Croatia

Republika Hrvatska
Republic of Croatia
Flagge Kroatiens: Drei horizontale Blockstreifen, von oben: rot, weiß, blau. In der Mitte über alle drei Streifen das Wappen des Landes. Staatswappen Kroatiens
(detail) (detail)
office language Croatian, in the Gespanschaft Istrien additionally Italian, locally additionally Serbian and Hungarian
capital Zagreb (German also Agram)
system of government parliamentary democracy
head of state Stjepan Mesić
Prime Minister Ivo Sanader
surface 56,542 km ²
number of inhabitants 4.448.000 (2005)
population density of 78 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 7,935 US-$ (2004)
sovereignty 25. June 1991
currency Kuna (HRK)
time belt MEZ (UTC +1)
national anthem Lijepa naša domovino
Kfz characteristic HR
Internet TLD .hr
preselection +385
Lage Kroatiens in Europa
Karte Kroatiens
Dubrovnik, the “bead of the Adria (the Stadtmauern of Dubrovnik are the besterhaltene Fortifikationssystem in Europe)

Croatia (kroat. Hrvatska) is a state, itself geographically partly in Central Europe (north Croatia, Slawonien) and partial in South-east Europe on the Balkan Peninsula finds. It borders to country on Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegowina and briefly on Montenegro. Croatia has 1,777 km a long mainland coastal line (with islands 5,835 km) at the Adriati sea, a Ausläuferthe Mediterranean.

Table of contents

geography andGeology

situation and borders

surface

the Croatian national territory covers 87,609 km ², about which 56,542 km are allotted ² to land and to 31,067 km ² to sea-territory. Due to the territorial situation developed for historical reasons from Bosnia and Herzegowina the national territory of Croatia becomes upa continental northern part and a long coastal strip restricted, which are connected only in the northwest. The southernmost part of the coastal region (the region around Dubrovnik up to the border to Montenegro) becomes on a length of approximately 3 km by tooBosnia and Herzegowina belonging municipality Neum separately from remaining Croatia.

Border

the overall length of the land borders of Croatia amount to 2,197 km. Of it 670 km, to the border to Hungary 329 km, are void to the border to Bosnia to the border to Sloveniaand Herzegowina 932 km and on the border to Serbia and Montenegro in the northern section (Serbia) 241 km and/or. in the southern section (Montenegro) 25 km. In the Nordadria touch themselves the Croatian and Italian territorial waters,which has as a consequence that Slovenia does not have a free entrance to international waters (see: International conflicts of the succession states of Yugoslavia).

Save

the highest mountains are the DIN era (1,830 m), Kamešnica (1,810 m) and the summit sports association. Jure (pc. George) in Biokovo - massif (1,762 m), as well as the Vaganski vrh (1,757 m) in the Velebit - mountains and the Plešivica (1,657 m) close Ozeblin.

Rivers

the longest rivers, which flow by Croatia, are the save (kroat. Sava, 562 km) and the Drau (kroat. Drava, 505 km). These rivers form the borders to Hungary and to Bosnia-Herzegovina and flow off to the Danube. The Kulpa (kroat. Kupa, 269 km) forms a majority of its process the border to Slovenia. The east border tofollows Serbian province Vojvodina over 188 km of the Danube (with exception of some fruitful regions, which are appropriate east for the Danube and also to the Croatian territory belong). The rivers from the DIN-arid to the Adria are relatively short.

Lakes

the largest seas are the Vransko jezero (30.7 km ²), the Dubravsko jezero (17.1 km ²), the Peruča lake (kroat. Peručko jezero) at the Cetina - river (13 km ²) and the Prokljansko jezero (11.1 km ²).

Islands

the largest islands are Krk (409.90 km ²), Cres (405.78 km ²), Brač (394.57 km ²), Hvar (299.66 km ²), Pag (284.56 km ²) and Korčula (276.03 km ²). To Croatia altogether 1,185 islands belong, by which 67 is inhabited.

Geographical organization

Klimadiagramm der kroatischen Hauptstadt Zagreb
climatic diagram of the Croatian capital Zagreb

CroatiaEastern Europe is in a geostrategically important position between means - and (south). The state is also at the sheath between the west - and eastRoman culture areas, whereby Croatia is to be added to the western culture area. Croatia can in geographical regardas a whole neither clearly Central Europe nor South-east Europe to be assigned. Scientifically seen there is no clear organization, and also the Wasserscheide between Danube and Adria runs across the country. Historically seen one knows the areas north the save to east Central Europecount, the parts of central Croatia south the save, as well as Istrien and Dalmatien are usually ranked among South-east Europe. The geographical or tectonic organization of Europe strikes the areas south the alpine main comb and the Karpaten to south Europe and South-east Europe. In addition, there are culturalInfluences of the Mediterranean area - venezianische in particular - and the distances are so small that a partitioning of the republic is doubtful on continent parts. The shortest distance of the borders of Austria and Croatia amounts to less than 25 km air line.

Landscape zones

Topographische Karte Kroatiens
topographic mapCroatia
aerial photograph

after relief forms and climate zones can be divided to Croatia in three regions:

The pannonische lowlandses

the Pannoni lowlandses, which consist predominantly of flat country, interrupted of some low mountain ranges, and over the save and Drau and their tributariesto the Danube one drains. In this part of the country moderate continental climate prevails. This landscape zone can be subdivided in north Croatia and Slawonien. North Croatia covers the eastCentral European coined/shaped area of the Kupa up to the Hungarian border: the flat country lengthwisethe save and Kupa around the cities Zagreb, Karlovac and Sisak, which form today demographically and economically the center of the country, the mountain country of the Zagorje (on German also Zagorien) northern the capital Zagreb and the Međimurje innorthernmost Zipfel of the country between Drau and Mur. Slawonien is the flat country along the rivers save (Sava) and Drau (Drava) up to the Danube (Dunav) in the east. This often also the Baranja becomes(north the underflow of the Drau) and west Syrmien (Zapadni Srijem) (the Ostzipfel of Croatia between Danube and lower save) counted.

The dinarische mountain region

the dinarische mountain region (also middle Croatia or Croatian hill country called), those of central and individual high mountainsis coined/shaped, which form the Wasserscheide between Danube and Adria, whereby individual valleys are also completely dischargeless. Here mountain climate prevails. To this landscape zone belong the mountain country fermenting ski kotar between Rijeka and Karlovac, the high valleys Lika and Krbava betweenthe mountain course of the Velebit running along the coast and the border area to west Bosnia, as well as a part of the hinterland Dalmatiens (Dalmatinska Zagora, Biokovo mountains).

The adriatische coastal region

climate zones in Croatia


The adriatische coastal region karstige to large parts, in that Mediterranean climate prevails and of mediterranen cultural influences is coined/shaped. The width of the mediterranen coastal strip varies strongly. While it is few kilometers wide in some places (below the Velebit and the Biokovo) only, it is enough onother places further in the interior. The majority of the rivers flowing into Croatia into the Adria is however relatively short; only the catchment area of the Neretva coming from Bosnia and Herzegowina continues to extend in the interior.

Sunset in Primošten

the adriatische coastal regioncan be subdivided from the north to the south into Istrien (the peninsula in the northwest of the Croatian coast), the Croatian coastal country or Hrvatsko Primorje around Rijeka and Senj with the islands of the Kvarner - bay and Dalmatien - the fissured Adria coast off about Zadar southward including the pre-aged islands and the gebirgigen hinterland with beautiful and historically important cities such as Dubrovnik (the rising up USA) and Split. 1,185 islands are pre-aged to the Croatian coast, by which however only 67 is durably inhabited. Toocount the largest and most well-known Krk, Cres, Rab, Pag, Brač, Hvar and Korčula (from the north to the south).


This organization reflects itself also in the culture and way of life of humans in this country. Despite itsCroatia one has to exhibit relatively small size expressed various landscape and culture.

See also: The Croatian islands

of national park and nature park in Croatia

major item: National park and nature park in Croatia

although Croatiain the European comparison a surface-moderately relatively small country is, has it eight of national park and ten protected nature parks.


National park
1. National park Plitvicer lakes Croatian Plitvička jezera (world-famous Wasserfälle), national park since 1949, UNESCO - world nature inheritance since 1979, among other thingsScene of the Winnetou - films [1]
2. National park Paklenica outstanding climbing possibilities, Karsthöhlen, national park since 1949 [2]
3. National park Risnjak in the mountain area fermenting ski kotar close Rijeka, national park since 1953 [3]
4. National park Mljet island in Süddalmatien, national park since 1960 [4]
5. National park Kornaten Croatian Kornati (island archipelago), protected since 1964 [5]
6. National park Krka with Šibenik (famous Wasserfälle), national park since 1985, among other things Scene of the Winnetou - films [6]
7. National park of northern Velebit various Karstphänomene, wealth at Flora and faunaat smallest place, national park since 1999 [7]
8. National park Brijuni also Brioni mentioned, before Istrien, former Tito - summer residence, small Safaripark [8]


nature parks
1. Nature park Kopački guessed/advised 2 to damp biotope at the Danube [9
]. Nature park Papuk in Mittelslawonien [10]
3. Nature parkLonjsko polje damp biotope at the save [11]
4. Nature park Medvednica the “house mountain” of Zagreb [12]
5. Nature park Žumberak Samoborsko gorje to the west of Zagreb [13]
6. Nature park Učka mountains close Rijeka, separates Istrien from the remaining mainland [14]
7. Nature park Velebit coversthe entire mountain course (northern Velebit and Paklenica particularly protected) [15]
8. Nature park Vransko jezero in the dalmatinischen hinterland [16]
9. Nature park Telašćica with the Kornaten [17]
10. Nature park Biokovo mountain course in Süddalmatien [18]


In Croatia live in free game course still Brown bear, wolves, Luchse, eagles and other protected animal species.

