Cuba

The neutrality of this article or paragraph is disputed. The reasons stand on the discussion side or on the side for neutrality problems. Attempts to formulate the article neutral and remove this component only if it is no longer necessary.
Repúblicade Cuba
of these articles treats the Republic of Cuba. For further meanings see Cuba (term clarifying).
Flagge Kubas Wappen der Republik Kuba
(Detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: „Patria y Libertad “
splinter, „homeland and liberty “
office language Spanish
capital Havanna (La Habana)
system of government socialist republic
President of the Council of State and the Council of Ministers Fidel Castro Ruz
surface 110,860 km ²
number of inhabitants 11.346.670 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 102 inhabitants per km ²
independence from Spain to 10. October 1898 explains, to 20. May 1902 recognized
currency Cuban peso, convertable peso
time belt geographically:UTC -5, at present UTC-4
national anthem La Bayamesa
of national holidays 1. January victory of the revolution (1959), 1. May international day of the workers, 26. July storm on the Moncada barracks (1953), 10. October beginning of the war of independence(1868)
Kfz characteristic C
internet TLD .cu
preselection +53
Lage Kubas in der Welt
Lage Kubas in der Karibik
Karte Kubas

Cuba (splinter: Cuba) is an island state in the Karibik. In the northwest the island has a coastal strip to the gulf of Mexico, the entire north coast lies however to Atlantic ocean.

Table of contents

geography

major item: Geography of Cuba

Cuba is the largest island in the Karibik. In thatOrder of rank of the largest islands of the world is it on place 15. The neighboring country in the north are the USA with its Federal State Florida. In the northwest the gulf of Mexico, in the west the Mexican peninsula Yucatán lies. Cuba is majority evenly, with hill landscape and mountains mainly in the southeast. The highest point is the pico Turquino (1,974 m and. NN) in the Sierra Maestra.

Havanna is the largest city of Cuba and capital of the island. The next lower cities are Santiagode Cuba, Holguín and Camagüey.

In the southeast of the island is the naval base of the US-Navy Guantanamo Bay. This Exklave was leased by a former before-revolutionary Cuban government in fact on unlimited time to the USA .

ThatClimate is tropical. There is a drier season from November to April and a rainy season from May to Octobers. In the east of Cuba developed the national park Parque Nacional Alejandro de Humboldt, for that the four easternmost provinces Holguín,Granma, Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo covers. The area protects many important ecological systems to country (68,890 hectars) and to water (2,250 hectars), like the coast with their Mangroven and pre-aged reefs, the offshore drying forests and the more highly lain andprecipitation-rich rain forests with that 1,168 meters high summit of the El Toldo. The national park was explained in December 2001 of the UNESCO as the world nature inheritance.

See also: List of the cities in Cuba

time belt

the geographical time belt of Cuba is UTC-5. Until 2004this was handled also in such a way, including a summer time. Due to the energy crisis in this year one remained in the summer time (UTC-4, which applied from April to Octobers) and did not change not, as usual, during the normal winter time back (UTC-5 from October to April).Thus applies to today (January 2006) all year round the summer time with UTC-4.


Live

population on Cuba about 11 million humans.

Population trend x1000
according to estimations is the population for instance to one third each of European, afroamerikanischer and more mixed (Mulatten) descent.Besides still another Chinese minority exists. From the indigenen population of the Arawak there are no descendants.

Cuba has the lowest birth rate of the Latin American states and the western hemisphere with 1,6 children per woman to Canada. This is above all because of it,that abortion is generally usual in Cuba free of charge and from social, medical and eugenischen reasons, more than each third pregnancy is artificially broken off.

The child number of deaths amounts to 6.33 children per 1000 births and is the secondarylowest in America to Canada.

Homosexualitäton Cuba by national side is not no more suppressed. Starting from end of the eighties Fidel Castro and the chairman of the Cuban woman Ford Mrs. (Federación de Mujeres Cubanas) spoke themselves Vilma Espín publicly against discrimination of gays and lesbiansout. However Homosexualität is still verpönt in parts of the population.

Religions

by a constitutional amendment of 12. July 1992 became Cuba from a atheistischen state to a secular, whereby also Gläubigen makes possible the membership in the communist party (PCC)will should.

As of Cuba main religion the Santería, a afro catholic mixing religion is considered apart from the catholicism. It be based on the animistischen religion of the westAfrican Yoruba and is strongly transferred with katholizistischen elements. Since the religions do not possess official structure, are thoseto determine actual trailer numbers with difficulty. As unpolitical and disorganized form the Santería enjoys of the worship in the last years of even national promotion.

The catholicism is - probably after the Santería - strongest the religious community of Cuba. Unite according to estimations are about 35 per cent of the Kubaner catholic baptized, among them however also many Santería trailers. Other estimations proceed from higher numbers. Since the affiliation to the catholic church is a condition for the Santería, exact demarcations are not possible.

Beside the catholic churchin the last years numerous Protestant and above all evangelikale municipalities developed. Besides one counts oneself about 89,000 witnesses Jehovas, their trailer shank despite arrests and lecture service prohibitions because of their rejecting attitude in relation to surgical interferences and blood transfusions since the revolutionmore than verfünffacht.

Catholic Schutzpatronin Cuba is those four-gene de la Caridad de Cobre (Barmherzige virgin of El Cobre), who stands in the Santería also for the goddess of the rivers and the love Ochún.

