the Croats (Croatian Hrvati) are a people in Europe. The Croats belong by the majority to the Roman-catholic denomination and speak the Croatian language belonging to the südslawischen languages. Most Croats live in Croatia, where they place the majority of the inhabitants, and in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where they konstitutiven one of the three “peoples” are (Bosnian Croats).
Croatia was over centuries an emigration country. Therefore numerous humans of Croatian origin in North America , South America , Western Europe and Ozeanien live. Many Kroatischstämmige, which particularly maintain their Croatian inheritance, their Croatian language and Croatian traditions, call themselves independently of its nationality also as Croats or Croatian Diaspora.
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the Ethnogenese of the Croats is scientifically not yet finally clarified. Proofs exist only for the fact that in the area today's Croatia in 6./7. Century a settlement of Slawen and Awaren took place.
origin of the Croatian people
According to a theory the Croats came from the area old Persia (today Iran), of where from a part left, because of frequent Auseinadersetzungen and for economic reasons the old homeland and on the old trade routes directionThe west pulled. They held at the bank of the Asow sea and beside the river Don and based there in the 1. and 3. Century so-called “red Croatia (Don' Croatia, Don' Croats) “.
During the ideas of the Hunnen however again a part of the Croats continued to pulldirection northwest. After Attilas death (the leader of the Hunnen), the Croats these defeated and established themselves behind the Karpaten , the area between the rivers or and Dnjestr. This would today be into for instance the area of the Czech republic, the Slowakei, south Poland and the Ukraine. This were the so-called “white ones (western) Croats “. The capital called itself allegedly “Hrvat” (Croat) and was in the place of the today's Krakau in South Poles. This state existed up to 10. Century as it in the new Polish andCzech state one integrated.
address of the Croats at the adriatischen east coast
in 7. Century n. Chr. strong awarische trunks in the area today's Croatia , which penetrated even until Konstantinopel , lived. In its written recordings (mentioned by human „De administrando imperio “)reports Konstantin VII. Porphyrogennetos that the people of the Croats in 7. Century was called of the Byzantine emperor Herakleios from its homeland to the Weichsel ( so-called white Croatia) as protection against the Awaren in the country. 626 penetrated a part of the western Croats with someforwards and them within few years the Awaren succeeded to defeat ten thousand soldiers into the today's areas and to drive it out into the area northwest the Danube. In consequence the Croats were treated by the Byzantine king such as fellow citizens and friends.
Christianisierung of the Croats
with the arrival on the today's area happened also something else, which along-coined/shaped the culture of the Croats into the today's time substantially. Itchanged from the multi-God faith at that time on the Christian a God summerhouses. To it the many mission acres were, those from the Roman Pope Johannes IV. were sent and even in Dalmatien born was not insignificantly involved. As an important personality is thereby Johannes of Ravenna (kroat. Ivan Ravenjanin) toocall.Ravenna was at that time one of the strongest centers of where from itself the Christianity far vausbreitete. Allegedly at that time the Croatian prince Porga emperor Herakleios asked personally and Pope Johannes IV. around mission acres. Thus the Croats were supposed the first slawische people, itselfto baptize left. They remained resulting in the holy chair until today faithfully and.
From that 8. Century come the first safe messages over a Croatian principality within the range of the today's Norddalmatien. In the year Pope Johannes VIII. designated 879. the prince Branimir as rulers of the Regnum Croatorum, which equaled at that time an international acknowledgment „of the kingdom of the Croats “.
the people migration of the Croats the opinion will represent different historical opinions of some historians that between Herakleios and the Frankish realm an agreement was met. Therefore those becameCroats equipped by Franconias militarily and left on go-eat emperor Karls of the large one their old homeland in Galizien over in the old Illyricum (in Liburnien, Pannonien, Dalmatien and a part of Histrien) against the Awaren to fight. At first the Croats remained subject of Franconias,freed themselves however after lengthy fights from the Frankish rule.