Geomorphologic phenomena

Brela, Süddalmatien

water wealth and best water quality

Viele kroatische Strände erhalten jedes Jahr die blaue Flagge, die weltweit für sauberes Wasser vergeben wird
many Croatian beaches receive each year the blue flag, those world-wide for clean water are assigned

to Croatia rank among the 30 water-richest states of this earth. This became ina UNESCO - Report on the water occurrences of this world determined. In Europe Croatia takes even the third place with 9.500 an m ³ at annual-newable water reserves per person. Croatia belongs also to the rare states of this world with organized water management. Already 1891 adopted the Croatian parliament the water law law of the kingdom of Croatia and Slawonien, which legal regulations for waters, flussbetten, which coast, which water use, which plans adjustment of water rivers, like also the Flutschutz, water protection, water protection combinations and much further.

The CroatianAdria belongs to cleanest bath waters in Europe. This is not last because of it that there are no larger industrial sites near the coast in Croatia so far, by which the water be contaminated could. There is hope that this also in the futurethus will remain, since in Croatia great importance is attached to nature and environmental protection. In the last years the good water quality was confirmed regularly by investigations of the German automobile club General German Automobile Association and other organizations. Croatia has also a considerable number ofBeaches, those are marked by the international, blue flag (94 beaches, 19 Marinas). The blue flag is internationally recognized as symbol for high environmental standards as well as good sanitary and safety devices in the port and bath place range.

Left:

planting and animal world

Croatia ranks among the countries of Europe, which have to exhibit particularly highly developed biological variety, to which also many endemic kinds belongs.

2004 explained the CroatianGovernment the entire Croatian sea area to an ecological protected area and a controlled fishing zone (kroat.“ekološki i ribolovni pojas”), in order to protect the existing and sensitive Meeresfauna and vegetation. The proceeding became from Italy, Slovenia and also the remaining European Union criticizes, since the fishery rights in Europe often represent a hot-disputed topic. In addition disputes over the Croatian sea-border come to Slovenia.

Vegetation

Links, ein Waldstück welches vom Feuer gerettet wurde, rechts und im Hintergrund 6 Monate zuvor verbranntes Land
left, a small forest of which of the fire was saved, on the right of and in the background 6 months before burned country

Altogether 43.5 per cent of Croatia (2.4 million hectare) is covered of forests. About 95 per cent of the forest stand are to a large extent nature-left mixed woodlands. About 81 per cent are state States of, 19 per cent are in private possession. Hardwood forests, 15 form 85 per cent of the forest surface% are allotted to coniferous forests. In the mountain regions fermenting ski of the Kotar, the Lika predominantly coniferous forests grow, in the pannonischen lowlandses predominantly hardwood forests. Along the Croatian coast grow above all mediterrane hard leaves wood, Macchien, Pinien and Kiefernwälder. Into thatdry and hot summer months came it by imprudent behavior by native ones and tourists repeated to major fires, with which among other things assistance of delete airplanes (Canadairs) had to be requested. So has e.g. a fire a few years ago about a quarterthe island into ash transforms Brač. The Croatian government invested therefore in the past years increasingly in fire protection measures.

Autochthone and endemic animal species

Der Dalmatiner stammt aus Kroatien
of the Dalmatiner those originates from

the international kynologischen

federation from Croatia recognized dog races from Croatia comes six dog kinds,(FCI) as autochthone dog races were recognized:


Web left:

population

girl with Tracht from Konavle with Dubrovnik

Croatia has 4.437.460 inhabitants after the census of 2001.

The life expectancy in Croatia amounts toabout 75 years. For some years the country registers a declining population trend because of low birth rates.

From the inhabitants to the time of the census of 2001 4.399.364 (99.14%) was a Croatian national, 44,340 (1.00%) of it also a second nationality.17.902 (0.40%) was a foreign national, 9,811 (0.22%) was stateless people. From 10.383 inhabitants (0.23%) the nationality was unknown.

Nationalities

the predominant majority of the population place the Croats ( Hrvati ) with 89,63%.

In addition live in Croatianumerous national minorities.

Composition of the population after nationalities (census from 2001):

1. Croat 3.977.171 (89.63%) 7. Slovene 13,173 (0.30%)
2. Serb 201,631 (4.54%) 8. Czech 10,510 (0.24%)
3. Bosniaken 20,755 (0.49%) 9. Roma 9,463 (0.21%)
4. Italian 19,636 (0.44%) 10. Montenegriner 4,926 (0.11%)
5. Hungary 16,595 (0.37%) 11. Slowaken 4,712 (0.11%)
6. Albanian 15,082 (0.34%) 12. Mazedonier 4,270 (0.10%)

source: http://www.dzs.hr

after the census of 1991 were 78.1% of the population Croat, 12.2% Serb.

During and after the again-createdCroatian army in the year 1995 control of the before times Serbian controlled areas in Westslawonien, Norddalmatien, which took over Lika and the Banija, fled the largest part of the there Serbian inhabitants into that today as Republika Srpska admitted part Bosnia andHerzegowinas and partial further to Serbia. In the course of the last years a part of the refugees returned (118,000 until January 2005), so that the Serbian population portion might be somewhat higher today than at present the census of 2001.

Thatabout 50,000 directly Serbs involved in the armed rebellion ( 1991-1995) by the Croatian government a general amnesty was granted, if individually no direct war crimes could be proven.

The Serbs live particularly in Ostslawonien, the Lika, the Banija,the hinterland Norddalmatiens as well as in Zagreb and Rijeka. The main settlement area of the Italian minority is the west coast Istriens, besides there are Italian subpopulations in Rijeka and Westslawonien. Hungary and Slowaken live particularly in the east, Czech in the west Slawoniens. The Bosniaken, Albanian and Mazedonier live over the entire country scattered, particularly in the larger cities.

Croatia was accused again and again, in not sufficient measure to the protection of minorities in the country and for the back settling of the Serbian minorityto contribute. In particular of organizations as for instance the Croatian Helsinki committee for human rights (HHO) always loud criticism was to be heard and it also further criticism is expressed. Enormous progress became general in on the part of authorities in the last yearsthe minority questions determined. Croatia made much-estimated progress in handling the minority of the Roma and Sinti (in particular in the school sphere and pursues the creation of dwellings) and an active campaign in various states of South-east Europe, around in particular Serbian refugees from strangersTo lead back states again. On the part of the Croatian state and various European organizations generous money were made available to the reconstruction of destroyed houses and to the Reintegration of refugees (the reconstruction of the destroyed houses of Croats was settled completely by the Croatian state). Despitesingle feeders of setbacks of reference of security in particular the Serbian minority express international institutions that Croatia on a very good way is. In the present composition of the Croatian parliament 8 delegates are represented on the part of the minorities; the present government is during the legislation among other things even dependent on the support of individual minority representatives.

Religious affiliation

the predominant part of the population belongs to the Roman-catholic church .


