prosperity in unity”
Office language Ukrainian, Russian, krimtatarische
capital Simferopol
system of government autonomous republic of the Ukraine
prime minister Anatoly Burdyugov
parliament boss Boris Deytsch
surface 26,200 km ²
number of inhabitants 1.994.300 (2005)
currency Hryvnia (UAH)
time belt UTC +2
national anthem “Нивыигорытвоиволшебны, Родина”
Internet TLD .crimea.ua
preselection +380 65

the Krim, officially autonomous Republic of Krim (Ukrainian АвтономнаРеспублікаКрим - Awtonomna Respublika Krym, Russian АвтономнаяРеспубликаКрым - Awtonomnaja Respublika Krym, krimtatarische Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti) is a peninsula in the northern black sea and autonomous republic within the Ukraine with a surface of 26.100 km ² and approximately 1.98 million inhabitants (December 2005).

Table of contents

geography

the peninsula Krim is very gebirgig in the southern part. The mountains represent not only, like each mountains, a geographical obstacle, but are also a climatic barrier. South the Krimgebirges at the black sea coast mediterranes climate prevails, in thatTropical fruits and also Weinstöcke very well prosper, why the Krim admits also for its sparkling wine (Krimsekt) is (see for this: Viticulture in the Ukraine).

The capital of the Krim is Simferopol. In the north the Krim is by those Land tightness connected by Perekop with the mainland, in the east borders the peninsula on the strait of Kertsch. In the south the Krimgebirge (highest collections in novel Kosch 1545 m, Tschatyrdag 1527 m and Lapata 1406 m ) is appropriate for the peninsula, inThe north is steppe landscape. At the Südzipfel of the Krim is the port Sewastopol, further well-known resorts is Jalta, Hursuf, Aluschta, Bachtschyssaraj, Feodossija and Sudak. A tourist attraction is the longest trolley bus line of the world between Jalta,Aluschta and Simferopol over the Krimgebirge, of where from itself beautiful views result in on the sea.

population

on the Krim live scarcely two million humans, on it approximately 380,000 in the largest city of the peninsula, in Sewastopol.

Beside the population of majority of Russian (58.5%) and Ukrainern (24.4%) live on the Krim also 243,400 returned Krimtataren (conditions 2001, source: Office for statistics of the Ukraine) and in the cities ever approx. 1,000 Krimtschaken and Karaimer. In addition white Russians come, Kazan' act arene, Poland, Moldawier, Aserbaidschaner, Usbeken, Koreaner, Greek and German (Krimdeut).

Between the language's groups there are various conflicts, in particular between Ukrainern and Russians. Only few schools on the Krim inform the UkrainianLanguage. In accordance with an inquiry in the context of the census in the year 2001 about 10% all inhabitant of the Krim call the Ukrainian language its native language, 77% the Russian, and 11% the krimtatarische.

history

Satellitenaufnahme of the peninsula Krim and the Asow sea, (NASA/MODIS/Blue Marble)

the Krim, whose name is probably derived from Mongolian tatarischen kerim „fortress “or from the krimtatarischen qrym „rock “, does not have „natives “. In modern national categories, which played no role at that time, was the Krim in this order kimmerisch, taurisch, skythisch, Greek, Roman, gothical, sarmatisch, Byzantine, hunnisch, chasarisch, kiptschakisch, Mongolian tatarisch, venezianisch, genuesisch, osmanisch. The peninsula in the black sea belonged „each and to nobody “(Neal Ascherson).

In the antiquity was the Krim of Kimmeriern and Taurern, then of Skythen inhabits. Besides Greek colony cities existed, from which soon the Bosporani realm developed. There the Greeks gave the name Chersonesos Taurike ( Cherso nesos is the Greek word for peninsula) to the peninsula after that resident trunkthe Taurer. Also the most important city was called Chersonesos (gone down; been because of the edge of the today's Sewastopol).

In the 1. Century v. Chr. became the Krim Roman province. In the 3. Century n. Chr. Goten ( see Krimgoten ) came on the Krim, toPart to in 16. Century are provable. 5 followed them in. Century the Hunnen, Chasaren, Kumanen and act arene. In the Middle Ages also the designation Chasari peninsula was usual.

Karte der Halbinsel Krim
Map of the peninsula Krim
historical map (around 1888)

the southernKrim was under control from Byzanz and Genova. 1450 developed on the Krim the Krim Khanat, which brought far parts of the Ukraine under its control (see history of the Ukraine), which came 1475 however under osmanische control. Since 1774 becamethe Krim independently of the Osmani realm and increasingly of the Russian realm affects. By Russia the excerpt arranged of the Christian population (Ukrainer, Greek, Armenian) from the Krim led to the economic collapse and civil war between Khanen, to Katharina II. the Krim, afterit 1783 annektiert by Russia was, „from now to and for all times “for Russian deklamierte.

1853-1856 were the Krim, above all Sewastopol, scene of the Krimkrieges. In the Second World War the Krim from 1941 to 1944 became throughthe German Reich occupied (and it should be annektiert in reference on the Germanic Krimgoten as Gotengau, to which it however never came due to the war process). To 18. May 1944 the Krimtataren on Stalins instruction was deportiert to central Asia. With the inhumanTransport in cattle railroad cars died about half of the Krimtataren .

