Crown Prince as Crown Prince one designates the oldest son of a king or an emperor, who is at the same time next candidate on the throne (successor to the throne) in monarchies with Erstgeborenen system of succession (Primogenitur).
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in such a way e.g. was. in Germany the later king Friedrich William IV. of Prussia (move 1840-1861) as an oldest son of the king Friedrich William III.(move 1797-1840) since its accession the “Crown Prince of Prussia”. There Friedrich William IV. remained childless, was his next-younger brother William - the later Prussian king and German emperors Wilhelm I. (move 1861-1888) - since 1840 the successor to the throne, but he carried never the title of a “Crown Prince”, but always only that of the “prince of Prussia”.
Similarly as in case of the office combination “German emperorand king of Prussia " was between 1871 and 1918 in the German Reich also the successor to the throne at the same time “Crown Prince of the German Reich and of Prussia”. In contrast to all remaining princes of the Prussian house, who firmierten only as “royal sovereignties “and carried no German title,the successor to the throne led as a candidate on the German emperor crown also the title “imperial sovereignty “.
In Austria Hungary again e.g. led. Emperor Franz Josephs only son, Rudolf, the title of a “Crown Prince”, during its later successors as a successor to the throne, ore duke Franz Ferdinand, than nephew of the sameEmperor no Crown Prince, but only “ore duke successor to the throne” was. Franz Ferdinands took over latter title in the year 1914 also its successor as a heir to the throne, the later emperor Karl I. after the murder. (move 1916-1918).
a crowning princess is on the one hand personally the not succession to the throne-entitled wifea Crown Prince, on the other hand in monarchies with female succession in addition, the successor to the throne personally entitled to inherit.
A female succession to the throne was in monarchies of salischen law of succession (esp. in the German culture area) impossible or had by complicated changes of title - as in case of the “pragmatic sanction “in favor of the having citizen heiress Maria Theresia 1740 ago - laboriously to secure to be tried. In other monarchies exists however a conditioned or even absolute female succession, which a female successor to the throne either in case of the nonexistence male inheriting or but when in principle equal Erstgeborene of a monarch recognized. Acquaintance of cases are the female successions to the throne in Great Britain: 1837 in case of the Queen Victoria, which could inherit however not also the German Kingdom of Hanover connected up to then with Great Britain in personnel union (therefore to its oldest uncle fell), or 1952 in case of the Queen Elizabeth II.. In the course 20. Century in most European monarchies the complete equal rights of male and female Primogenitur became generally accepted - a reflex on the totalsocial tendency to the Frauenemanzipation. At present something similar seems to take place in Japan.
the Primogenitur (Erstgeborenen follow-up)is not usual however in all monarchies of the world. In particular in Islamic monarchies and is frequent the Seniorat was as succession to the throne alternative used. This applies approximately to the succession to the throne in the Osmani realm, after since that the 15. Century by targeted killing of all younger brothersa Sultans forced son follow-up in 17. Century in favor of a follow-up oldest relatives of a deceased Sultans was replaced: In this way first usually brothers or cousins of a monarch became its successors, before - depending upon age - that reach old follow-up into the next generationcould.
In appropriate way this very day Saudi Arabia in each case the oldest brother (or half brother) of the king carries the title of the “Crown Prince” with the right of the follow-up in the kingdom.
Into the Haschemiten - monarchies Iraq and Jordanian one the succession was mixed: There in principle Primogenitur prevailed, but could -usually in the absence of a son of the governing monarch - who used crowning prince titles together with successor to the throne-genuinly also on others the monarch will transfer. Thus Iraq, Faisal II. functioned between 1953 and 1958 under the last king. (move 1939-1958), its uncle Abd aluminium Ilah as Crown Prince. (Both becamewith a Militärputsch 1958.) something similar
Hussein II. was murdered under king. of Jordanian ones (move 1952-1999) long time its brother prince Hassan Crown Prince, before Hussein this function briefly before its death on one of his sons, the nunmehrigen king Abdullah II. (move since 1999), transferred.
Special successor to the throne titles
frequent lead Crown Prince still another special own title, which often refers to an earlier partial kingdom or partial principality, today however only an honour title are:
- United kingdom: Prince of of Wales (Prince OF Wales)
- Belgium: Duke of Brabant
- the Netherlands: Prince (essin) of Oranien (Prins (it) van Oranje)
- Spain: Infant (in) and prince von Asturien (Príncipe de Asturias)
- France (kingdom): Dauphin
- France: (1.Kaiserreich): King of Rome
- France: (2.Kaiserreich): Prince Impérial (also: Fils de France) (emperor prince, of France son)
- Portugal: Infant/in, duke of Bragança (list of the dukes of Braganza)
- Russia: Zarewitsch (literal “son of the Zaren”)
- Austria: Ore duke /-in
- Osmani realm: To Veliahd