In the older Slawistik and in the science of history 19. Century these reports were interpreted in such a way that a slawischer trunk moves named „to Croats “closed to Illyrien was. Linguistic vouchers speak however for the fact that the Croats,on itself the report Konstantin VII. Porphyrogennetos' refers, no purely slawisches people to have been can; According to Porphyrogennetos the Croats on their way became after Illyrien and Dalmatien of five brothers - Klukas, praise lot, Kosentzes, Muhlo and Hrobatos - and two sistersnamed Tuga and Buga aforementioned. All names are not slawischen origin.
From different side therefore theories about a nichtslawische became, e.g. Iranian origin of the Croats develops. These support themselves particularly by the possible Iranian Etymologie of the Ethnonyms Croat.
In large parts of the today'sthe opinion will represent medieval science of history that the Ethnogenese of the Croatian people in the today's sense carried out itself just like those of the other today's südslawischen peoples only according to the settlement of the country by the Slawen and other groups in the people migration time, so that the reportsover a settlement of the Croats as a closed, existing people with skepticism to be already before regarded must. It is more probable therefore that it itself with the Croats of Konstantin VII. Porphyrogennetos of delivered report only around the group named-giving for the modern Croatian people acts, of themName was however only transferred in the course of the following time to the whole today of the people so mentioned. It is accepted also to a large extent with the fact that were involved to the Croatian Ethnogenese both slawische and nichtslawische groups probably. Disputed is however, which groups this exactlywere and like the relative meaning of the individual groups involved to estimate is. The exact circumstances of this process leave themselves for lack of written sources for social development of the area today's Croatia in the time between that to 6. and 8. Century hardly more reconstruct.
See also: History of Croatia
Many researchers assume an Iranian, most likely sarmatischen origin of theNamed. In Persia documents were found, which of a trunk named Harauvat is and/or. Hu-urvatha speak. On the basis of these Etymologie different theories about an assumed Iranian origin of the Croats developed.
In Tanais (today Asow), a Greek colony city of the Bosporani realm in the northeastthe Asow sea (south Russia), two stone boards became from that 2. Century found, on which from (probably sarmatischen) a people of the Horouathos the speech is. This is according to opinion of some linguists and historians the first mention of the Croats/Hrvati and/or. the originthe name of the Croats, which would strengthen again the theory of the Iranian origin. Apart from the identity of names however no further connection between the today's Croatian people and the stone boards could do, those in the archaeological museum of pc. Petersburg to be kept, proven.
deliveredNames, which possibly contain the Ethnonym “Croat”
it are after present knowledge conditions doubtfuly whether and if which of the following designations refer to the people of the Croats as a closed group, to forerunners of the same or splitting off the same. Alsoetymologisch identical names not necessarily always refer to the same people, and in some cases also the etymologische connection of the names is disputed. The occurrence from probably etymologisch identical names to different times in different areas gives the study of the origin of the Ethnonymsand concomitantly the Ethnogenese today of in such a way designated people however references, which can analyze it. The following historical designations possibly stand with the name of the people of the Croats in connection:
- 5. and 6. Century before Christ in the area former Persia (today Afghanistan and Iran):
- Haurauvat and/or. Hu-urvatha
- Harahvati (it exists also still a city with the similarly sounding name “Herat “)
- in the Caucasus mountains:
- 2. and 3. Century after Christ in the area of the today's Südukraine:
- 5. and 6. Century after ChristSettling the antisch slawischen national territory (today's Poland and white Russia)
- area white Croatia of 6. up to the 11. Century after Christ (today's Poland and East Germany):
- 7. Century (areatoday's Austria, Hungary and Slovenia):
- other areas into the Croats pulled:
today's name forms
apart from the self-designation Hrvat (Pl. Hrvati) are the Croats today in European languages among other things well-known under the following name:
- German: standard-linguistically Croat; mundartlich Krawåt (in the consequence developed also different colloquial designations such as Crobath or Krobath)
- French: Croate
- English: Croat
- Italian: Croato
- Hungarian: Horvát, Pl. Horvátok (other ways of writing Horvath, Horwath or hear-waded)
- Czech: Chorvat
- Polish: Choir-wade
- Russian: Xорват
- Turkish: Hırvat
the Croatian Diaspora
historical settlement areas
- in Serbia, in the autonomous region Vojvodina (they are recognized since the year 2002 as national minority there)
- in Montenegro (in the area of the bay of Kotor)
- in Austria (particularly in the castle country)
- in Romania along the border to Serbia (the Roman-catholic gläubigen Krashovani in the Romanian Banat is slawischer origin, admits itself however usually as Croats)
- in the southern-adjacent areas of Hungary (about. 100.000)
- in Macedonia (scattered)
- in Italy (in the Molise)
- on the Kosovo ( the Janjevci)
a large number of Croats was in the course of the time for economic or political reasonsforced to leave the old homeland so that there is today a larger Croatian Diaspora.