See also:

history

Havanna – Blick auf das Kapitol
Havanna - view of the Kapitol

major item: History of Cuba

Cuba and the there living Arawak turned out in the first half 16. Century under Spanish control. Within fewer decades the indigenen peoples became practical by force and illnessexterminated. For the very labor intensive sugar tubing cultivation the Spanish Pflanzer procured itself in 17. and 18. Century of ten thousands of African slaves.

The fights of the colony for independence began 1868 and lasted with interruptions up to the departure of the Spaniards in the year 1898on, when the USA intervened (Spanish-American war). The USA occupied the island, until them finally attained 1902 finally formal independence, but no sovereign state became. The sovereignty was reduced until 1934 by flatly the Amendment, that thatThe USA on impairment of US-American interests an each-early right to intervene in Cuba gave. Remnants of these US-American special rights are the naval base Bahía de Guantánamo (Guantanamo Bay), maintained against the avowed Cuban will this very day by the USA, that today againCelebrity attains as military prison for American prisoners and terror-suspicious.

1959 replaced the revolution under the guidance of Fidel and Raúl Castro, Camilo Cienfuegos and the Argentinier Ernesto Che Guevara the dictatorship of many years of Fulgencio Batista by a revolutionary government.Since 1961 (declaration of Havanna) Cuba is a socialist country.

Flagge Kubas
Signal of Cuba

ways by the revolutionary government operated of the nationalization politics, by in particular number of large US-American business enterprises, in addition, Cuban great land owners with possession over 64 hectares country concernedwere, the USA imposed sanctions against Cuba, which finally under the influence of the Exilkubaner around the alcohol - in a total economic blockade of the island flowed to clan Bacardi, which persists until today. In resolutions of the UN and also on that 15. IberoamerikaniSummits 2005 were requested the USA, their economics, to terminate handels and financial blockade opposite Cuba. Parallel to it thousand Kubaner left their homeland in several refugee waves, from which a majority settled in Florida. Cuba looked for and found support with thatsocialist states of Eastern Europe, in particular the Soviet Union at that time. Due to the strategic situation of Cuba the conflict between the USA and the USSR in the so-called Cuba crisis escalated 1962. Therein Cuba became the ball of two countries possessing atomic weapons.

After the political andeconomic collapse of of Cuba most important trade partners and backers (Soviet Union and COMECON) at the beginning of the 1990er years experienced Cuba a heavy economic crisis, which found 1993 their Tiefpunkt. Under the guidance of Carlo's layer Dávila the economy was decentralized andto the requirements of the world market adapted, free-market economy and foreign-exchange trading in some niches certified. Since then Cuba belongs according to World Bank to the states of the third world with economic growth rates. Joint venture - business in the tourism - range, co-operation with new external trade partners (among other things Spain, Italy, Canada, Brazil, People's Republic of China, Venezuela), the discovery of new oil fields and the marketing of the important nickel occurrences contributed to the stabilization of the Cuban economy. However also social mismatches developed.

See also: List of the governors andPresident on Cuba

Che Guevara-Wandbild in Santa Clara, Kuba
Che Guevara - mural in Santa Clara, Cuba

politics

state and government

the state organisation corresponds to the classical socialist model: Formally highest-ranking and legislative organ is the parliament (asamblea nacional del more poder popular), which the Council of State (consejo de estado)and the Council of Ministers, which functions as a government, selects. Only twice in the year the meeting parliament is actually relatively influenceless and has above all the task, decisions abzusegnen. The delegates are at the government or at control of the executiveinvolved and only sideline actively, they do not receive no parliamentary allowance. In accordance with the condition the prominent role is assigned in the state of the communist party of Cuba (Partido Comunista de Cuba), which it together with the mass organizations (trade unions, committees for the defense of the revolution, Woman and youth federations etc.), which serve as transmission belts, exercises. State party such as mass organizations are hierarchically from top to bottom developed. Other parties are not certified. A similar monopoly status also the mass organizations, employee organizations enjoy outside of the national trade union federation are forbidden. Innovativelyis the fact the fact that in all constituencies at least two applicants must be set up who not always member of the party is. However all applicants are selected by a committee of the PCC and the mass organizations and may operate no election campaign, thus noneown political programs present. In this way the party leaderses lead the State of, a similar structure are given on the lower administrative levels. As simultaneous Secretary-General of the PCC, chairman of the state and of the Council of Ministers as well as a commander in chief of the armed forces Fidel Castro combinesall power in the state in its person. The constitution of Cuba can be marked thus as totalitarian autocratic.

The Gerichtswesen is subject to national control. With simple civilian and criminal procedures on the lower levels a layman, otherwise place occupation judge the majority. All judges become ofthe representative government of their respective level selected. The Cuban juridical system does not correspond to right-national standards, however a functioning jurisdiction ensures within unpolitical ranges - in particular the civil law -. There is no independent bar.

The PCC belong about 15% of the adults Cuban citizenon. Are accepted only persons, who are characterised by an exemplary life change and an ideological firmness. The party membership is a condition for the vocational and social ascent in many ranges. From the members freiwillige becomes just like of those of the other mass organizationsunpaid work for the economy expects.