Composition of the population after denominations (census from 2001):

1. Roman catholics 3.897.332 (87.83%) 6. Calvinisten 4,053 (0.09%)
2. Orthodox 195,969 (4.42%) 7. Lutheraner (Augsburger confession) 3,339 (0.08%)
3. Muslims 56,777 (1.28%) 8. Adventisten 3,001 (0.07%)
4. Catholic of the Greek rite 6,219 (0.14%) 9. Baptisten 1,981 (0.04%)
5. A witness Jehovas 6.094 (0.14%) 10. Jew 495 (0.01%)

source: http://www.dzs.hr

see also: Catholic church in Croatia

languages

composition of the population after native language (census from 2001):

1. Croatian 4.265.081 (96.12%) 9. Czech 7,178 (0.16%)
2. Serbian 44,629 (1.01%) 10. Serbo-Croatian 4,961 (0.11%)
3. Italian 20,521 (0.46%) 11. Slowakisch 3,993 (0.09%)
4. Albanian 14,621 (0.33%) 12. Macedonian 3,534 (0.08%)
5. Hungarian 12,650 (0.29%) 13. German 3,013 (0.07%)
6. Slovenian 11,872 (0.27%) 14. Kroatoserbisch 2,054 (0.05%)
7. Bosniakisch 9,197 (0.21%) 15. Montenegrinisch 460 (0.01%)
8. Novel 7,860 (0.18%) 16. , Croatia most well-known place

the city Korčula on

Der Jelačić-Platz in Zagreb (Trg Bana Jelačića), Kroatiens bekanntester Platz
the island Korčula , birth city of Marco Polo the largest cities of Croatia assumed
other 16,709 ( 0.38%) cities in Croatia the Jelačić place in Zagreb (

Trg Bana Jelačića) (over 30.000 inhabitants,Numbers of inhabitants of the cities within their political borders according to census of 2001) are:

1. Zagreb 973,667 (with suburbs approx. 1.200.000)
2. Split 205,694
3. Rijeka 144,043
4. Osijek 114,616
5. Zadar 72,718
6. Slavonski Brod 64,612
7. Velika Gorica 63.517 (Suburb of Zagreb)
8. Karlovac 59,395
9. Pula 58,594
10. Sisak 52,236
11. Šibenik 51,553
12. Varaždin 49,075
13. Dubrovnik 43,770
14. Bjelovar 41,869
15. Samobor 36,206 (close Zagreb)
16. Vinkovci 35,912
17. Kaštela 34,103 (suburb of Split)
18. Vukovar 31,670
19. Koprivnica 30,994
20. Čakovec 30,455
21. Đakovo 30,092

see also: List of the cities in Croatia, list of German designations of Croatian places

political arrangement

major item: Political arrangement of Croatia

Croatia is in 20 Gespanschaften (kroat. županija, Mz. županije) and the capital Zagreb, which has even the authority of a Gespanschaft, divided. The Gespanschaften has surfaces between approximately 1,000 and 5,000 km ². Each Gespanschaft has a selected Gespanschaftsversammlung (Croatian županijska skupština). Onthe Gespan (Croatian župan) stands for the point of the administration of a Gespanschaft, which is selected of the Gespanschaftsversammlung and confirmed by the president.


Administrative units
No. Translation Croatian designation administrative seat
1 Gespanschaft Zagreb Zagrebačka županija Zagreb
2 Gespanschaft Krapina Zagorje Krapinsko zagorska županija Krapina
3 Gespanschaft Sisak Moslavina Sisačko moslavačka županija Sisak
4 Gespanschaft Karlovac Karlovačka županija Karlovac
5 Gespanschaft Varaždin Varaždinska županija Varaždin
6 Gespanschaft Koprivnica Križevci Koprivničko križevačka županija Koprivnica
7 Gespanschaft Bjelovar Bilogora Bjelovarsko bilogorska županija Bjelovar
8 Gespanschaft Primorje Gorski kotar Primorsko goranska županija Rijeka
9 Gespanschaft Lika Senj Ličko senjska županija Gospić
10 Gespanschaft Virovitica Podravina Virovitičko podravska županija Virovitica
11 Gespanschaft Požega Slawonien Požeško slavonska županija Požega
12 Gespanschaft Brod Posavina Brodsko posavska županija Slavonski Brod
13 Gespanschaft Zadar Zadarska županija Zadar
14 Gespanschaft Osijek Baranja Osječko baranjska županija Osijek
15 Gespanschaft Šibenik knees Šibensko kninska županija Šibenik
16 Gespanschaft Vukovar Syrmien Vukovarsko srijemska županija Vukovar
17 Gespanschaft Split Dalmatien Splitsko dalmatinska županija Split
18 Gespanschaft Istrien Istarska županija Pazin
19 Gespanschaft Dubrovnik Neretva Dubrovačko neretvanska županija Dubrovnik
20 Gespanschaft Međimurje Međimurska županija Čakovec
21 city Zagreb degree of Zagreb

the Gespanschaften were arranged for their partin municipalities (Croatian općina, Mz. općine), of those a part the status of a city (Croatian: degree) has.

Map: Map OF the region

history

arena in Pula, Istrien
major item: History of Croatia

antiquity and the early Middle Ages

The area today's Croatia in the antique one by Greeks had been already kolonialisiert, then e.g. is. Split an establishment of this time (altgr.Aspalatos or Spalatos = „cave “). The area part of the Roman one and later partly became later of the Byzantine realm. Since that 6. Century was settled the country by slawischen trunks and Awaren. The Slawen settling here became at the latest in 7. Century christianisiert.

After it had been first an independent kingdom, Croatia came in the year 1102 in personnel union by an agreement (Pacta conventa) to Hungary with own administration under a Croatian Ban (commander).

Croatia in the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy

in the middle 15. Century suffered Hungary and Croatia heavy area losses by the expansion of the Osmani realm. Overmilitarily too and called further area losses to the Osmanen receive assistance to prevent, the Croatian Sabor the having citizens to take over the regency over Croatia. After numerous battles arrived in 18. Century a majority of Croatia under administration of the having citizens. Thosehistorical Croatian regions Dalmatien and parts of Istriens stood since the late Middle Ages under the rule of the Republic of Venice. The Republic of Dubrovnik knew as only of the areas today's Croatia of 14. Century up to the year 1808 their national independence retain.

Time Napoleon and Entwicklung of a national consciousness

after the napoleonischen wars came 1815 Dalmatien and Istrien under Austrian rule, however from political reasons (“divida et impera”) not administratively with remaining Croatia were completely combined, but to separate crowning countries withinthe Austrian realm half, while Croatia Slawonien belonged to the Hungarian realm half.

In the second half 19. Century grew under the Croatian population for demands more rights of self-determination. In the revolution years around 1848 embodied in particular Ban Josip Jelačić the symbol figure of Croatian interests,which strove for self-administration. However by Austrian-Hungarian reconciliation and Hungarian-Croatian reconciliation 1867 an end was set for the national efforts. 19. Century was also coined/shaped by the so-called Illyrismus, a movement, which implemented numerous cultural changes. It cameto a standardisation of the Croatian language and the idea was born at the same time to unite all Südslawen in a state.

Emergence of the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovene

Croatia began itself after end of the First World War (1918) from that to solve Austrian-Hungarian monarchy. Italian troops began thereupon with the occupation of Croatian areas along the east coast of the Adria, since Italy in the Londoner had been assured to contract of 1915 their Annexion. In view of its national council of the Slovenes decided, Croatsand Serb at the end of November 1918 the immediate combination of Croatia with the Kingdom of Serbia from which then the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes developed. Many Croats rejected however the monarchistic system of government, felt disadvantaged and required for Croatia the establishmenta republic. To it came that the condition planned a centralistic state organisation and the dissolution of the historical provinces, what the Serbs as in terms of figures largest people in fact the supremacy secured.

1929 loosened king Aleksandar I.the parliament up and designatedthe state in Kingdom of Yugoslavia over. It diktatorisch predominantly governed with the help of Serbian officers. As reaction Ante Pavelić on that created the fascist Ustaša supported of Mussolini - movement.

Croatia during the Second World War

after the assault of Germany on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia to 6. April 1941 marched to 10. April 1941 the German armed forces in Zagreb . With German support the Ustaša proclaimed the independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna država Hrvatska/NDH) and errichetete onefascist dictatorship under Ante Pavelić, which pursued and murdered Serbs , Jews, Roma and Croatian anti-fascists systematically. Democratic elections, which would have legitimized the Ustaša regime before the Croatian people, were not held. From the summer on 1941 began armRebellion of the Croatian communists against the Ustaša regime, who could bring a large part of the country to the Yugoslav partisan movement as part in the course of the years 1942/1943 under their control.

Croatia as part of Yugoslavia

after end of war became Croatia one ofsix partial republics (socialist Republic of Croatia) of the again-created federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, starting from 1963 socialist federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ).

1971 are struck down the protest and reform movement Croatian spring. Mass arrests followed.

As center of the 1980er years Glasnost in that Soviet Union the end of the socialist era in Europe rang in, demanded strengthened above all Slovenia and Croatia a change of Yugoslavia to a Konföderation and a reorientation to the parliamentary democracy and free-market economy. The Republic of Serbia governed by Slobodan Milošević setitself however for a centralized Yugoslav total state under communist rule.

After Titos death 1980 the tensions in Yugoslavia increased ever more. The individual ethnical groups wanted to have own states. Like that most Serbs Serbian-orthodox, Croat are Roman catholic andmany Bosnier moslemisch, which contradicted a uniform nation.

Independence of Croatia

after the first free elections since more than a half century in May 1990 and the referendum held thereafter (93.2% tuned election turnout 93.5%, for the sovereignty) explained Croatiain June 1991 its independence (international acknowledgment to 15. January 1992). The change of the a party dictatorship to the parliamentary democracy ran to a large extent problem-free.

The Yugoslav People's Army in fact dominated by Serbia tried to thrash the independence efforts militarily. The military attempt,Croatian areas with large and small portion of Serbian population Croatia to split off and medium-term at Serbia attach, that flowed only after military successes of the Croats 1995 (military operation Oluja) with the contract into the Croatian war of independence ,of Dayton and Croatian independence to 14. December 1995 ended.