The first larger drift of Croats took place in 15. Century and 16. Century at the beginning of osmanischen conquests in today's Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Humans fled at that time insafer areas within Croatia, in addition, into other areas of the having citizen realm at that time (on the area of the today's States of Austria, Slowakei and Hungary). On this migration the castle-landCroatian minority with approx. goes. 60,000 humans back, those today due to their century-long permanence in their currentSettlement area is ranked among the autochthonen minorities.
End 19. /At the beginning 20. Century emigrated a larger number of Croats particularly for economic reasons to overseas, among other things to North America, South America (above all Chile and Argentina), Australia and New Zealand.
A further larger emigration wave, this time for political reasons, took place immediately after the end of the Second World War. Here both Kollaborateure of the Ustascha fled - regimes and humans, which did not want to live under a communist regime. It becomes estimated that during and immediately after that The Second World War from 1939 to 1948 about 250,000 Croats the country abandoned had.
In the second half 20. Century went numerous Croats to a large extent due to difficult economic living conditions as immigrant workers particularly to Germany, Austria or into Switzerland. In addition came also someEmigrant for political reasons, particularly after the end of Croatian spring. This migration made a lowering of unemployment for communist Yugoslavia possible at that time and created at the same time by the transfers of the emigrants to its families an enormous foreign exchange source of income.
Croatian ones addition train offer to the immigrant worker childrenin most larger places of Europe and in overseas possibilities for the care and development of the Croatian native language as well as for the further training.
The Croatian Diaspora took part during 20 the century repeated actively in the policy of its country of origin. The Croats of the Diaspora collected last during of the Croatian war of independence in the first half of the 1990er years important quantities of auxiliary goods and supported financially the country concerned by the war. The most important organization of the Croatian Diaspora is the Hrvatska bratska zajednica (Croatian Fraternal union) in the USA.
apartof the homeland places of the Croats (Croatia, where the number of Croats approx. 4 million, and Bosnia-Herzegovina amounts to, where approx. 600,000 Croats live), assume estimations in approximately 1.5 to 2.0 million Croats abroad live. Abroad becomes the numbersomething relates, in view of incomplete statistic recordings and naturalizations.
The largest groups of emigrants live in Western Europe, primarily in Germany. It becomes even estimated that it there approx. 450,000 humans with direct Croatian origin gives.
In overseas the USA have the largest Croatian group of emigrants to exhibit (409.458according to the census of 1990, most live in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois and California), followed on Australia (105,747 according to the census of 2001, with concentrations in Sydney, Melbourne and Perth) and Canada (in particular south ontario). There are also smallerGroups in Argentina, Chile, Peru, Brazil, New Zealand and South Africa.