Control of the population

in each quarter has to examine a representative of the Cuban government its fellow citizens for ideological firmness to indicate and for it respect political „criminal offences “that nobody stays away from the guided elections. Besides givesit the political police, which is subordinate to the ministry of the Interior. Their network covers the entire country and ensures control of each enterprise. It operates also the informant network.

The government strives to merge each citizen from its childhood into the totalitarian system.School and job are subject to control of the state and serve the Indoktrination. Pupils, students and employees are judged in writing annually and listed by their teachers and union officials on their ideological firmness. Outside of the work time the State of influence practicesover the mass organizations out, in which the members are ideologically trained and freiwillige work for the state to carry out. Also the state trade union regards it as its major task to stop their members to unpaid additional work and over the political loyalty of the particularsTo refund employee upward report.

One - at least publicly to look carried - agreement with the party line is a condition for study and vocational progress.

Even psychologists must announce to the government regime-critical „cases “and naturally have the public security entrance tootheir documents.

The government achieves so again and again an impressing mobilization. With well planned demonstration campaigns lasting for weeks it brings almost Kubaner to each adult at least once on the road (record: 7 million participant). For the condition referendum for fixing socialism those could Comites de Defensa de la Revolucion the signatures of nearly 93% of the population collect. Also regularly an election turnout is reached by appropriate sanctions of over 90%.

Opposition

the state and the party facing, organized opposition is in the political systemCuba not intended. State-conformal parties or organizations of the civil company are not illegal.

There are several hundred, usually only organizations and parties consisting of few members, those in roof federations like the Asamblea Para pro mover la Sociedad civil EN Cuba (meetingfor the promotion of a civil company on Cuba), Todos university University of (everything together), Convergencia liberally Cubana (liberal Cuban convergence) or the Frente de Unidad Nacional (front of the national unit) co-operate, partly in addition, among themselves zerstritten are.

Important groups are the Partido Solidaridad Democrática (a party of the democratic solidarity), the Movimiento Cristiano Liberación (MCL, Christian liberation movement, founder: Osvaldo Payá) or the Arco Progresista (spectrum of the progress) and of Martha the Beatriz Roque Cabello led Asamblea Para pro mover la Sociedad civil EN Cuba, whereby the latter co-operates closely with right exile-Cuban organizations in Miami, which is seen very critical by the other large groups of oppositions. This difference in the attitude to the first public became clearand of the Cuban government waited meeting for the promotion of the Cuban civil company to 20. May 2005 under presidency of Martha Beatriz Roque Cabello and Vladimiro Roca in Havanna: the first mentioned organizations and half of the 75 victims of the last mass arrestexplained their nonparticipation and/or. Refusal of the political goals represented there.

The internal-Cuban opposition tries partially with peaceful means to reach partially by force a transformation on Cuba. Peaceful means in addition are beside clearing-up work against pervasive national propaganda forwardsall actions like (not approved) demonstrations, collections of citizen interviews, collections of signatures for (did not approve later) populars vote and (rejected) offers to the government to the common dialogue. These actions are natural for the participants not harmless, there them a public confession of the government-critical attitudebring with itself. Besides there are small independent trade unions or libraries.

Outside of Cuba Cuban emigrant (see Exilkubaner) in Miami an active opposition exists, to their most important organization those generally as radically right-wing estimated Cuban American national Foundation CANF under the 2 millionis. Apart from clearing-up and lobbying some exile-Cuban organizations operate also proper air services over the Karibik, in order to fish and surely ashore bring Cuban refugees from the sea. Some fly with small aircrafts even until Cuba and throw theregovernment-critical handbills off. In the February 1996 the government two of these airplanes left after two warnings, which were ignored by the pilot, over which open sea of the Air Force shoots, whereby it is disputed whether itself the airplanes with this attack within oroutside of the Cuban territory found. Partly in co-operation with places of the US Government there groups of oppositions commit also individual terrorist attacks with which already hundred Kubaner were killed, in order to destabilize the situation in Cuba.

For the Cuban government all groups of oppositions are in principleand - activities the work of the US imperialism. Actually are close in particular some exile-Cuban organizations to the USA and aim at after the overcoming of the Castro government a close binding at the large neighbours; their critics call this open or covered Annexionismus. ThoseUS Government has alone for the year 2006 15 millions US$ in the household for the support of Cuban groups of oppositions and exile-Cuban organizations in Miami intended (source: USAID Cuba program [1]), those partially. directly of the US-American interest agency in Havanna to the goal organizationsare disbursed or over the exile organizations in Miami to be distributed. 2005 a particularly created US authority in the white house, the Commission on Assistance ton of A Free Cuba (support commission for a free Cuba) are the work of the different Ministries against the CubanGovernment coordinate.

A nearly complete listing of the legally not recognized organizations on Cuba with numbers of members and short marking of their objectives is here: [1] (Spanish, conditions: 29. July 2004))

Human rights

the Cuban government contains its citizen systematically and structurally substantial Human rights forwards, in particular the rights to freedom of conscience, free expression of opinion, liberty of art and science, medium and uninformativeness, training and occupation liberty, liberality within and outside of the country, meeting, combination and freedom of coalation. Right nationalness, fair procedures and an independent bar are not ensured.The condition mentioned the fundamental rights, subordinates its practice however to the national goals. There is no independent judicial force, which guarantees the adherence to the human rights. Human right combinations are not certified.