Politics

political system

Croatia are a parliamentary republic with a multiple party system. In the condition of December 1990 a semi präsidentielles system of government was intended, however by constitutional amendment from November 2000 were replaced by a parliamentary system of government. In Croatia the Mehrheitswahlrecht applies with parliamentary elections. The decision over the delegation of delegates in the parliament is incumbent on however the parties. Coalitions become in view of the very large number of parties, if necessary, already before thatChoice closed.

In January 2006 proposed amendments were presented, which plan in the future a step-by-step selection of the candidates for the parliament in the individual constituencies. Thus the role of the Sabors is to be strengthened and be given the population direct influence possibilities on the parliament.Delegates would be therefore more strongly responsible in relation to the interests of the population in their constituency, instead of in relation to the interests of their party. Also on local level a change of the selection process appears. Already 2006 are to be introduced the step-by-step selection by mayor candidates.

See also:

current one political situation and parties

president of Croatia is since 2000 Stjepan Mesić, which was red-elect in January 2005 for a second term of office.

In the parliament is since that, However no absolute majority of the seats has parliamentary elections from November 2003 the HDZ the strongest party. Parliament president is Vladimir Šeks. The next elections would be periodical in the year 2007.

Since December 2003 is a minority government of the HDZ under thatPresidency is supported by prime minister Ivo Sanader in the office, those in the parliament by the pensioner party HSU and further small parties, as well as by most representatives of the national minorities. The present Croatian government consists of fourteen HDZ - Ministers.

Much discussedpolitical topics are the European Union entry desired, the privatisation and the foreign debt. In addition, the coming to terms with the past is still a current topic, then it came about regularly over the distribution of the Croatian accused Ante Gotovina to the war crimes tribunal into the Hagueto violent controversies. Since December 2005 this is in remand into the Hague.

The Croatian party landscape. Agency in the Sabor (election results of 2003): (Source: Sabor.hr)

Contraction designation approximate translation information Web % seats
HDZ Hrvatska demokratska zajednica Croatian democratic ones Union comparable with other European people's parties. Four delegates as representatives of the Diaspora. The present government places Ivo Sanader under prime ministers. Former government party at times of the war of independence and under Franjo Tuđman. [19] 41.7% 63
SDP Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske A social-democratic party of Croatia center on the left of a party. Four independent representatives in the parliament. A follow-up party of the communist party of Croatia, government party of 2000-2003 under Ivica Račan, which is still party chairman. [20] 22.4% 34
HNS Hrvatska narodna stranka - liberalni democracy Croatian people's party- Liberal democrat no people's party in the classical sense as in the remaining countries of Europe. Left-wing oriented. Coalition partner of the center left government of 2000-2003. Chairman of the party is Vesna Pusić. The present Croatian president Stjepan Mesić, which ranks among the initial members of the HNS, setafter its choice to the president in the year 2000 its membership in this party on indefinite time out. [21] 7.9% 12
HSS Hrvatska seljačka stranka a Croatian farmer party the farmer party was before times an historical-important party in the area of today's Croatia (early 20.To Jh., see Stjepan Radić). Today this party is considered still as a party of the farmers, however in somewhat modified form (coalition partner of the center left government of 2000-2003). President of many years was Zlatko Tomčić. Since Jänner 2006 Josip Friščić took over the party leadership. [22] 6.0% 9
HSP Hrvatska stranka prava a Croatian party of the right a right-conservative party, for which the national interests of Croatia are the center of attention, in particular which the war of independence concerns. European Union - sceptical. Party chairman is Anto Đapić. [23] 4.6% 7
IDS (DDI) Istarski democrat skisabor (Dieta democratica istriana) Istri democratic meeting represents in particular the interests of the population from Istrien. Istrien has to exhibit an important Italian minority. Party president is Ivan Jakovčić. [24] 2.6% 4
HSU Hrvatska stranka umirovljenika a Croatian pensioner party a party for defensethe pensioner rights and to the safety device of the pensions. Coalition partner of the present government under the HDZ. Party president is Vladimir Jordan. [25] 2.0% 3
SDSS Samostalna demokratska srpska stranka an independent Serbian-democratic party a party of the Serbian minority in Croatia. Three minority representatives placein the Lower House. Party chairman is Vojislav Stanimirović. Milorad Pupovac is an official representative of the Serbian minority in Croatia. Coalition partner of the present government under the HDZ. [26] 2.0% 3
HSLS Hrvatska socijalno liberalna stranka Croatian social liberals a party in former times important partner of the HDZ.For diversities of opinion this party looks for its own way. Chairman of the party is Đurđa Adlešić. In February 2006 the LS (liberal a party) again into the HSLS one integrated. [27] 1.3% 2
LS Liberalna stranka liberal a party with the elections of 2003the LS still another its own party was (at that time splinter party of the HSLS). Since February 2006 LS and HSLS form again a party under the designation HSLS. [28] 0.7% 1
DC democrat ski centar democratic center splinter party of the HDZ. Party president is Vesna Škare Ožbolt. Coalition partner of the HDZ until February 2006 (Škare Ožbolt up to then Ministries of Justice were and due to diversities of opinion of the office were relieved). [29] 0.7% 1
MDS Međimurski democrat ski savez democratic alliance Međimurje representing the economically very strong region of the Međimurje in north Croatia.President:Željko Pavlic. 0.7% 1
PGS Primorsko goranski savez alliance Primorje - fermenting ski kotar representing the region of the Primorje - fermenting ski kotar in the gebirgigen part of Croatia. President: Nikola Ivaniš. [30] 0.7% 1
SDA (HR) Stranka demokratske akcije Hrvatske a partythe democratic action of Croatian folders of the nut/mother party in Bosnia and Herzegowina. Primarily Muslim voter portion. Places a minority representative. President: Šemso Tanković. [31] 0.7% 1
Nezavisni zastupnici independent delegates and others four representatives of the minorities 6.6% 10
entire: 100% 152
allocation of seatsin the Croatian Sabor after the elections of 2003

the Croatian party landscape is very various (at present over 100 registered parties). An alphabetical list of all Croatian parties is to be found here: Croatian information and documentation Referral Agency - Hidra (English)

the numberthe mandates of the Diaspora 2003 were reduced compared with earlier elections by two seats, since a smaller election turnout was abroad obtained. Due to the distribution of the seats according to the D'Hondt method the independent lists of the Diaspora no mandates becameassigned, even if over 5% of the total voices were reached.

Foreign policy

Croatia aims at the admission in the European union (European Union) and NATO . Reaching both goals is called frequently under the keyword euro--Atlantic integration. Already 2001 haveCroatia a stabilization and an association agreement with the European Union signs, which 2005 stepped into force. With effect of the 1. January 2006 has Croatia the status of an official entry candidate to the European union.

Since the year 1992 Croatia is member in that Organization for security and co-operation in Europe (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro), since 2000 also member of the world trade organization (World Trade Organization). At the beginning of of 2003 joined Croatia of the CEFTA (cent ral European Free trade Agreement) and forms since the recent European Union with footsteps 2004 with Bulgaria and Romania the only remaining states in this organization. In view of the imminent European Union entry of the latter states the CEFTA - after loosening the entry criteria - is also further countries of South-east Europe, as also the Ukraine covers.

Croatia leans thoseEstablishment of a Balkans marketing area, whose idea end Jänner was presented 2006 on the part of the European commission, categorically off and refers here to the already existing CEFTA. It is often criticized by authorities in Croatia that the European Union in realityno concept for the economic development and stability of the Southeast-European area possesses, which for Croatia however from priority priority is. Croatia operates active neighbourhood politics in the region and offers deep know-how in Southeast-European questions. The country often becomesas model for the other states of South-east Europe mentioned, since Croatia successfully accomplishes reforms and since acquisition of independence and despite the following war very rapidly in a positive direction developed.

In the question of the new international criminal court (IStGH) held itself and even in purchase took Zagreb clearly by the recommendations of the European union to make itself unpopular in Washington. Contrary to some other countries of Central Europe Croatia US citizen does not want an immunity before pursuitgrant by the IStGH.

The negotiations of accession of the European Union with Croatia have to 4. October 2005 begun. Before the Hauptanklägerin of the international criminal court for former Yugoslavia had the “fullco-operation of the Croatian into the Hague, Carla del Ponte,Government with the tribunal states, what of the European Union as condition for the beginning of the negotiations had been required. The admission of the negotiations of accession has to owe Croatia also the negotiation strategy of the Austrian Federal Government, that regarded it as unfair, negotiations of accession alsoto begin Turkey and refuse Croatia selbige.

Croatia hopes for an European Union entry in the year 2009, in order to be able to participate in the same year in the European Union elections.

Defense and security politics

major item: The Croatian armed forces

general over the armed forces

The Croatian armed forces are straight in a process of the transformation in among other things modern, flexible and seizing troops (rapidly Reaction Forces). One works intensivst on an implementation of NATO - standards. Croatia takes at the NATO program “partnership forthe peace “part. In the last years already numerous exercises with other NATO troops for an emergency took place in Croatia. Croatian special troops are also abroad with numerous exercises with represented. The combat experience and talent of the Croatian troops becomehighly estimated.

