crystallography and/or. - grafie is the science of the crystals, their structure, emergence and their characteristics. It overlaps strongly with the neighbour sciences mineralogy, solid-state physics, chemistry and material science; crystallography a subsection of the mineralogy is historically seen.
The subject covers inparticular (without requirement on completeness):
- crystal chemistry
- physicochemical crystallography: Material structures, crystallization and crystal growth, diffusion, phase transitions
- crystal physics
- structural analysis: Crystal analysis with diffraction methods, spectroscopy
- Mesoskopi crystallography: Domains, twins
- bio crystallography: Structure clearing-up of proteins, and. A.
- Technical crystallography
- investigation of non-crystalline, arranged systems: Pseudosymmetrical crystals (quasicrystals, modulated structures), Liquid crystals, surfaces and boundary surfaces, short-range order in Gläsern, and. A.
- Material sciences (materials technology)
in Germany crystallography can be studied as field of the course of studies “diploma mineralogy”. In Switzerland a course of studies “diploma crystallographer” exists; there were these also in the GDR.
- 1669: Nicolaus Steno discovers the law of the angle Konstanz
- 1801: René Just Haüy finds the symmetry law of crystallography
- 1890/91: Derivative of the 230 crystallographic space groups by Arthur Moritz Schönflies and Jewgraf Stepanowitsch Fjodorow
- 1912: First experiments for Roentgen diffraction at crystals by max of Laue
- 1913: Auflärung of the crystal structures of some minerals and alloys by William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
- 1953: Clearing-up of the crystal structure of the Desoxyribonukleinsäure by James Watson and Francis Crick
- 1969: Clearing-up thatCrystal structure of the insulin by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
- 1984: Discovery of five-tough leagues symmetry axes (quasicrystal) in fast cooled down aluminium manganese an alloy by Dan Shechtman and coworkers