As particularly bad the Cuban prisons are considered, in those toTime nearly a per cent of the population, under it hundreds political prisoners, in-sit (the distinction between political and not-political prisoners is not always completely simple, because many these simmering ducks are taken also because of unpolitical rubber facts, like “asoziales behavior”, in detention). Prisoners become frequentlyfar away from their members accommodated and attendance only rarely permitted, just as few have them entrance to radio or newspapers. After reports of former prison passengers are most primitive living conditions, refused medical supply, solitary confinement, abusing and partial torture at the agenda. The government forbidsas one of few countries the international committee of the red cross the entrance to the institutes for detention, so that the there prisoners are delivered completely their attendants. Also normal citizens must count on police arbitrariness.

The death penalty is not abolished and is for numerous, also political, criminal offences intended and still one imposes, one executes however only rarely. At present approximately 45 Kubaner are in Todestrakten. The death penalty was executed last 2004 in three cases. The executing had kidnapped a Hafenfähre beforeand different passengers than hostages taken and with their murder threatened. International criticism at the judgement became above all loud because the men only one week were executed after the kidnapping.

Opposition and critical expression of opinion become with thatMeans of the criminal law punished.These simmering ducks can be locked up for many decades, their punishments must them regularly fully serve. In accordance with ley de peligrosidad is it even possible, everyone, which represents „a threat for socialism “, for an unlimited period for a long time and without legal proceedings in detentionto hold. Threatened are above all the many internationally unknown government-critical citizens, who do not have a world-wide lobby. After arbitrary mass arrests often just as arbitrary releases follow. Apart from the measures of the criminal law there is also a whole pallet of „yields “measures alsothose the government against critics proceeds: Threats, chicanery, house arrest, seizing, public reviling and loss of the job.

For the justification of the violations of human rights and its foreign defender the following states the government:

  • Comparison with other countries. On the one hand to the fact it is turned off that thoseCuban government many violations of human rights of Latin American dictators (, Todesschwadronen disappear-let) omitted, on the other hand in nearly all comments on the human right situation in the USA and since newest on the right-free prison in Guantánamo purchase is in particular taken.
  • Reviling the victims. In particular becomesstated the fact that it supported most government critics of the USA and paid agents was.
  • Criticism at „the civil human right term “. Cuba maintains, social human rights (right to work and education, right to sharing at the national prosperity and right to medical and social supply) betterto respect as other Latin American states and tlw. the USA themselves.

Internationally above all human Rights Watch and Amnesty international ensures for the fact that the violations of human rights at the Kubanern remain in the discussion. Also the UN-Menschenrechtskommission, in that Cuba memberis, this year one gave „moderate Rüge to the country “.

Emigration

in principle is not ensured the emigration right, not approved of leaving the territory, due to which island situation anyway dangerously, criminally pursued. A preferential emigration goal are the USA, due to their prosperity, the family relations toothe numerous Exilkubanern and the assistance of the US Government for Cuban emigrants (in particular the immediate acquisition of the nationality).

With the United States a migration agreement negotiated by the Clinton government exists: the USA place each year 20,000 visas very desired in the populationout, which make a legal emigration possible. In response the USA committed themselves to push all illegal refugees away, who they take up on lake, immediately again to Cuba. This one does not practice however since the taking office of president Bush any longer.

In the yearsafter the revolution large parts of the former government, the Oberschicht, the middle class and the Klerus Cuba left. To the second large emigration wave after the revolution it came 1980, when over US-American transmitters the message was spread that the Peruvian message inHavanna visas for the departure to Peru issues, with which a far journey is possible into the USA. Considering the attack of ten thousands Peruvian Ambassador Polizeischutz requested departure-willing, which had partially for a long time passports. As oneGroup this police protection broke through, two policemen killed and by the Peruvian message was nevertheless not delivered, main header the Cuban government the isolation of the Peruvian message up. The untenable conditions on the message area became to 17. April thereby terminates that FidelCastro in a speech the possibility opened of leaving the country also without visa with the ship of the port Mariel out into the USA. The ships were escorted up to the 12-Meilen-Zone before the US-American coast. Within three months left approx. 125,000 Kubanerthe country. In order to terminate this immigration wave, the US Government under the president Carter with the Cuban government closed an agreement, which should regulate the legal entry over fixed ratios, but of the following Reagan - government was not any longer kept.

ThoseGovernment forbids each taking along of possession and the property of immigrants is immediately put under state control.

Altogether left over a million Kubaner since the revolution their homeland, over 2 million Kubaner live outside of the island.

see also article Exilkubaner

training system

education is in Cuba free of charge and there is a 9-jährige compulsory schooling. Cuba has a three-divided education system, which consists of reason, central, and high school.

Of Cuba education system belongs to the best in Latin America. 2001 layer the Cuban pupils fourth and fifthClass with a test of the UNESCO far before the other Latin American countries. World Bank president James wolf son said at the end of 2002 that Cuba had succeeded to increase the first day at school ratio on 100%. The illiterate ratio is with 0,2%. After the UNESCO Education forAll development index (2004) belongs to Cuba to the most highly developed countries in the world in the education range (beside Canada, Finland and South Korea). As consequence of it Cuba has a outstanding trained population. But it is assigned with difficulty, this Potenzial appropriatelyuse. Many physicians and skilled worker settle work in the tourism sector completely below their qualification, because partly already the dollar tip of a daily corresponds to their monthly earnings. For the same reasons there are also many Schulabbrecher.