The active service duty was shortened since 2003 on 6 months (alternatively 8 months civil service). A shaping into a regular army is expected still, however most likely is tackled (allegedly already 2010). Most problems appliesto master it at present still with the age structure of the army servants. A multiplicity at members of the Croatian army was already sent to dismiss or into the early pension, which led to displeasure in the population, since many soldiers in the Croatian war of independence servedand now often easily at a regulated income do not arrive. Strictly to a taper ratio and a Professionalisierung one holds nevertheless.

Many cadets of the Croatian army (among other things also many female soldiers) have to show conclusions at high elite military schools in the USA. Some of itbelonged even to the best in their class. (So far 5 Croatian cadets in west studied POINT. Altogether study approx. Each year in America.) 20 cadets to Croatia avoid however nevertheless in the USA an allied partner it always saw, could,an immunity explanation to the protection of US citizens from the international criminal court to sign and does not participate also in the safety troops in the Iraq .

Would know NATO aspirations and

modernization Croatia according to the recent statements NATO - of Secretary-General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, that, already at the end of of 2006 an entry invitation praised the efforts of Croatia to the defensive alliance received. Already with the summit in Riga to 28. and 29. November 2006 is to be made an obligatory statement. In particular the evaporability of the presumed war criminal Ante Gotovina was long timean obstacle on the way to the membership of Croatia. NATO not exclusively understands itself as military alliance, but in predominant measure as value system, in that the principles of the right state, the minority rights, which is kept democracy and the free-market economy.

Withthe entry to NATO Croatia plans a fundamental change of the defense strategy of the country. Thus by the present individual defense strategy to a collective defense strategy one changes over. Already in February 2006 a paper is to be introduced for the lasting development of the armed forces, thatin the run next 10 years to be converted is. Contained in the strategy also the defense is by non-military measures, which civil defense or innovations concerns which search and rescue troops. Planned also the gradual modernization is in technical regard, among other things thoseAcquisition of new tanks and possibly. also the modernization of the Croatian interceptors.

International missions

Croatian troops are already since November 2003 part of the international safety support echelon in Afghanistan (ISAF), under the line of NATO (education of a regional structure team for thatTrade of the city Kunduz and Demilitarisierungsprogramme). In the course of 2006 the contingent is to be supplemented from 50 soldiers to 150. For the commitment in the context of the ISAF Croatia already gets protruding evaluations of experts and office-holders of the alliance for years.

The Croatian armed forces are used also to peace-receiving and - securing measures in the framework of the United Nations:

statistics

army
The Croatian army covers 14,050 soldiers with 287 tanks, 202 armored vehicles and approx. 700 artillery cannons.

Air Force
32 fight possesses the 2,300 men strong Air Force - and 10 transport aircrafts

infrastructure, traffic and telecommunications

major item: Infrastructure, traffic and telecommunications in Croatia
Die neue Autobahn zwischen Zagreb und Split, südlich vom Tunnel Sveti Rok
the new motorway between Zagreb and Split, south of the tunnel Sveti Rok
Blick von der alten kroatischen Küstenstraße (kroat. Jadranska magistrala) nahe Šibenik
view of the old Croatian coastal road (kroat. Jadranska magistrala) close Šibenik
Skradinski Buk (Wasserfall), Nationalpark Krka
Skradinski baked (Wasserfall), national park Krka
golden horn, Bol, island Brač
Croatia - the country of the thousand islands. Here the höllischen islands(Pakleni otoci) before Hvar

traffic and infrastructure sector are at present one itself of the fastest developing ranges of the Croatian economy. In hardly another country of Europe at present more is invested into this range and it gives at present only few countries,in those as many motorway kilometers within shortest time develop at present, as in Croatia. Also different important infrastructure projects, like bridges, urban local projects, environment projects or the development from ports are at present in a project engineering or a building phase. The Croatian economic growth and that Standard of living of the Croatian population depend directly on the investments in this range. In particular for the tourism one expects lasting effects by better infrastructure solutions. One already into force stepped, more transparent and harder legislation is to prevent here uncontrolled building.

Infrastructure and traffic

the most important Croatian airports are in Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, Dubrovnik and Zadar. Since 2005 the national Croatian airline Croatia airlines belongs to star to the Alliance. Within the next years a new should Terminals at the airport in Zagreb develop.

In Croatia are several important Adriahäfen. The largest port to the eastern Adriaseite is followed Rijeka, of the Industriehafen Ploče and the passenger port Split. Until 2009 the largest Croatian port should,the Adriahafen in Rijeka, to be fundamentally modernized and thus city tourism with Hafenflair connect.

The railway traffic in Croatia is still relatively underdeveloped, which concerns the person arising and the quality of the railroad lines. Therefore humans transfer more frequently to penalty, thoseare often more inexpensive and in shorter intervals operate. Since 2005 operates slope courses, which make a much more comfortable and shorter journey possible than before on the distance Zagreb - Split the Pendolino -. The Croatian course, itself just ina privatisation process finds (conditions:2006), are endeavor the travel quality to individual distances to increase and the travel times reduce.

The Croatian motorway net belongs to the youngest in Europe. Many motorway kilometers were only recently finished and an end to moveBuilding activity is not to be foreseen yet. The main project represents here the motorway A1 Zagreb - to Split , which was finished still before the summer 2005. Thus a continuous motorway connection between the two largest Croatian cities was made. Until 2008 should someimportant building projects carried out its. In addition the extension of the motorway net counts until Ploče in Süddalmatien, better traffic solutions for Rijeka, the motorway connection after Osijek, the motorway development after Sisak and the motorway tying up toward Serbia, Slovenia and Austria. Likewise with the travelling comfort and with security one does not save. At present the development of numerous restaurants is advanced along all Croatian motorways. Likewise accidents should be avoided by means of most modern video monitoring technology.

Telecommunications and Internet

the telecommunications sector already are in Croatiafar develops, in particular which concerns the portable radio nets and has the largest progress in the last years compared with other restaurant economics in Croatia made. This is also evident to it that the telecommunications sector in this country a higher portion of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCTcarries, when this is in the old European Union countries the case (over 5%). Also the legislation within this range already is on European level, if not even higher. As consequence of the liberalisation of the market in the year 2005 come ever morealternative telecommunications operators on the Croatian market.

In Croatia it gives at present (conditions: Spring 2006) of three portable radio network carriers, whereby a fourth license should be written out still in the course of the yearly 2006. The two largest nets guarantee a surface-moderate cover from over98%. Also the introduction new technologies, like WAP, GPRS or MMS was rapidly accomplished. Also UMTS and mobile Videotelefonie are already available. Still quite good growth potential is attributed to the Croatian Telekommunikatiossektor, since still no complete saturation of the market was reached.

The availability of broadband Internet entrances leaves to be desired still. By purposeful incentives for growth this range is to add in the next years however clearly. 2005 was already assigned in Croatia frequency licenses for Internet of radio net works. In particular by new WiMAX - radio net works is those Internet- Infrastructure in completely Croatia to be developed. The surface-moderate cover of whole cities and regions with this technology was decided here.

Croatia takes, which concerns the terrestrial cover by means of digital TV-Sendetechnik (DVB-T), a prominent position in Europe and hasget the best evaluation only recently on the part of the European commission European-wide in this connection. In Croatia the possibility for the digital cover of 70% of the population (conditions already exists: 2006).

Economics

major item: Economics of Croatia

general data

the gross domestic product amounted in the year 2004 on 6.224 euro per head. The foreign debt of Croatia amounted to in the year 2004 22,139 million euro. In July 2005 the foreign debts amounted to 24,139, 6 million euro. The gros domestic product growth of the yearly 2005 amounts to according to prognoses approx. 4%. The net incomes transferred 20055.9 per cent (average net income in November 2005: 4595 Kuna = approx. 629 €). Unemployment is high with 18 per cent further, however constantly sinks.

The Croatian economy is in a difficult process of transformation of the former socialist restaurant form that Worker autonomy into the free-market economy.

The war 1991-1995 made this development more difficult additionally. The war damage within the range of the infrastructure had to be reorganized to a large extent from own Kraft under large financial expenditure. The costs of the reconstruction of destroyed private houses became likewise up to the carcass ofCroatian state taken over.

After sectors of the economy 59% of the restaurant achievement are allotted to services, 32% to the industry, and 9% to the agriculture. The most important industries are the service ranges, the processing trade, shipbuilding and the tourism, the v. A. the Adriaküste and the numerous islands concern.

The production of wine has a high value in the Croatian export list. To permit due to the obligation of Croatia the duty-free import of high-subsidized agricultural cheap imported goods from the European Unionthe agriculture is in the crisis.

