the bent staff (also: Abbott staff, Baculus pastoralis, bishop staff, Hirtenstab, Pastoralstab and Pedum or Virga) belonged to the Pontifikalien and consists of a shank and at its upper end the following curves. Those curves consists of gilded silver or copper and is arranged often artistic; that about 1.5 meters long shank consists usually of wood.
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origin and history
a similar staff ranked already among the Insignien of the Pharaonen and Roman Auguren, those and. A. the fate from the bird flight interpreted. Oldest representations show the Egyptian God Osiris, which was illustrated as Hirte of the herds of soul with the Hirtenstab. The staff is considered as indication of the authority. Its origin is derived from the italisch etruskischen Hirtenstab. Emperor Konstantin gave in 4. To carry century the bishops by privilegium fori permission as indications of religious and lay iurisdiction the Augurenstab similar a staff.
Among the first mentions ranks the Hirtenstab, which the archbishop of Canterbury lent to the abbott Theodor of Canterbury. For the first time the office staff was testified around the year 600 with the consecration of the holy Kolumban. The actual bent staff spread in its use particularly with church dignitaries in 7. Century in Spain and France, outside of the Liturgie as symbol of the jurisdiction.
ring and staff - Investiturstreit
the question, whom the right was entitled to lend Prälaten ring and staff coined/shaped the Investiturstreit. In the Wormser concordat accepted emperors Heinrich V. the requirement of the Pope on the right of the Investitur and did without the Investitur with ring and staff. In response Pope vacated Kalixt II. that the choice of of the Germans bishops and abbotts in presence of imperial delegate negotiates, who is to be belehnt selecting however with regalia, which were connected with its religious office, by the emperor by the Szepter. Emperor Lothar III. granted besides the church the right to lend first ring and staff whereby the influence of the emperor on the installation was lost from bishops practically.
today it in the catholic church dignitaries with own jurisdiction range is reserved. In addition belong in particular bishops and abbotts, more rarely also different Prälaten. The Pope does not carry a bent staff, but a cross staff, the Ferula.
in the heraldry finds the bent staff in two different way use:
- The staff can be used on the coat of arms sign as common figure; here it designates then often (former) the rule range of a bishop or a Prälaten, e.g. a high pin. Well-known example is that Basel staff.
- Traditionally Mitra and bent staff (with prince bishops also the sword) decorated the coat of arms of bishops and abbotts as Schildzier. This use became 1969 of Pope Paul VI. abgeschaftt.
Unterm bent staff is well lives
the proverb Unterm bent staff is well lives developed, because into religious territories had the rural subjects usually more right security and better living conditions; thus there was no great land owners and no body characteristic here.
See also: Basel staff
- F. FOCKE, Szepter and bent staff, anniversary publication for A. Fox, Paderborn 1950
- R. FARMER RICE, abbott staff and. Bishop staff, in: Studies and reports for the history of the Benediktinerordens 68, 1957.