The study on Cuba is free, however must all students after their conclusion three years long for the State of a social service do. In Cuba the woman portion of the students is higher than in every other Latin American country. Likewise Cuban students cut off better than their fellow students in Latin America inthe ranges mathematics, natural sciences and language. These achievements are recognized also by opposition members.Harvard Graduate School OF Education

in Cuba gave it to three so-called education revolutions. The third education revolution became approx. 2000 started and should problems, like the rising number ofSchool aborts, increased tails, the purge of buildings, which solve equipment of the schools and the lack of teachers. Today the average class strength amounts to 12 pupils and each school possesses computer jobs and video devices. Between 2000 and 2002 became for the renovation,Extension and new building of approx. 779 reason and middle schools 20 million euro and 215 million peso spent.

There are problems with the instructors, there these with approximately 250 Cuban peso (approx. 8 euro) in the month to be badly paid and thereforerather in the tourism works, where more moneys (foreign exchange) it can be earned. In order to advance toward the instruction loss, even young people are trained as so-called emergency teachers. According to estimations so far 40,000 emergency teachers are to have been trained.

Part the Cuban training system are also regular dispatches away inLand boardings school, where the older pupils and student apart from their training work free of charge in the agriculture.

The public education stands for boys also in the service of before-military training, older pupils learns handling weapons. The teachers must annually each pupil and alsoits parents by the political adjustment and the political activities in writing judge.

Military

the revolutionary armed forces of Cuba (FAR - Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias) career soldiers consist and of people liable for military service men as well as - soldiers. They are approx. 38,000 men strongly. The influentialMilitary belongs also a large part of the Cuban economy. Besides the ministry of the Interior has paramilitärische units.

Due to the own historical experiences (30-jähriger independence fight in 19. Century, invasion in the pig bay) as well as the defensive war of Viet Nam against China 1979 those became Militias for territorial defense (MTT Milicias de Tropas territorial) production. The militias set themselves from the regime student etc. for resulted in workers, housewives. together. The Milizionäre has entrance to weapons in their spheres of activity and living and is approximately for a guerrilla warpossible invaders (meant is special to the USA) trained. After Cuban view the entrance to weapons for the regime-most faithful minority is an important part of democratic exercise of power, from which the Cuban revolution derives historically and up-to-date its legitimacy. It is militarythe task of the militias to bind and give thus to the units of the regular army time for tactical and strategic restructuring in case of an invasion the opposing forces. Critics see rather their task therein, rebellions in the population fast andto terminate bloodily, and/or. to let not develop such even.

Provinces

Provinzen Kubas
provinces of Cuba
Kuba, Satellitenbild der NASA
Cuba, satellite photograph of NASA

Cuba Isla de la Juventud is partitioned in 14 provinces and the special administrative territory:

1. Isla de la Juventud
2. Pinar del Río
3. La Habana
4. Ciudad de la Habana
5. Matanzas
6. Cienfuegos
7. Mansion Clara
8. Sancti Spíritus
9. Ciego de Ávila
10. Camagüey
11. Tunas 12
read. Granma
13. Holguín
14. Santiago de Cuba
15. Guantánamo

economics

Blick vom Capitolio in Havanna über die Altstadt
view ofCapitolio in Havanna over the old part of town

important agricultural products are among other things sugars, tobacco, Rum, Zitrusfrüchte, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, beans and cattle.

General

Cuba ranks among the last existing socialist national economies. To the end of the USSR it came with the omission of the most important trade partner of Cuba 1991 to an economic crisis (mentioned período especial EN época de paz = special period in times of peace; briefly: período especial /Sonderperiode), which persists until today.The Eastern Bloc had bought of Cuba agricultural products over the market price and had carried financial assistances out, however the USSR paid last 5 billion dollar annually (to the comparison: the today's gross national product of Cuba lies in an order of magnitude of approximately 30 billion dollar annually). Because of thatlarge economic difficulties was the US Dollar starting from 1993 official currency beside the peso, but since that 8. November 2004 is replaced the US Dollar by the peso Convertible.

The desolate economic situation forced the government to free market reforms, around the basic supply thatTo guarantee population. Second more productive landlord sheep range with free market elements developed apart from the inefficient planned economy. For the first time small innovative family and a person enterprises certified, some state enterprises were led after economical realizations and farmers were allowed to sell a part of their produced goods themselves.In order to approach fast to foreign capital and use the location advantages as relative cheap wage country without work councils and free trade unions, the government even foreign enterprises on Cuba permitted to invest, tlw. as Joint ventures with state enterprises. Critics accuse, thus one to the governmentTo operate sellout of the country. The foreign enterprises may not select themselves their coworkers however, on the contrary these are assigned to them by the state. Their wages are for the government a welcome source of income. The foreign employers must the wages of their CubanCoworkers in dollar to the government pay, that pays off then - after the completely utopian official course - converted the amount in pesos. In this way the government retains 95% of the wages. Despite high punishments also that flowersBlack market, since it satisfies the needs of the inhabitants better than the planned economy.

The growth of the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) recovered since the economic crisis from 1993 (0.7%) on 3% in the year 2004. Production does not have however yet the conditions of thecold war again reaches. Of Cuba foreign trade balance is strongly negative, the country must more goods import than it to export can.

