Art

of these articles treats the general term art in the aesthetic field. To the school subject art see Kunstpädagogik. To the term art in the mining industry see miner language.

the term art has in the course of history and in differentAnd does it always changes cultures its meaning still. He is discussed intensively by artists, art theoreticians, historians, philosophers, sociologists and the public. Often the term art is used also with the meaning “work of the forming art”. Art is a culture product,a bringing out of humans, which result of a creative process, at whose end either the “work of art” stands or also - as since the modern trend - which process is rated as result. Each culture therefore brought art out.

Since the clearing-up(see below: History of the art term) one understands the styles of the so-called by art above all. “Beautiful arts”:

Möbeldesign: Sekretär, Schloss Karlsruhe
Furniture Design: Secretary, lock Karlsruhe

special in thatThe styles and techniques with beginning of the modern trend - for instance with the photography and later the media art - extended forming art strongly. For a description in more detail see article screen end art. With the representing arts leave themselves todayalso the styles of the new media to it-count, in sound broadcasting, television and Internet.

A so-called synthesis of the arts unites the styles of several arts. Synästhesie one calls overlaps of sensory perceptions, in the arts about “tone quality “in the music or“Color sound “in the painting.

Table of contents

Etymologie and word use

art is a German word. Already in the old high German it read „art “(Plural „kunsti “), in the medium high German „art “and/or. „arts “(Pl.). Art a Substantivabstraktum is original to the verb „can “with the meaning“what one controls; Knowledge, knowledge, teachings, championship ". The idiom “art comes from ability” is thus etymologisch, the word origin after, correctly. The meaning and use of the word in the writing and scholar language were affected however strongly by Latin acre (Leaning meaning). Particularly since the modern times the term becomes increasingly ambiguously, because apart from “old” uses of the word (in the sense of “theory, knowledge”) “new” step (in the sense of “autonomous, beautiful arts”).

Sebastiano Ricci: Allegorie of the arts, 1690-1694

the term Art is therefore used and:

In the sense of knowledge, recognizing, realization, insight
since that 16. Century is not only used art for the description of a knowledge, which term just as synonymously used for philosophy, in addition, (nature) the sciences. Luther differentiates between the good arts, with which he means the theory of the gospel, of the free arts, the antique „artes liberal “(see below).
In the sense of talent
talents were meant within a field of activity as well as the whole of oneTalent (equitation, cook art, fencing art) or activity. These arts receive a negative Konnotation, if with it lists or skillful deceptions are meant (thief arts, adornment arts, black art, seduction art or charm art). From the meaning field of the adjustments also that comesAdjective „gekünstelt “.
In the sense of handicraft
in the word arts and crafts are today still the handicraft. To in 18. Century was used art also as synonym for the practice of a handicraft. Kept this use in words such as Flechtkunst, Töpferkunst. With Kant the separation of the terms can be finally stated: „In engern the sense handicraft and art are distinctive, obwol it at close contact, Verflieszen of both are not missing exactly (see. Arts and crafts): the art is differentiated from the handicraft,first heiszt free, the other one can also wage art heiszen “.
Among other things in the sense of
science since Leibniz one knows the designation of scientific disciplines as „language art (Grammatica), speech art (Rhetorica), fair art (Geometria), proof art (Logica), custom art (Ethica), Sehkunst (Optica), dismembering art (Anatomia), separating art (Chymia). “.Soon however the art is differentiated from the science. Goethe means in addition: „Art and science are words, which one so often needs and whose exact difference is understood rarely, one used often one for the other one, and strike then approximatelyother definitions forwards: I think, one could call science the knowledge of the general one, which would be taken off knowledge, art against it science to that used. Science would be reason, and art their mechanism, therefore one it also practical science to call could.and so science the theorem, art the problem would be finite. “
As contrast to nature
not least as a result of the clearing-up and their new nature term art becomes as contrast to nature, when artificially in place of natural understood.Today one does not use the prefix art as name for „naturally “: Art fur, plastic, art flower, art eye etc.
In the sense the most frequent sense used
by beautiful arts art in the today's, at became conceptually particularly of angle man, Lessing, Herder, Goethe and Schiller coined/shaped. In their aesthetic writings they describe themselves the human bringing out for the purpose of building as art, are it in the theatre, in the literature, in the music or the works „educating artist “, onthe term finally increasingly narrows. So art has itself also as prefix for word formations such as art exhibition, work of art, art auction etc. developed.
In the sense of machine
starting from that 18. Century develops in addition a meaning line, the art as name fora machine or a by machine manufactured article uses (fire art for fire syringe, steam art for steam engine, hydraulic architecture for jumping well plants). Particularly devices for “promoting” loads in the mining industry are called art.
In the jokeful sense of back
for the sake of completeness is not to be concealed that the word in 16. and 17. Century was used funful for „back part “. Latin there art (art is called in latin of acre) was jokeful called, what into the old high German and medium high German likewise still acre was called and todayass became.


