|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see culture (term clarifying).|
Culture (lat. cultura, thus care (the body, but primarily the spirit), later in the context with the agriculture, out colere, cultivate, () live, maintain, honour, originallyits) the whole of the human achievements is about emsig busy. This includes on the one hand physical things such as tools , in addition, the change of nature, the mental bringing out of mankind caused by humans such as writing and art as well as thosesocial organization forms, in which humans live together. The term of the culture stands to that extent in connection with the term of the civilization and that it for receiving human work. The term is on the one hand generally referred to mankind as a whole, on the other hand howeveralso as summary of the life circumstances of a certain Ethnie or region (for example the European culture) or a historical phase (e.g. the minoische culture). Early cultures have crucially with the social practice of the nutrition of their carriers to do (hunter Hirten/Nomaden or farmer culture).
Table of contents
thatCulture term in the German language
- derived from latin “cultus”: Cult, “care”, handling over-crept powers: the whole of the mental and artistic life expressions of a community and/or. a Ethnie and - related to individual humans - its education, Gesittung and way of life.
- Derived from latin “cultura”: the care and land development of the soil; the efforts plants or micro organisms grow and to be increased to be able.
Culture marks the sum of all efforts to satisfy the basic needs of human nature. The aids, as well as those are enclosedYields of this achievement (e.g. Implements, techniques, moral, religious and political orders).
the following popular
definition gives further definition options to William James Durant in its work (culture history of mankind). This culture term leaves prähistorische culture blank:
- „Cultureis social order, which favours creative activities. Four elements build it up: Economic precaution, political organization, moral traditions and striving for science and art. It begins, where chaos and uncertainty end. Curiosity and invention spirit become free, if the fearis defeated, and humans walk from natural drive the understanding and the adornment of the life against.“
Is after Albert Schweitzer culture „progress, material and mental progress of the particulars like the Kollektivitäten „. The progress exists „firstin the fact that for the particulars as for the Kollektivitäten the fight becomes lowered around the existence „. A last goal of the culture is after Albert Schweitzer „the mental and moral completion of the particular „:
- „The fight around the existence is indoubly. Humans have themselves to state in nature and against nature and likewise among humans and against humans. A reduction of the fight around the existence is reached by the fact that the rule of the reason over natureas well as over human nature in greatest possible and most appropriate way spreads. The culture is thus double after their nature. It carries out itself in the rule of the reason over the natural forces and in the rule of the reason over thosehuman convicitions.“(Albert Schweitzer, Kultur and Ethik, ISBN 3406392504, S. 35)
In principle culture understood as triad of art, religion and science. Strictly speaking the following ranges can be subordinated: Language, ethics, as well asthe functions of the society religion, art, economics, science and iurisdiction.
Intercultural communication understands a valid sense system or the whole divided with one another of the behavior-determining meanings by culture. Knowledge-sociologically one would know a culture also as oneMark collectively common “knowledge”, i.e. when expectations embodied in the consciousness of its members became regarding usual behaviors, value attitudes, social interpretation samples and conceptions of the world of culture-creative developed and to common property/knowledge. In support to it Anthropologen and Semiotiker developed such as Geert Hofstede or Edward T. Resound so-called culture models, with whose assistance they characterize and schematize cultural thought pattern.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe went even so far that in its culture term „neither the clothes nor the Ess and drinking habits, neither history norphilosophy, neither arts nor the science, neither the children's games nor the proverbs, neither the climate nor the landscape forms, neither the economy nor the literature, neither the political nor the private still the reference to ‚damage by clearing the mountains'are missing.“
Apart from the definition specified above there is generally linguistic usage a further use of the word in the sense of cultivationness, which faces always however Unkultiviertheit, which it - there culture of all enclosure actually does not give.
Different definitions of the termreflect different theories of the evaluation and the understanding of human doing.1952 has Alfreds Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn a list of over 200 different definitions in its book (Culture: A Critical Review OF Concepts and definition) gathered.
Inthe North American cultural anthropology (in the English social science social anthropology corresponds) culture (“culture”) is used often equivalently to society (“society”) (particularly at master companies, anthropology , Ethnologie and sociology compares).
the wordCulture comes from latin. Latin word cultura means agriculture, field order, cultivated country (decreasing/going back on the verb colo, colui, cultus - maintained) - as contrast to nature - and in such a way became the word culture to in 19. Centuryused, while for the today's meaning of the term culture finds by the majority the word art its application.
emergence of the culture
the four crucial steps of humans on the way to the culture nature (Hominisation) the perhaps following was,whereby the transition from the natural cannot be separated to the cultural advancement sharply and the sequence does not have to be chronological.
- Die Entwicklung der Sprache (=>Language culture)
- the extensive use of tools
- the Zähmung of the fire
- the development of explicit rules and forms of theLiving together (religion, ethics, Diakonie and medicine iurisdiction)
development of the culture term
scholar 18. and 19. Century and many humans of today's time set culture equal with civilization and see both contrary to nature.Thus humans, to who elements of an advanced culture were missing, were nature-connected often as, designated natively and in the negative sense as uncivilized. The elevated culture was criticized or also defended, since it suppresses human nature. Culture in demarcation to the Barbarei was andis partly today still defined than the absence of economic necessity and stress of the ritual one, so e.g. a table as contrast too excluding “more meaningfully” assembly, covered according to all rules of the art.
In late 19. To century Anthropologen pleaded for a broader definitionthe term culture. They wanted to be able to apply the word to a multiplicity of different societies. They argued, the culture would correspond to human nature. The culture has its roots in the human ability to evaluate attempts systematically and their results in writingto pass on and language.
Therefore humans, who live separately from each other, develop singular cultures. Nevertheless elements of different cultures can spread today easily from a group of people to another.
It became thus necessarily, methodically and theoretically more useful definitions of the word culture toodevelop.
The Anthropologen differentiates between
- a material culture and
- a symbolic culture (writing and language).
The difference does not only reflect different human activities. One needs also different research methods, in order to describe and examine both ranges. In thatThe archaeologists on the material culture and the Kulturanthropologen concentrate rule on the symbolic culture. Both want to however finally know also, how these two ranges are connected.
In addition the term culture for the Anthropologen does not only refer to it, howGoods to be used, but also whereupon, how they are produced and how they become important for humans. The Anthropologen wants to understand by it also the social relations and ways of acting, into which the things of the daily life are included.
Culture became in times of paging and the change also a mode word: Culture is produced at large expenditure as Event and made consumable as an economical pulse generator (“cult Uralsism “).
financing the public expenditures in the sense of the culture in Germany of approx. 8.4 billion euro in the year 2001 on approximately 7,88 billion euro in the year 2004, whereby the countries and municipalities approximately twice as much like the federationsaved.
- to list of the cultures world-wide
- intercultural authority
- culture capitalism
- cult Uralsism
- culture viennaism
- cultural creative
- culture industry
- culture area
- culture marketing
- of culture models
- culture shock
- agricultural engineering
- culture and development
- Albert Schweitzer: Culture and ethics. ISBN 3406392504
- Thomas Baumer: Manual intercultural authority (2 volumes). Publishing house Orell Füssli, Zurich. ISBN 3-280-02691-1 and ISBN 3-280-05081-2
Web on the left of
- which is: Culture? (Lecture of Oskar Negt)
- Hakan Gürses:Critical remarks on the culture term
- biology and culture (pdf file)
- the simulation of the culture of Stanisław Lem
- the culture term between coherency and difference
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|Wiktionary: Culture - word origin, synonyms and translations|
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