Due to a continuous, George W. Bush did not intensify US blockade politics and the rejecting attitude of western nations opposite socialist countries, have CubaEntrance to long-term investment loans on the world financial markets, but must borrow itself funds with low running times to high interest (up to 20%).

The national indebtedness remains in the international comparison nevertheless on a low level and was in the year 2005 about 13 to14 billion Dollar.

Agriculture

in the agriculture is the sugar still the most important Expportgut, followed of the tobacco. Sugar production was reduced however from 9 million tons before the revolution to the today's Tiefststand of 2.5 million tons. Stillmust food be imported.


In the meantime

nickel production at meaning wins Bodenschätze, here affects itself the up-to-date high steel prices favorably.

Tourism

like many other developing countries tries to come Cuba over the tourism to foreign exchange and higher public revenues. Many consumer goods, restaurants,Beaches and hotels are in the meantime only tourists reserved. Thus also a rapid propagation of the prostitution went, above all also to the opportunity prostitution. Individual tourism and close contact for population are if possible prevented. An important branch is also the health tourism, manyHumans come to Cuba and let themselves in particularly hospitals furnished for it economically be treated, these hospitals are also to functionaries of the party and officers free of charge at the disposal.

Industry

Cuba possesses a highly developed biotechnology and has as the first country in the world of vaccinesagainst Meningitis B, Meningitis C and hepatitis B develops. (Land information). The biotechnology promoted biological cultivation methods in the agriculture from lack of energy as well as synthetic fertilizers and plant treatment means. A likewise highly developed Pharmaindustrie markets world-wide relatively numerous Cuban patentson medicines.

Since July 1960

a comprehensive economic , handels and a financial blockade exists foreign trade and commercial embargo on the part of the USA against Cuba, officially as commercial embargo designation, which offend in different regard against international law. With that 1992 issued Torricelli act one becameAggravation of the sanctions imported, followed of that 1996 into force stepped helmet Burton act.
The embargo is not nation ratified by the United. The UN-general assembly adopted a resolution which brought in by the Cuban minister of foreign affairs Felipe Pérez Roque in November 2000 thoseAbolition of all sanctions against Cuba demanded (167 voices dafür/3 dissenting votes (the USA, Israel, Marshall Islands) /4 abstentions)< ref> NIC oils Winfield:UN of passport Cuba resolution Calling for end ton to US embargo on - Again Associated press 9. November 2000< /ref>. This was to 4. November 2003 alreadya similar resolution of the UN-general assembly vorrausgegangen which with 179 voices, 3 dissenting votes (the USA, Israel, Marshall Islands) and 2 abstentions one accepted. This was already the 12. accepted UN-resolution since 1992, directed against the blockade politics of the USA<, ref> Cuba SI:The international community condemned thoseBlockade of the USA against Cuba Prensa Latina, United Nations, 4. Novembre 2003< /ref>.

There the embargo also on food and medicines refers represents it an injury of the UN-Charter. For Cuba by the blockade damage developed so far amounts to approx.82 billion US Dollar< ref> Felipe Pérez Roque:Speech of the Minister for foreign affairs of the Republic of Cuba before the UN-general assembly 2005 New York, 8. November 2005< /ref>.

The USA the tenth-most important trade partner and the Cuban government are annual nevertheless must food in the value of onehalf billion dollar from the country import around the supply of their population to ensure. By cash remittances of exile-Cuban municipalities in the USA to their relatives flow the Cuban national economy annually approx. 900 millions US Dollar too, which in something the incomes thatcorresponds to Cuban tourism industry. Cash remittances to member in Cuba were illegalisiert with resolution of the Torricelli act 1992.

Between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

traffic

special period

the Cuban traffic one met by the special period at the beginning of the 1990er heavily. By the collapse of the USSR and the Eastern Bloc at short notice no spare parts were more available and fuel could only on the world market against foreign exchangeare procured. Public traffic with courses and penalties had to be therefore strongly limited. The following strategies were developed:

  • More a-wisely at important junctions, the vehicles with the maximally possible number of persons occupy
  • conversion to ecological means of transport such as bicycle rikshas (in Cuba Bici taxi) and more saving
  • (manual) Schubabschaltung use of semitrailers (Camello),
  • converted pulled by tractors, to the transportation of passengers, by the economic recovery of Cuba

the situation to a large extent normalized itself Pferdekut Nachrüstung of vehicles with Sprit in the meantime.

Railway

the national railway company Ferrocarrilesde Cuba operates the only Eisenbahnnetz on a Caribbean island. It belongs to the oldest world-wide (since 1836) and covers approx. 4000km (without distances for Zuckertranport) s.h. Article to the railway on Cuba

traffic

Cuba has a well developed road system, whichby the small motorizing degree is only weakly traveled. Cross-country penalty by the enterprises Asto and Viazul are operated.