history of the art term

a short history of the forming art contains the article screen end art. One receives an entrance to the individual specialized portals, which concern themselves with the different arts, in the portal: Art andCulture.

prehistory

Venus von Willendorf, ca. 25.000 v. Chr.
Venus of will village, approx. 25,000 v. Chr.

Art is from the origin a ritual feature, which developed from the premature religions. Both painting and sculpture, and music and dance and sealstep already into the Vorzeit in feature and remain bound into earlyhistorical time to the cult. Architecture in stone begins before 11,000 years with the round temples in the Levante. Historically the arts from their contribution developed tomaterial organization of cults and rituals. In the early period of human development the occurrence of art is one of several indicators for the formation of consciousness and human thinking. Art means in this connection performing (e.g. Make music) or representations,no direct use for life support to recognize leave. Prähistori finds of music instruments, Statuetten and cave painting probably stand all in connection with first religious cults. With today's nature peoples the early cult function of artistic styles can be studied just as howa anthropologische constant: to decorate the need (itself), which developed in the ornamentation first. Sociological functions of artistic in addition are discussed and/or. ornamental arranged artifacts such as clips, booklets, weapons etc. in the clan companies of the pre and early history.Thus art functions since earliest time also as Distinktionsmerkmal, as it is discussed by the recent art theory and - sociology. Since the prehistory is by definitionem a writingless epoch, there are no excessive quantities of a contemporary art term.

Antique

Egypt, approx. 1422-1411 v. Chr.

From the early to the late antique cultures, of the Egyptian old person realm over the classical Greece up to late Rome, are received an abundance from works of art: Architecture, sculptures, Fresken and small art.That they are called such, is however anachronism, because at present to its emergence painting and sculpture were considered to artists not as art, but as handicraft, their products as products of handicrafts, not however. The theatre was already far and respected, but substantially a component of ritual actions develops. Free arts (artes liberal) in the antique one those knowledge and abilities were called, which should be to a free man - not however slaves - at the disposal. Marcianus Capella (around 400 before Chr.) divided altogether seven arts in two groups: the Trivium contained grammar, dialectic and Rhetorik; the Quadrivium covered geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music. Of the beautiful arts in the modernSense was thus alone the music in the antique one a recognized art. Low handicraft were against it the mechanical arts which had to be implemented with the hand, under what evenly also the painting or the sculpture fell.

The antagonism of art, which predominantly develops from the spirit, and in the forming art over 2000 years always will again differently manifest itself art, which must be manufactured manually, from the Paragone in the Renaissance (the contest of the art kinds, which the noblest) over the German idealism 18 is from all. Century and its portion of the modern art term (that technical being able only as banal tools of the artist understands its idea expression to lend) up to the concept art of the sixties of the20. Century, which completely decouples the artistic idea of the implemented artifact.

the Middle Ages

Septem artes liberal (around 1180)

with pagings of the people migration time dissolved the antique art life in Europe as well as. The medieval art term takes overhowever the pattern that artes mechanicae like that artes liberal, the free arts (philosophical) of the basic study, which were presupposed in the three large faculties theology , jurisprudence and medicine. The screen end an artist craftsman is still andin guilds like all other occupations organizes. As an individual it goes the signature of a work into action , is uncommon rarely. Client for nearly all artistic productions - painting, sculpture, music, theatre - is the church. In smaller measure leavesalso the feudale aristocracy give works of art in order. Everyday and sakrale styles , picture types, music forms etc. develop. If one represented naturalistisches people picture in the antique one still another and tried to copy nature as well as possible then defined yourself beauty in the Middle Ages overthe mental (religious) content of a representation, as it was recognized of the scholastics as beauty of God, which should reflect itself in the art.