In Jalta on the Krim took place in February 1945 a conference between the world war-allied.

In the reign of the Ukrainers Nikita Khrushchev the Krim became 1954 under break of Soviet lawshand over to the Ukraine. The cause for it was the 300-jährige anniversary of the Rada of Perejaslaw of 1654, with which the Ukrainian Kosakenstaat the Russian realm pressed by Poland followed.

politics

in January 1991 spoke themselvesthe majority of the population in a referendum for the creation of an autonomous Republic of Krim within the Soviet Union out.

In June 1991 the Krimtataren organized itself on the Krim for the first time politically. The Madschlis was selected as authorized organ of the people thatKrimtataren.

To 6. The delegates of the parliament in Simferopol a condition of the Republic of Krim adopted May 1992. After protests of the Ukrainian parliament the condition of the Ukrainian legislation was adapted. The Krim now has its own coat of arms and a flag.

In January 1994 the Russian Juri Meschkow, which publicises the approximation of the Krim at Russia, was selected after a hard and partly bloody election campaign to the president of the Krim. In the summer 1994 it came to struggles for power between parliament and president.Repeated demanded the Ukrainian parliament, the Werchowna Rada, in Kiew the subordination of the legislation on the Krim under Ukrainian right and threatened the Krim, it their autonomy status to extract. „The Republic of Krim “committed itself thereupon to make no decisions,Ukrainian condition contradict.

Until 1995 it came besides again and again to sharp conflicts between the Ukraine and Russia. Apart from the allocation it concerned to the Black Sea fleet thereby the nationality of the peninsula. By the Russian-Ukrainian friendship treaty of1997 could be substantially defused this conflict, even if the mutual relationship does not run without tension. Since that time Russia leased a part of the military port Sewastopol for its Black Sea fleet.

With to 21. November 2004 held ballot in the context of the presidency elections 2004were correct on the Krim 82% for Wiktor Janukowytsch, in Sewastopol 89%.

Wiktor Juschtschenko, Janukowytsch' from the elections 2004 victoriously come out rival candidate, quit to 4. May 2005 on to exchange the personnel of all local administrative authorities of the Krim; thoseVoters would stand for a change of the regime and its representatives.[1]

economics

the Krim lives mainly on the production of Krimsekt and of the tourism.

tourism

sunset at the south coast of the Krim

in 19. Jh.the Zarenfamilie and the Russian high aristocracy at the south coast of the Krim summer residences could be established, the role of the peninsula as vacation and Erholungsort began. Important artists, writers and „realms and beautiful ones “spent the summer months at the black sea beach, some - howAnton Tschechow, which do good-ends for health reasons on climate was dependent - established themselves.

In the Soviet time the Krim fulfilled the function one „All-Union sanatorium “with up to 10 million season guests. Since the independence of the Ukraine is the number of the Sommerfrischler for economic reasons strongly decreased/gone back, yet is the tourism still most important restaurant factor of the peninsula. In the last years also Western European tourists discover the Krim.

largest cities

sea promenade of Jalta
City Ukrainian name Russian name Krimtatari name inhabitant
5. December 2001
Simferopol Сiмферополь Симферополь Aqmescit 343,644
Kertsch Керч Керчь Kerç 157,007
Jewpatorija Євпаторiя Евпатория Kezlev 105,915
Jalta Ялта Ялта Yalta 81,654
Feodossija Феодосiя Феодосия Kefe 74,669
Dschankoj Джанкой Джанкой Canköy 43,343
Aluschta Алушта Алушта Aluşta 31,440
Krasnoperekopsk Красноперекопськ Красноперекопск Krasnoperekopsk 31,023
Saky Саки Саки Saq 29,416
Bachtschyssaraj Бахчисарай Бахчисарай Bağçasaray 27,549
Armjansk Армянськ Армянск Ermeni Bazar 23,869
Bilohirsk Бiлогiрськ Белогорск Qarasuvbazar 18,790
Sudak Судак Судак Sudaq 14,495
Prymorskyj Приморський Приморский Primorskiy 14,085
Hwardijske Гвардiйське Гвардейское Sarabuz 12,795
Tschornomorske Чорноморське Черноморское Aqmeçet 11,709
Schtscholkine Щолкiне Щёлкино Şçolkino 11,699
Krasnohwardijske Красногвардiйське Красногвардейское Qurman 11,112
Haspra Гаспра Гаспра Gaspra 11,027
Sowetskyj Совєтський Советский İçki 10,933
Oktjabrske Октябрське Октябрьское Büyük Onlar 10,904
Nyschnjohirskyj Нижньогiрський Нижнегорский Seyitler 10.466
Staryj Krym СтарийКрим СтарыйКрым Eski Qırım 10,101
Hressiwskyj Гресiвський Грэсовский Gresovskiy 10,037

literature

  • Norbert Kunz, the Krim under German rule 1941-1944: Germanisierungsutopie and crew reality, Darmstadt: Scientific book company, 2005, ISBN 3-534-18813-6

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