Navigation

the meaning of shipping is limited to driving connections to the Isla de la Juventud and further pre-aged islands, as well as ferries over the port baysfrom Cienfuegos and Havanna

the nickel mining industry in

the area Moa at the northeast coast causes environment and energy special environmental problems through ungenüged treated contaminated arrears. The age of many enterprises causes small kind of environmental protection condition and an unsatisfactory disposal of industrial wastes. The extensive employmentby chemistry in the agriculture by the lack of imported fertilizers one limited. Cuba became prominent thereby in the employment of internally developed ecological plant protection. The current supply is insufficient and trouble-prone. The power supply is based particularly on fossil fuels. Since thatEconomic crisis gives it regularly to current disconnections. However the situation improved oil deliveries by Venezuela niches. In the future the Stromversogung with new smaller power stations is to be decentralized and be transferred into the responsibility of the provinces. The lack of oil led to onePromotion of alternative energies (s.h. Traffic) and a radical program for the energy conservation. Thus e.g. became. the acquisition of air conditioning systems strongly limits and surface covering energy energy-savings lamp assigned.

Scarcity of raw materials causes also the small use of packing materials and the high Recyclingqoute. Cuba is thereforethe country with the best ecological balance in hold back-eat to kind of life condition.

Officially a comprehensive environmental law giving exists, but independent environmental protection organizations are missing. Like that the monitoring of the observance national places is reserved.

Standard of living

defiance of the problems lies the standard of living in Cuba according to that Human development index within the appropriate ranges still clearly over that nearly all Latin American countries as well as Russia and the People's Republic of China. Cuba has a lower child number of deaths rate, higher life expectancy in the comparison to the remainder of Lateinmerikas and parts of the remaining world andless illiteratism. At the end of January received to Cuba from the UN-Welternährungsprogramm a certificate, in which, the only country of Latin America and the Karibik without underfed children is confirmed to be. Iron deficiency symptoms would show only two per cent. Within other ranges prosperity growth stagnated orfell relatively behind other Latin American countries back (telecommunications, automobile supply, electricity and Nahrungsmittelversorgung). However could be stabilized by some reforms and modernizations the current supply in the year 2005. Within the yearly 2006 a continuous current supply is to be guaranteed, therefore 2006 became alsoappointed the “year of the revolution in the current supply”.

Many houses are old, recondition needy and overcrowded.

Still many consumer goods are rationed and even with the food maps often not available. Rare is above all meat. By far more strongly however the entrance worksfor foreign exchange particularly over tourism and used in the USA. Poverty did not completely disappear on Cuba. The wages and above all the pensions apply to the mass of the Kubaner as very small, so that most strivemust to earn in the informal sector somewhat in addition or measure from the production of their enterprises. Beside the state also the church operates a social net in the context of its possibilities. Social assistance outside of the state is not gladly seen however andas prevented as possible. Exceptions apply only to the political development assistance of the numerous solidarity associations outside of Cuba, which are ready to co-operate with the state.

Culture

Cuban music

major item: Cuban music

in Cuba numerous music styles and dances developed, the z. T. internationally spreadingfound. To them the Son, the Mambo , the Salsa , the Danzón , the Rumba , the Cha Cha Cha and the old and new Trova (Nueva Trova) belong.

By the removal of many south and central Americansinto the USA during the Second World War it came very fast to an easy mixture from Cuban rhythms and the jazz. After 1945 Cuban music also in west Africa very much one liked and affected the Highlife.

Increasing influence winsworld-wide the Reggaeton, modern Cuban music of usually juvenile groups. The Reggaeton in Puerto Rico and Panama has its origin. Some these hits with usually slippery texts emerge recently even in European Charts.

Dance schools

in the following are renowned schoolslisted, the dancers train:

  • Conjunto Folklórico Nacional de Cuba
  • Escuela de Tropicana
  • ENIA - Escuela Nacional de Instructores de Arte
  • ISA - Instituto Superior de Arte

Cuban film

before the revolution of 1959 did not give it on Cuba an independent film production. The few films, which were produced on Cuba, copied the style of US-American productions. There were however in Havanna numerous large „film palaces “, in which all internationally well-known films were demonstrated. On the other hand many Kubaner in the rural regions that hadIsland never a film seen.

Only into the 1960er years developed its own Cuban film production. To 24. March 1959 was created due to a law, which is with the words „film art “begins, Cuban Filminstitut ICAIC. Until 1970 those existedFilm production however mainly from dokumentar, indication trick and instructional films. The 1964 in Cuba turned film Soy Cuba was a Soviet-Cuban Koproduktion with me-hurries Kalatosow as a director, those excluding Cuban Filmschauspieler and coworker of the film belongs to however in the further processthe founders rather of the French and Italian avant-garde film, then however very independent Cuban filming ILS affected. Directors such as Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (death of a Bürokraten - Muerte de un Burócrata, 1964) did not only lead under Cineasten to an internationalAcknowledgment of the Cuban film. 1977 already produced the ICAIC within a yearly of 10 evening-filling films and 61 Kurzfilme. Up to the economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990er years was the Cuban film and television production expressed productively, had then however due toShortage of money to be gone back in such a way that into the 1990er years by the foreign country, particularly by Spain financed films were nearly only manufactured, which reflects itself also in changed contents. Only recently it gives again its own Cuban film production,Strip such as Suite Habana [2] (direction: Fernando Pérez, 2003) the best traditions of the Cuban film continues. Remarkably the film Erdbeer and chocolate nominated for a OSCAR is skillful after a Kurzgeschichte of Senel Paz, that the topic Homosexualität inthe Cuban society brings up for discussion.