modern times

the value of the forming art and the work of the artist change inthe modern times with the transition to a civil society: Where on behalf by church and aristocracy works are before usually created, a new type of recipient grows up with the formed art collecting tank. This process begins first in Italy with the early Renaissance and15 sits down starting from center. Century in completely Europe away. The cities erstarken and with them the buyers, who demonstrate their new position in the Feudalgesellschaft with art. The artist emancipated, discovers himself as subject, and createsWorks, whose principal purpose is not any more the representation of faith contents or the power of a prince, but the expert debate over draft, execution and Könnerschaft. Thus highly complex ikonographische picture and architecture programs develop to solve those a task for thatArt public becomes. A new literary kind develops: Art literature, letter over artists and art. The now autonomous artist thinks about his role, which is made public in the forming art in the so-called Paragone. The Wiedergeburt, those in the term Renaissance is addressed, refers to renewed tying to the classical antique one, on whose people picture and nature term art production develops. In the music and literature non-church works flower.

The reformation forces the attenuation of the Roman-catholic church as most importantClient of the artists, which is answered on the council by Trient with a detailed Gegenkonzept. The necessity for a catholic Gegenpropaganda puts the basic stick for the explosion of artistic production in music and forming art in the baroque.

Clearing-up

in the second half 18. and at the beginning 19. Century, in the age of the clearing-up, the formed circles paintings , sculptures and architecture , as well as literature began and To discuss music as art in the today's sense of word. Topic-connecting the aesthetics in demarcation was justified to the ugly one as category for the qualification of works of art. Liberty became gradual the ideal for politics, science as well as for the literature developing as independent rangesand art. The aspect relating to crafts of artistic work lost at meaning. With the German idealism the idea stood over the artifact. One of the most important conditions for this process was the secularization accelerated by the Industrielle beginning revolution.

The differentiation betweenLiterature and art was the result briefly before of the literature discussion begun, which was not concerned no more with all mental work, but novels, dramas and poems as literature in a changed sense of word summarized. In the tendency to address a larger public becamethe term art first on paintings and sculptures narrows, on articles, those in the newspapers and magazines - the journals, it since early 18. Century gave, was introduced and judged. A common review nature developed. The terms Work, original and genius as styles of the individuality of the artist were coined/shaped by Kant. One differentiated between internal and outside pictures. Internal pictures were for example language, conceptions and the ideas, express however furnishings, buildings or relating to craftsmanufactured things.

In accordance with the liberty thought the screen end artist is no more obligated to a client, but produced independent for a again developing art market. Thus on the one hand the topics, those change themselves instead of religious and mythologischer motives, haven-guessed/advised and Allegorie nowfor example also cover descriptions from the working sphere of the arising industrial capitalism. On the other hand develop individual styles, which serve not least as brand names, modern spoken as marketing instrument of the competitive artists. Also composers such as Mozart say good-bye from firm employmentswith lay or church princes. This new liberty is connected with appropriate risks, the romantic picture of the artist become impoverished, connected with the genius term is the results.

modern trend

screen end art: Egon squints: Selfhaven-guessed/advised (1912)

the clearing-upprepared the art term of the modern trend . Emanzipierte at the end of the Middle Ages of the artists to the autonomous subject, then emanzipierte itself at the end of the baroque Feudalismus the work of art and became autonomous. In the age of machines, division of labor and automation changeditself the status of work relating to crafts in the art. Art does not exist now any longer in function connections, but one l'art alone from itself, to L'art pour. The art forms remaining in function connections assemble under the new generic term arts and crafts or Applied art.

So far if art styles and epoch designations were additional the respective art work attached terms in the forming art, then coin/shape now artists or their this-italic counter and fellow player, the new group of the art critics, their categories: countless develop,partially parallel Ismen.