|Croat in all world|
|Bosnia and Herzegowina||600,000||Slovenia||50,000||Venezuela||5,000|
|USA||of the 450,000||Netherlands||40,000||Slowakei||4,000|
major items: List of important Croats
scientists and inventor
- Gjuro Baglivi (anatomy theory)
- Danilo Blanuša (mathematician)
- Ruđer Josip Bošković (philosopher and scientist)
- Fran Bošnjaković (thermodynamics)
- William Feller (mathematician)
- Zvonimir Janko (to mathematicians, see Janko groups)
- Emanuel small (bacteriologist)
- Ivan Lupis Vukić (inventor)
- Anthony Maglica (inventor, like Lite)
- Andrija Mohorovičić (geophycisist, discoverer of the Mohorovičić Diskontinuität)
- Slavoljub Eduard Penkala (inventor of the first mechanical stylograph)
- Vladimir Prelog (chemist)
- Lavoslav Ružička (chemist)
- David black (designer of the first airship)
- Andrija Štampar (bacteriologist)
- Ignacije Szentmártony (Sprachwissenschafter, astronomer and geo count)
- Filip Vezdin (Indologe)
- fist Vrančić (inventor of the parachute)
- Josip Vučetić (researcher of the finger mark)
literature and language
- Ivana Brlić Mažuranić (authoress, “Croatian Andersen one”)
- Mirko Grmek (medical encyclopedia)
- Ljudevit Gaj (writer, journalist, politician, one the founder of the “Illyri movement”)
- Bartol Kašić (father of the Croatian grammar)
- Miroslav Krleža (writer)
- Marko Marulić (writer, father of the Croatian literature)
- Stanislav Pavao (Paul) Skalić (invented 1559 the term Encyclopaedia)
art and culture
- Ivan Duknović (sculptor)
- Julije Klović (painter)
- Ivan Meštrović (sculptor)
- doing Mihanović (painter)
- Goran Višnjić (actor)
- Josip Broz Tito (communist dictator, one the founder of the movement of the non-aligned one)
- Josip Jelačić (field gentleman, politician, “Ban” of Croatia)
- Alojzije Stepinac (cardinal)
- Franjo Tuđman (historian, politician, first president of independent Croatia)
- Zvonimir Boban (soccer player)
- Goran Ivanišević (tennis player)
- Ivan Klasnić (soccer player)
- Janica Kostelić (alpine Skifahrerin)
- Robert Kovač (soccer player)
- tonuses Kukoč (basketball player)
- Ivan Ljubičić (tennis player)
- Iva Majoli (Tennisspielerin)
- Dražen Petrović (basketball player)
- Robert Prosinečki (soccer player)
- Dado Pršo (soccer player)
- Dino Rađa (basketball player)
- Dario Šimić (soccer player)
- before it Šuker (soccer player)
- Igor Tudor (soccer player)
- the designation of the article of clothing“Tie “decreases/goes back to the name of the people of the Croats. The Croatian soldiers carried in 17. Century a similar article of clothing around the neck, collar with fraying, by which they were to be differentiated quite simply. The word “cravate” becomes for the first time inthe French encyclopedia in 17. Century mentions, as Croatian soldiers at the yard Ludwig of the XIV. in Paris stayed. In the French one calls the Croats “Croates”, which lets close easily on the word “ cravate” or in German “ tie”. (details, see: History of the tie)
- Vitomir Belaj: The customer of the Croatian people: a culture history of the Croatian Volkskunde. Gardez! Publishing house, pc. Augustin 1998, ISBN 3-928624-57-1
- Ludwig Steindorff: Croatia: From the Middle Ages to the present. Pustet, Regensburg 2001, ISBN 3-7917-1734-0
Web on the left of
General one Web on the left of
- articles over the Iranian origin of the Croats, English ones.
- Catholic Encyclopedia, close.
- Theories about the Pre Historic Period OF the Croats, English one.
- Identity OF Croatians in Ancient Iran
- “Y chromosomal heritage OF Croatian population and its Iceland isolates”, Baric et al., European journal OFHuman Genetics (2003) 11, 535-542, English
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope John IV and the Croats (English)
- Marijina nazočnost u početcima (krštenje Hrvata) (Croatian)
- “The genetics Legacy OF Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans”, Semino et al., Science Vol290, 2000, English
- modal haplotype OF zagreb, English
- GermanCroatian society registered association. Freiburg
- Croatian American Association
- Croat in Tasmanien (Australia)
- Croatian World Congress
- Croatian municipality in south Australia
- Croatian municipality in south Africa
- Croat in France
- Croat in New York
- Croat in Argentina
- Croat in the castle country
- Croatian Heritage Foundation