Toward end of the 1990er years by the film Buena Vista Social club was released by Wim of Wenders a genuine Cuba wave. Beside up to then already internationally modern Cuban music became now again the music that spread1940er years to the export hit. The film reports on the work of Ry Cooder with a group of Cuban musicians, who had already reached nearly everything the pensionable age.

Since 1986 there is from Gabriel the García Márquez with justified international universityfor film and television in San Antonio de loosely Baños, at which students from all world are trained, particularly however latin Americans and also Kubaner.

For film friends the attendance annually taking place festival of the Internacional del Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano is indispensablede La Habana [3], which makes a good view possible of the world of the Latin American film.

Cuban music and Cuban dances are to be found meanwhile everywhere in the world. Above all young people become enthusiastic for the Cuba wave. To seeis this also at films such as Dirty Dancing Havanna Nights and Havanna Blues.

Cuban literature

selection well-known Cuban writer:

media

due to the economic crisis of 1993 is the extensive offer,there at printed media (newspapers and books) and cinema on Cuba were, very strongly been going back, during other media such as television and Internet, if also not equally, increased. The Cuban media (medios de difusión masiva)state property is after chapter VI kind. 52. the condition of 1976. The entire medium nature serves according to also the propaganda of the state.

Press

the Cuban press stands under control of the government, the communist party of Cuba and the mass organizations (trade unions,Woman Mrs. etc.). The following Cuban newspapers, which have all also a partial multilingual Internet version, have the largest spreading degree. The newspapers and magazines have a great many readers despite their only gradually again rising editions, there them usually in thatNeighbourhood to be exchanged systematically among themselves.

independent journalism is also pursued consistently. In particularReports over the situation on Cuba or their passing on to foreign media is forbidden strengstens. On the other side the government strives to also prevent that citizens from Cuba-critical sources can inform; so no foreign publications may receive, radio if Martí, a Radiosender of the US Government in Spanish language become, partly one disturbs and Internet sides are filtered.

Watch television

give on Cuba three national television stations, which will receive from the entire population can. One of it is a pure cultureand education transmitters. Almost all Cuban households order over, however every now and then very old, television sets. Since May 2005 the foreign version of the Cuban television Cubavisión over Astra (satellite) is to be received also in Europe. Since July 2005 the satellite transmitter radiates teleSUR its programfor Latin America out, in which Cuba with 19% insert is involved.

Radio

beside numerous Radiosendern with mixed programs and pure music transmitters gives it the channel belonged much to radio Reloj (radio clock) with constant Zeitansage and more or less filtered 24-stündigenTickermeldungen of all international and national press agencies. Foreign transmitters can be received freely (with exception of the occasionally disturbed US propaganda transmitter radio Martí).

Internet

since the economic crisis of 1993 sets the Cuban government strengthened on Internet as means of communication. With the help of that UNESCO was already installed 1994 a Backbone for the whole island, which first of all was particularly for the binding of the physicians meant of current national and international medical data bases. Each Cuban physician has, as far as he has a computer, entrance possibilitiesto this system, which makes possible the limited entrance to international sources of information and the free use of E-Mail services via gateways also. The moreover there are Internet entrances in schools, enterprises, post office and also in private households. Private entrances must be requested and are so expensively that the broad mass of the population remains excluded from them. Practically he is applicable only for the Bestverdiener of the society, thus party officials.

The equipment of all schools with computers and the Internet use in many Cuban enterprises lead sincethe year 2000 to a constantly rising international communication traffic particularly over E-Mail. The E-Mail data traffic is however supervised.

For a tourist one hour in the Internetcafé between 6 and 10 costs peso convertible (dollar).

Myth Cuba

world-wide gives it with many humansfrom the radically left-wing edge to inside into the social-democracy one „myth Cuba “. The Cuban commonwealth is seen as (more ziger) a successful attempt of socialism, the model character not only for „the third world in such a way specified “has and it toodefend applies. The Cuban model has large sympathies also in far parts of south and Central America. Reasons for this are:

Equally the Cuban government becomesstraight of many Nichtlinken clearly rejected. In particular in the USA it is direct as one of the last bastions of communism before the entry door many a thorn in the eye. They state:

  • The high social and health standard were subsidized by the Eastern Blocand in all other respects is no justification for the dictatorship. In addition they can be kept upright no longer for a long time from the relatively weak economy.
  • Of Cuba commitment for the third world existed to substantial parts of the delegation of military troops inSupport to the Soviet foreign policy, which e.g. were helpful to the äthiopische military government to strike down Separatistenaufstände.
  • Of Cuba dictatorship is not by any means human, at the most in the comparison to the bloody early history of the revolution.
  • The Cuban government never granted the possibility to the Kubanern, over bases of theirTo co-ordinate politics or vote it out; their support by the today's population is uncertain.
  • The conflict with the USA was caused by Castro and is kept awake from it, because it needs it, in order to justify its repression measures.

Differences of theseKind contribute in appropriate media to a very much ideologisierten and difficult argument.

See also

literature

  • Jürgen bright: Short history of the Cuban people. Dietz, Berlin 1966.
  • Fernando Mires: Cuba - the revolutionis no island. Hamburg 1984, ISBN 3-880-22187-1
  • Michael Zeuske: Island of the extremes. Cuba in 20. Century. Publishing house of point of red, Zurich 2004. ISBN 3-858-69208-5

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sources

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Coordinates: 20°-23° N, 74°-84° W

 

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