The largest problem of Croatia is the foreign trade balance: The exports could 2005 around approximately ten per cent add, the imported goods rose however still more strongly, i.e. around 13 per cent. Thus the trade deficit continues to grow always.Economists are not too optimistic also for the more near future, because the majority of the imported goods are consumer goods - which are often not produced in the country.

Beside Mercator (Slovenian), save (Austrian), Lidl (German), DM drugstore market (Austrian), purchase country (German), Mercatone (Italian), Billa (GermanAustrian) and ever more foreign chains settle Metro (German) in Croatia. The largest native retail chain is Konzum (to the Agrokor - group associated).

Also the building of ships makes an important contribution for Croatian restaurant achievement. The Croatian dockyards have an of many yearsTradition to exhibit, are admits for their good quality and enjoy high reputation in the whole world. European-wide seen the Croatian ship industry takes to the 2. Place and world-wide seen the 5. Place, which concerns the number of orders. The largestCroatian threw 3. maj is in Rijeka (among other things Building of tankers). Other important shipyards are Viktor Lenac in Martinšćica (with Rijeka), Uljanik in Pula, threw from Kraljevica, Brodosplit and Brodotrogir.

A very large problem places thosehigh indebtedness of the Croatian population, who amounts to 33.9% at present GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (see. Average in the new European Union states: 16%). Thus the Croatian population is nearly twice as highly indebted, like the population in the other one, new European Union states. Into the latterThe indebtedness grew years continuously over approx. 21%. The budget deficit of approximately three per cent drove the indebtedness ratio 2005 up: The national indebtedness rose thereby over the mark of 50 per cent GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT.

Austria is with distance largest foreign investor inCroatia. According to official data Austrian holds the majority with 390 Croatian enterprises. Unofficially from a twice as high number one proceeds.

See also: Areas of cultivation of wine in Croatia

current changes

in the last years became in Croatia on the part of the cities andMunicipalities numerous special foreign trade zones and/or.Enterprise zones furnished, which are subsidized by the government and equally in and foreign enterprises and investors special location advantages (complete infrastructure) and tax exemptions to offer. The capacity is already exhausted partly in such zones, which a visibleIndication of the success of this strategy is. Also constantly new such industrial areas are added, in particular in close proximity to newly built motorway sections.

2005 were introduced a service for entrepreneurs on the part of the government that should facilitate establishments of an enterprise in Croatia clearly.Over Internet so far bureaucratic official routines can be settled and a treatment of the requests in as short a periods as possible are guaranteed (so-called One stop Shop, see also Hitro.hr). Bribery possibilities and corruption can be here practically excluded. The government expects in particularto be able to contribute by such services to the setting in motion of the economic growth in motion. In the next months these services are to be removed further.

To the more important priorities also the land register reform belongs. In the course of the yearly 2006 also the last plots should inelectronic form in the Internet are present, which should likewise facilitate location selections and establishments of an enterprise.

Since Jänner 2006 it is possible in Croatia to accomplish the value added tax explanation by Internet (ePDV [32]). Shortly also the income tax return should be made possible by Internet. The government quitin the context of the project e-Hrvatska also the imminent possibility for the use of the national financial services by mobile telephone and/or. mobile payment possibilities on (see. m-parking in various Croatian cities). The it expensive bookkeeping including the possibility for the overview of all resulting tax liabilities should also shortly importedbecome.

To bureaucracy - dismantling belongs also the judicial reform. Thus become starting from 2006 seizing (east. Exekutionen) also of public notaries settles, in order to thus relieve the individual courts. (So far enterprises could pursue insolvent customers only with difficulty, there the courts alsoSeizing requests.) tourism major item

was

over-accumulated: Tourism in Croatia
Das goldene Horn (kroat. Zlatni rat) in Bol auf der Insel Brač
the golden horn (kroat. Zlatni advice) in Bol on the island Brač
the coast of Croatia is very fissured and gespickt from numerous hidden bays, here an aerial photo of the island Hvar

thatA character of Croatia

Croatia could bridge the consequences of the war rapidly and tries since that time as routistic Top destination to position again. The very much encouraging development and the large interest in this small country are proof for the success of the Marketingstrategie of Croatia.Advertising slogans of the Croatian routistic community showed effect. On the basis the advertising line is also recognizable, as Croatia on the world market wants to be established. The country praises itself with advertising guidance sayings like “Croatia - a small country for a large vacation” or up-to-date “TheMediterranean as it once which - timeless beauty ", which quite corresponds to the facts.

A crucial criterion for success is, experts according to, because of the authenticity and integrity of the Croatian tourism. Cities such as Rovinj or Dubrovnik attained to new world fameand stand for a vacation feeling, which is comparable with the 1950er years in Italy or to the French Côte d'Azur. Only little has itself changed, the time seems therefore like being stood still. To holiday-makers numerous Croatian Fischerdörfchen is offered orStädchen, which were not seized yet by the commercialization.

The largest capital of the Croatian tourism is however almost untouched nature. Humans on the search for peace and relaxation cannot find for example still hidden bays in Croatia, thosewere blocked, which represent practically a place of refuge for true nature lovers. Likewise the water quality always is in Croatia compared with other countries on highest level. Only few countries in Europe can praise themselves its. It seems in such a way, as ifit straight this is, according to which the market longs itself. Humans are on the search for places, which were still hardly seized by the mass tourism. Likewise a large need of hotels with an authentic character and genuine Inselparadiesen exists.Istrien has at presentGiant successes to exhibit in sections like “vacation on the farm “or regarding native kulinarischerer offers. Also individual, untouched islands, as for instance Vis register ever larger routistic successes on the basis of the Autochthonen or domestic one.

Croatia tourism is by that“Absence of modernization” coined/shaped, i.e., one will only rarely “hamburgerisierte”, plastic resorts to discover. Experts see retaining the own character as keys to success for the Croatian tourism.

Honors

2005 Croatia of the international-recognized publishing house house Lonely planet became Destination OF the Year gekürt. 2006 are Croatia still on very high rank four of this publishing house. Also within the range of the ethical tourism Croatia in the leading group holds itself. The nonprofit organization ethics tourist from Berkeley, California after,belongs Croatia to the 13 best destinations for the ethical tourism in the year 2006. Croatia is evaluated with the fact as country that is worth an attendance, and this not only due to its landschaftlichen beauty, but also because of its relationship with the environmentand to the social justice. The editorship of national geo graphics Adventure expressed recently regarding the beautifulnesses of the Kornati - archipelago that Croatia belongs to the master-ardent destinations. Also the US-American combination of the tour operators (USTOA) left at the end of 2005on the basis the available reservation situation it is reported that Croatia will rank 2006 among the most in demand destinations of the Americans.

History of the tourism

the tourism in Croatia has a long tradition and offers due to more numerously not yet opened Potenziale further growth prospects. The offer is broadly varied and many something offers:Segler, cruises by the island world, congress tourism, nature -, Öko - tourism, culture, places of pilgrimage, Fischer -, divers - and hunt tourism up to vacation on the farm.

For many inhabitants thatrichly the tourism represents arranged coast one of the most important industries. From May to Octobers the entire coastal strip visitor tightens out completely Europe . Owing to the 1,246 islands Croatia is particularly attractive also for Segler.

Development and current numbers

thatTourism belonged in Croatia to the most important industries and contributes in large measure to the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT . Croatia had a new record of approx. in the past year. To register 10 million guests. In the year altogether 9.995.070 tourists Croatia visited 2005 (Plus in relation to the previous year of 6,3%; of it 85% are foreigners). Altogether 51.42 million Nächtigungen were counted (a plus in relation to the previous year of 7,5%; of it 89% are allotted to foreigners). For the year 2005 becomes with routistic total receipts in the value of 6,5Billion Euro counted. 2005 visited altogether 8.46 millions foreign tourists Croatia (7% increase) and with 45,98 millions Nächtigungen of foreigners was reached an increase of 8%.

In the city tourism Croatia has rising numbers of visitors, in particular in the capital Zagreb and Varaždin. Dubrovnik and Split are accordingly well visited all-season destinations and.

In the interior annually hundredthousands tourists visit the world-well-known national park Plitvicer lakes and the nature park Biokovo, which is convenient in the mountain massif of the same name in the south of the country. Also many cultural monuments worth seeingare in the interior.

The hunt tourism looks particularly in the regions Slawonien, to the fermenting ski Kotar and the Lika on a long tradition back.

In the northwestCroatian Zagorje and in the pannonischen lowlandses are numerous well removed thermal baths.

See also:

Web left: mein-kroatien.info, on-line Wiki Kroatienführer

culture and society

the Croatian national theatre in Zagreb

in cultural and architectural regard became the north and northeast of Croatia by its is enoughcommon history with Hungary and/or. Austria in the architectural style of the baroque coined/shaped. The south of the country, the coastal country of Istrien, the Kvarner - bay, the Hrvatsko primorje and Dalmatiens however architecturally predominantly became in the style of the Renaissance by the earlier sea power Venice (1409 to approximately 1815) affects. Many ports expressed a venezianisches flair.