With the beginning of the modern trend at the same time the antagonism of the Gegenmoderne begins. Goods up to the clearing-up the addressees for art only a very small circle ( the Klerus, the aristocracy, the rich middle class),thus the public with the emergence to free-accessible of the art market, the public exhibitions organized to its promotion (“salons) extends and the debates opened in the press over art, in great quantities shifted literature etc. considerably. Those concentrated at the same timeartistic argument both in forming art and the music or literature ever more strongly on the investigation of the own developing conditions. In the measure, in which the art brought up for discussion itself (Metakunst), lost it the interest of the broad layers, thoseit as avant-garde to actually precede wanted.

Before conflicts remained around art internal and e.g. were. patriotic nature (Florentini Disegno versus Veneziani Colore) or a question of the taste (carrotists versus Poussinisten, controversy of the Anciens et modern etc.), sorefuse now whole parts of the society of the art of their time the acceptance. A Gegenmoderne, which looks for itself their own styles, develops among other things in the backwards-turned Kitsch and in the anachronism, in different Neoklassizismen or in the active Diffamierung the modern trend.

This Diffamierung in the national socialism, which tried to meet art the classical modern trend degenerated with the key word generally speaking , reaches a high point: by professionals disqualification, high niche presentations up to the physical destruction. Starting from November 1936 became after andafter all departments of the art early 20. Century in the German museums dissolved. In the Soviet Union developed in the 20's, with beginning of the Stalinismus the anti-modern reflex wins still as in a revolutionary manner felt avant-gardes the constructionalism and Suprematismusthe over hand and leads to socialist realism in literature, forming art and music.


postmodernism

the postmodernism opinion of art questions partially the ideas of liberty, originality and authenticity again, sets consciously quotations of other artistsand connects historical and contemporary styles, materials and methods and different art kinds . Art enterprise and places of issue are analyzed from a Metaebene (White Cube). The borders between Design, Popkultur and subculture on the one hand and advanced culture on the other hand blur.

Contemporary art “, “art of the present” and similar comprehensive terms only very generally seize present-referred art. The term artistic avant-garde is not outdated, there for the art developing since beginning of the postmodernism it in open societies and cultures a generally binding directionfor a Vorhut or for outriders to give can. Therefore the term “contemporary art” is used also for the rewriting for artistic work or actions, which makes so perceptible in the present somewhat that they work culturally importantly into the future. Inthis sense free and contemporary art ignores apparently all conditions to work on and use academic rules and organizations to reflect all art styles, art sections and cultural borders, while she takes herself the liberty at the same time, it depending upon artistic need.

Such one Art represents a certain “system art”, which developed similarly the certain “system science” in the course of the industrialization. Contemporary art as global and interculturally functioning system unites the origins in different cultures, whereby for the abendländische history of art the antiqueremains particularly important for Greek philosophy as historical basis. Also contemporary art leaves conventional organizations, like painting, sculpture, dance, music, theatre etc. shine through, are characterised however straight by their bringing up for discussion, in question position, overcoming, extension, interdisciplinary integration and Ironisierung. Todaystand photography and performance beside painting and theatre, while the media arts locate themselves anyway in such a way, as it is medium fair in each case and pertinent.

Similarly as in the science the comprehensive understanding of the possible meanings of works and work is often openedonly by detailed occupation with the artistic article. It is interpreted in different contexts, itself depending upon viewer and reader, depending upon public and into the happening the including, as well as depending upon interests of the critics and other professional mediatorschange and differentiate. In the art theory the contemporary art term is discussed intensively. It places thereby both the artist, the recipient, the art market or the work of art in the center of the investigation. In the course of the globalization on the one hand an increased dialogue developeddifferent art trends in all world, on the other hand one regional differences were tendentious levelled.

conditions and functions

with the question, which biological bases the art need of humans has, and/or. which psychological, sociological, economic and political functions art for humans and the society has, is generally occupied biology, the art sociology, the psychology, the jurisprudence and the culture sciences .


biology

the rapid development of life sciences led to the fact that also higher cognitive achievements of theHumans in the biologsichen disciplines to be examined. Of it also the artistic organization need and the aesthetic feelings are not excluded. Biological investigations with reference to the art take place in particular in the evolution theory and the neuro science .