Holidays in Croatia

Date German designation Croatian designation notes
1. January New Year new facts godina
6. January holy one of three kings Sveta trichloroethylene kralja
Ostermontag Ostermontag Uskrsni ponedjeljak mobile date
1. May day of the work Praznik rada
60 days after Easter Fronleichnam Tijelovo mobile date
22. June day of the anti-fascist fight Dan antifašističke borbe
25. June state State of Dan državnosti
5. August day of the native gratitude Dandomovinske zahvalnosti
15. August Maria Ascension Day Velika Gospa
8. October independence day Dan neovisnosti
1. November all-holy Svi sveti
25. December Christmas, 1. Weihnachtsfeiertag Božić
26. December step Hans day, 2. Weihnachtsfeiertag Blagdan svetog Stjepana, Stipandan

meaning cultural meetings

Period place Designation of contents
February March Croatia Karnevalsveranstaltungen (in Croatia the carnival also as “fašnik” or “maškare” designation) Karneval , the largest and removal most worth seeing finds completely in Rijeka instead of
April Zagreb days of the Croatian and international music (dani hrvatske glazbe) Biennale, chamber music of concerts, modern trend music
19. - 24. April Split Marulićevi dani Croatian Theaterfestival
May Zagreb Zagrebački književni razgovori (literary discussions in Zagreb) meeting of international writers
19. 06.- 03. 07. Šibenik international Kinderfestival (Međunarodni djećji festival) art of andfor children, z. B.Doll plays, child theatre
23. - 30. 06 Zagreb Eurokaz international Theaterfestival of the new theatre
12. - 17. 7 castle Veliki Tabor Tabor film festival international Kurzfilme
July - August Đakovo Đakovački vezovi folklore festival
July -August Zagreb Zagreber Sommerfestival (Zagrebački ljetni festival) chamber music, Symphonie concerts, jazz and music scene
July August Motovun Motovun film festival, international Filmfestival of Kurzfilme, independent productions, documentary films
July August Pula Pula film festival, Filmfestival national one and international features, in the Ambiente of the arena(Amphitheater) in Pula
01. - 07. 08 Zagreb week the modern dance (tjedan suvremenog plesa) modern trend dance art
August Varaždin Špancirfest derived from the German word “walk”. Strassenfestival. Performance, dance, Akrobatik, theatre, music
01. 08- 15. 09 Poreč of concerts in the Euphrasius Basilika Sakrale and lay music
08. 08 - 15. 10 Zadar of concerts in the cathedral of the Hl. Donatus chamber music, Symphonie concerts, church music
10. 07 - 25. 08 Dubrovnik Dubrovniker Sommerfestival (Dubrovački ljetni festival) Croatianand international theatre performances and concerts
14. 08 - 12. 09 Split Splitsko ljeto (Sommerfestival in Split) theatre performances, operas and concerts
16. 08 - 01. 09 Krk summer performances classical concerts, music scene
19. - 23. August Zagreb international Folklorefestival (Međunarodna smotra folklora) Folklore performances on the Jelačić - place in Zagreb
August Sinj Sinjska alka, knight plays of knight plays with centuries-old tradition. Rider in the typical military Trachten of the dalmatinischen hinterland, which decrease/go back still to the Turk wars.
August September Zagreb PIF international doll player festival
Septembers Dubrovnik festival Julian Rachlin & Friends annual meeting of the best classical Virtuosen in the premises of the Kneževi dvori (duke palace with exzellenter acoustics).
September Krapina week of the kajkavischen culture and songs (Tjedan kajkavske kulture i popevke). Festival of great cultural importancefor the northCroatian area. Folklore, choir music, art exhibition,
September Vinkovci Vinkovačke jeseni (Herbstfestival Vinkovci) folklore
20. 09- 05. 10 Varaždin baroque music evenings (Barokne glazbene večeri) of concerts
October - November Zagreb Zagreber salon (Zagrebački salon) topic-referred exhibitions
11 - 14,11 Pula international ones Music grandstand (Međunarodna glazbena tribina) modern trend of concerts from the alps and Adria region

objects of interest

UNESCO world culture and nature inheritance of mankind

Der Hauptplatz des Diokletianspalastes in Split
Šibenik the main place of the Diokletianspalastes into


Split the Croatian world culture or nature inheritance places after the entry years:

1979 historical complex of the city Split with the palace emperor Diokletians [33]
1979, 1994 old part of town of Dubrovnik [34]
1979, 2000 national park Plitvicer lakes [35]
1997 Bischöflicher complex of the Euphrasius Basilika in the historical town centre of Poreč [36]
1997 historical city Trogir [37]
2000 cathedral of holy Jakob (Katedrala svetog Jakova) in Šibenik [38]

people traditions

Croatian folklore (see also music of Croatia):

painters and sculptors

  • Mimara - painter, restorer, art collecting tank
  • Zvonimir Mihanović
  • Edo Murtić
  • Ivan Generalić (naive Croatian art)
  • Ivan Lacković Croata
  • Ivan Meštrović
  • doing Augustinčić
  • Dušan Džamonja
  • Celestin Medović

literature

see also: Croatian writer would list

music

major item: Music of Croatia

see also: Croatian classical composers film

Branko

media

medium landscape


Croatia has to exhibit a very various medium landscape. Beside the national transmitter to HRT and the private stations public workers' union, new facts TV and RTL Televizija, there is several local television station, z. B. Nezavisna TV, Z1 and TV new facts, as well as dozens local Radiosender.

Under the printed media the daily papers glass of Slavonije, Jutarnji cunning, Slobodna Dalmacija, Novi cunning, Večernji cunning, 24 are sata, Vjesnik, the trade journal Dnevnik, as well as the weekly newspapers focus, globe, to emphasize Nacional and Novi cunning. In particular trade journals are established lately again on the Croatian market: Eyelids, business.hr, Banka and Poslovni dnevnik. The sow-Irish weekly paper Feral grandstandTuđmans, which could do it until today maintained, is also beyond the national borders admits for its critical attitude during the reign.

Medium law

is discussed at present in Croatia a straight new medium law that the influencing control of the policy on the mediato prevent should and the protection of editors, in view of lately frequent attacks, ensure should. The old law plans still punishments for journalists, who reject giving up their sources, as also slandering is judicially pursued. Within the framework thatSeeking out of war crimes became 2005 cross-examines a lady journalist by a secret service and assumed hearing of several journalists in the public well-known. In a case of slandering intervened even the Ministries of Justice, in order to make futile the court decision by payment of the bail.Such one, by the public heftigst rejected, law defaults is in direct future to be amended. The practices of the secret services were already submitted of a strict examination.

The independence of the national broadcasting corporation HRT should be protected and promoted still more. Became simultaneous practically alreadydecided that there should be an independent medium control institution, which the adherence to the legal regulations should supervise (so far the Croatian broadcasting corporation has its own control committee). Will thus requested the media for professional and responsible reporting, the protection of children and young people should be keptand an excess of the authorized advertising times should be sanctioned.

The US-American

Nichtregierungsorganisation IREX their newest report published independent evaluations at the beginning of of February 2006 for the situation of the media in South-east Europe (Media Sustainability index). This is simultaneous the annually deepest analysis of the mediain this area. In the current report it is stated that Croatia of all Southeast-European states created the largest progress with the creation of a pleasant climate for independent media. It is attributed to the Croatian media that it professionally, freely and lastingly activelyare.

The IREX index analyzes 5 different criteria: Free speech, Medienpluralismus and accesibility of the media for the citizens, journalistic Professionalismus, lastingness in the purchase to the business activities of the media, as well as the efficiency of the institutionalen nets, which for the support of the independent mediaserve. According to opinion of Croatian and international analysts Croatia has to exhibit a professionalisierteren and more astute journalism than other countries of the region, like e.g. Slovenia, Hungary or other one, again-been added states of the European union.

It becomes however an increasing Trivialisierung and Commercialization of the media criticizes. Likewise the media in Croatia for the broad public are to be acquired relatively expensively, and often necessarily several media are to be pursued at the same time, in order to receive a correct overall view the current situation. Paradoxically becomes inReport mentioned that the largest opponents of the per-democratic and per-European policy of the Croatian government are calculated in two media, of which a medium in Austrian possession and the other medium in each case in the possession of an American society is. The ownersshould here a more critical reflection of the editor politics pursue, and/or. it is unclear whether a such sheet line corresponds to the intention of the owners.

The report mentions also the inglorious incident of the arrested journalist Josip Jović (editor-in-chief of the daily paper Slobodna Dalmacija), which that Hague tribunal accused of to uncovering the identity of a secret witness to have contributed and against a warrant of arrest existed. After becoming known violent reactions followed the accusation on the part of the public and various journalist combinations. The IREX placed here a potential dangerfor the free speech within the country firmly, which witnesses to paradoxes and singular situation of Croatia from that in the year 2005. Croatia achieved appropriate standards in the reference to the medium liberty. These standards of the free speech were endangered however just by an institution,from which one would have expected this to few, i.e. the international criminal court into the Hague, a high international institution, which was created in addition, in order the justice and stability in the region to advance.