In evolution biology behaviors becomeusually over a selection advantage explains. A such explanation sample seems only with difficulty applicable regarding art, since is not directly understanding, how the evolutionary advantage of the artistic work could look. Art forms are nevertheless in all historical epochsand culture ranges, which points out that an art need is biologically given and not alone a result of social coinage. For the biological anchorage of the art need two different explanations can be offered. On the one hand one can state that the art need hide oneSelection advantage offers, approximately regarding strengthening the social community. In addition, on the other hand the hypothesis can be represented that the art need is a by-product (Epiphänomen) of the development of survive-relevant, cognitive achievements. According to this theory art production haseven no selection advantage, however one did not abolish, since it has also no disadvantage and a necessary consequence other cognitive processes is.

An empirically occupied decision between these two theories is not foreseeable. On the one hand the evolution-theoretical explanation is more complex more kognitverAchievements in principle high-speculatively, on the other hand is to be assumed the art need is at least to parts also the product of the cultural and social evolution. Biological explanation beginnings are here if necessary slightly applicable.

Another aspect of the biological study of the art need supports itselfon the neuro sciences. An at the most roughly realizable project is thereby the allocation of artistic work to neural processes. Different neural areas become actively with different cognitive processes, however a firm allocation is not possible: Neural activity is fundamental on differentDistributes brain regions, besides the same regions become with very different cognitive achievements actively. In addition the enormous heterogeneity of artistic activity comes. It leads to the fact that if necessary individual artistic achievements with neural processes can be correlated.

psychology

victory mouth Freudsaw in the art - also generally strives how in each activity for creation or power gain - the attempt to compensate the impulse of the Libido in non-sexual way.

legal position

art is a feature in everyoneCulture, the subject of social conventions and - if a society develops a right nature - an object of the legislation. In democratic countries the right to art liberty is embodied or in the context of the liberty of opinion guaranteed either in the condition. In numerous othersStates the art practice is reglementiert and/or instrumentalisiert for propaganda purposes. In dictatorships art is used frequently purposefully to stabilize the respective regime. Free artistic expression is subjected to a censorship and is suspended Repressionen. Become partial the national, social or religiousRequirements to that extent inside light that the artist on his part produces affirmative works (shears in the head).

, Imitate and strongly of other artists affected works and give there were plagiarisms in each phase of the history of art. If the producer hides its models,this is just as punishable as art falsification as an injury of copyright. In order to make such an injury legally understandable, by the legislator criteria are introduced, which do not play a role in the art enterprise. So can from the view of copyrightArtist a work only as its property designate if it reached a creation height. This presupposes a personal, individual and mental (human) creation, which possesses a form perceptible by the human senses. (see work term of copyright concerning. thatCreation height).

literature

art and screen end art generally
  • Hans George Gadamer: The topicality of the beautiful one. Art as play, symbol and celebration, Ditzingen 1977 (Reclam)
  • Nelson Goodman: Ways of the world production, Frankfurt/Main 1990
  • Nelson Goodman: Languages of the art. Draft of a symbol theory, Frankfurt/Main 1997
  • John Dewey: Art as experience, Frankfurt/Main 1998
  • Dieter Henrich and Wolfgang Iser (Hrsg.): Theories of the art, Frankfurt/Main 1999
  • Andreas Mäckler: 1460 answers to the question: what is art? 1000 answers, Cologne 2000
  • Michael house cellars: What is art? Positions of the aesthetics from Platon to Danto, Munich 2002
  • Umberto Eco: The open work of art, Frankfurt/Main2002
  • Martin Seel: Aesthetics of the appearance, Frankfurt/Main 2003
  • George W. Bertram: Art. A philosophical introduction, Ditzingen 2005 (Reclam)
  • Wolfgang Ullrich: What was art? Biographies of a term, Frankfurt/Main 2005 (S. Fischer)
romance
non-European art

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