Web on the left of:

culinary

major item: Croatian kitchen
of Croatian Pršut, wine and other specialities
Odojak (Spanferkel)
Odojak (splinter piglet)

Croatia have a very alternation-rich multi-cultural kitchen tradition. Regionally differently merge autochthone, Mediterrane, Osmani, alpine ones and Hungarian influences to an abundance of culinary specialities, which admits partially internationally is.

Equal to whether Gulasch, sauerkraut, Pizza, Knödel or Viennese shreds are, a great many courts also in Croatia traditionally at home.

  • Bakalar (soup outdried Kabeljau, particularly in Dalmatien as chamfering food)
  • Kotlovina (different one meat places with potatoes in a boiler on open fire prepared)
  • Janjetina (lamb roast)
  • Brodet (Dalmatini fish soup)
  • Pašticada (a kind of dalmatinisches Gulasch)
  • Orada (Zubatac) pod pekom (Dorade, also gold brace mentioned,under a clay/tone bell grilled)
  • Odojak (splinter piglet)
  • Punjena paprika (filled Paprika)
  • Sarma (Kohlroulade)
  • Riblji paprikaš (Fischgulasch)
  • Zagorske štrukle (sweet paste bags from the Hrvatsko Zagorje)
  • Pršut (air-dried ham)
  • Kulen (pikanter ham from Slawonien)
  • Kobasica (Klobasse)
  • Paški sir (sheep cheese ofthe island Pag)
  • Pura (also called Žganci SA Mlijekom: Polenta with milk)
  • Grah (bean soup)
  • Mlinci (supplement)
  • Maraska cherries (to the production of the famous Maraska Cherry Brandy)
  • Prošek (the ore wine)
  • Graševina (Welschriesling)
  • Ćevapčići (Fleischröllchen)
  • Ražnjići (Spies)
  • Pljeskavica(Grilled Fleischlaibchen - if necessary. ) see filled with

sheep cheese also: Areas of cultivation of wine in Croatia

popular society plays

  • boocie: also in Croatia „boćanje “(in the north) or „balote “ (in the coastal region and at islands) (balota, kroat. „Boocie ball “) and buće (in the Dalmatinska Zagora)
  • Traditional-popular packs of cards: briškula (ital. briscola), trešeta, trijumf (pack of cards), Bela, liquors (kroat. „šnaps “), Tarot, Poker
  • Picigin: very popular beach ball play in shallow water
  • Zoga falu: similarly to Squash

science and education

major item: Croatian education system

scientific institutions

Croatia possesses several universities (kroat. “sveučilište”) and different professional schools (kroat. “veleučilište”). In the capital Zagreb gives it to three Universities of ( the University of Zagreb 1669 of the having citizen Leopold I. already became. based and is in particular for its philosophical faculty admits), and ever one in Dubrovnik (University of Dubrovnik), Osijek (University of Osijek), Rijeka (University of Rijeka), Split (University of Split) and Zadar (University of Zadar). The individual universities maintain numerous institutes inother cities of Croatia, like e.g. in Varaždin, etc. The most renowned technical institution of Croatia is the faculty for electro-technology and electronic data processing (FER) in Zagreb. Here only Top students study out completely Croatia. Further about 40 research institutes and/or.scientific large-scale projects are summarized in an official Website, which of bio - and natural sciences to medicine, economics and philosophy are enough. On the island Hvar is an observatory for astronomy and satellite geodesy.

Within the yearly 2006 that should independent MedILS Institut (Mediterranean of institutes for would run Sciences) its enterprise takes up and thus multidiscipline-thinking researchers in the field of the life sciences as research establishment serves. Institut is directly at the sea, not far from Split and becomes from the world-wide-estimated Croatian scientist Miroslav Radmanled, which was characterised by its research work within the range of molecular biology (DNA repair , cancer and evolution research, etc.). Further, international-renowned Institut would be among other things also Institut Ruđer Bošković (IRB).

Web left: MedILS (official web page)

famous one Croatian scientists

of Croatia most important Wissenschaftern are particularly emphasized:

, Web left: History OF Croatian Science

sport

major item: Croatian sport

sporty one of successes

defiance of its relatively small total population can Croatia in the sport many successes exhibit. One could state in view of the multiplicity at international successes and the associated spreading of a positive image of Croatia that the Croatian sportsmen are often considered as the best Ambassadors of this small country in the world.Among largest successes of Croatian national teams rank the third placement with the soccer world championship 1998 in France, the victory of the Handballer with the olympic plays of 1996 in Atlanta and of 2004 in Athens (like also the victory with the hand ball world championship 2003 in Portugal), the silver medal for the Basketballer with the olympic summer games in Barcelona 1992, the silver medal for the water ball national team with the olympic plays 1996 in Atlanta, as well as the silver medal in rudders for the pair of brothers the Nikša and Siniša Skelin in Athens 2004 (two without attendant). The Croatian tennis - national team is since 2005 officiating Davis Cup winner. The Croatian national soccer team already qualified itself for the third time since acquisition of independence 1991 for the world championship final round. Details under: Soccer world championship 2006 in Germany.

Many Croatian single sportsmen prove continuously sporty maximum performances. Among the largest singlesporty achievements rank the Wimbledon - victory of Goran Ivanišević 2001 in the tennis, the silver medal in swimming for Duje Draganja with the olympic summer games2004 in Athens (50 m freestyle), as well as the three-fold olympia gold of Janica Kostelić with the olympic winter plays 2002 in salt Lake town center (combination, slalom, Riesenslalom; Silver in the super G). With the olympic winter plays in Turin 2006now also the brother of Janica Kostelić, got Ivica Kostelić, the silver medal in the combination.

Famous Croatian sportsmen

the most well-known Croatian tennis player, Goran Ivanišević

particularly in the following disciplines prove Croatian sportsmen again and again sporty maximum output:

Football: Before it Šuker, Robert Prosinečki, Zvonimir Boban, Dado Pršo, Robert Kovač, Dario Šimić, Ivan Klasnić, Igor Tudor
hand ball: Patrik Čavar, Ivano Balić, Petar Metličić, Vlado Šola, Mirza Džomba, Goran Šprem
ski alpine: Janica Kostelić, Ivica Kostelić, Nika diligence, Ana Jelušić
tennis: Željko Franulović, Goran Ivanišević, Iva Majoli, Ivan Ljubičić, Mario Ančić, Mirjana Lučić, Nikola Pilić
basketball: Dražen Petrović, tonuses Kukoč, Dino Rađa
Wasserball: Dubravko Šimenc
swimming: Durdica Bjedov, Gordan Kožulj, Duje Draganja
rudders: Nikša Skelin, Siniša Skelin, Matija Ljubek
sails: Mate Arapov
Hochsprung: Blanka Vlašić
Volleyball: Barbara Jelić Ružić
table tennis: Zoran Primorac, Dragutin Surbek
Gewichtheben: Nikolaj Pešalov
boxes: Ivo Prebeg, Marijan Beneš, Željko Mavrović, Mate Parlov, Stipe Drews
Kickboxen: Mladen Steko, Pavlica Steko
c1: Mirko “Cro copilot” Filipović, Branko Cikatić

sporty meetings

to the larger sporty meetings, which took place in Croatia, belongs the Universiade, which 1987 in Zagreb took place. 2010 will take place the IAAF Leichtathletik - Worldcup in Split(Split was already 1979 the place of event of the Mediterranean plays and 1990 venue of the athlete IC European championship. Croatia hopes just as together with Hungary for a delivering of the football European championship 2012.


See also:

culture-historical and Anekdoti

  • name origin of the tie: The designation of the article of clothing “tie “decreases/goes back to the name of the people of the Croats. The Croatian soldiers carried in 17. Century a similar article of clothing around the neck, collar with fraying,by it quite simply to differentiate were. The word “cravate” becomes for the first time in the French encyclopedia in 17. Century mentions, as Croatian soldiers at the yard Ludwig of the XIV. in Paris stayed. In the French one calls the Croats “Croates”, which lets close easily on the word “ cravate” or in German “ tie”. (details, see: History of the tie)
  • the Republic of Dubrovnik was 1776 world-wide the first state, which recognized the independence of the United States from America internationally.

See also

literature

  • Johann George rice Mueller the war before our entry door, ISBN 3-421-06543-8
  • Jelica Hilgraf if the war past is, to ISBN 3-928028-98-7
  • Agičić et al. (2000): Povijest i zemljopis Hrvatske (the history and geography of Croatia),priručnik za hrvatske manjinske škole (manual for Croatian auxiliary schools), Biblioteka Geographica Croatica, 292 S., Zagreb, ISBN 953-6235-40-4 (Croatian)

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Croatian proverbs - quotations
Wiktionary: Croatia- Word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Category: Croatia - pictures, videos and/or audio files



coordinates: 42°-47° N, 13°-19° O

 

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