Art song

art song is called a kind of the song, itself the end 16. Century developed.

Table of contents

characteristics of the art song

formalone differentiates:

  • Simple Strophenlieder

melody and company is in each Strophe the same. In such a way produced total tendency extends over the whole song. Ex.: “The Zauberer”, W. A. Mozart

  • varied Strophenlieder

melody and company change in certain Strophen. Bsp: “The lime tree tree “from that, Franz thrust ore Durchkomponierte of songs the happening

  • always new

melody and company follow cycle “winter journey “. Bsp: “With the Njanja” from the cycle “child room”, Modest mash ensuring ski


The difference of the art song to the Volkslied consists mainly of it that the composer of the art song admits is, the Volksliedhowever without author exists. Vertonungen of lyric poetry are characteristic of art songs. They are sung on basis of a written adjustment, Volkslieder against it are verbally tradiert. Art songs are interpreted by trained singers, because the requirements for the voice are generally clearly higher in relation to a Volkslied.

Occasionally it comesforwards that Volkslied and art song turn into into one another.Franz thrust RTS song “the lime tree tree” from its cycle “winter journey” e.g. became. by a man choir version, which changed the dramatic Molltrübung into a Strophe simply, when the Volkslied admits “at the well before that gates”.

Turned around a Volkslied can also asArt song to be worked on.

history

the Middle Ages

the tradition of the Minnesangs from the Middle Ages forms the basis for the art song. Troubadours (Provence), Trouvères (north France) and Minnesänger (Germany) toned own texts in honours of the noble women and spoke it, usuallywith sound accompanies. Further typical instruments, which were played from other musicians to the company, were Fiedel, Dudelsack or Schalmei. Contents of hero and price songs were under-painted also with the harp.

Melodies were noted in square notation without indication of rhythm, the rendition took place also in writing thusnot purely from the memory.

The most important certifications for the development of the song remain the song handwriting, e.g. of one-eat.

baroque

in 17. Century developed the variant of the general bass song, which oriented itself at Monodie and opera air. The songs were muchfrequently in Strophenform held and as simple compositions put on, which should to be able to after-sing if possible each. The company took over the Cembalo as a forerunner of the piano, slowly decreased/went back the company decreasing/going back to the Middle Ages by the sounds .

Johann Sebastian brook wrote some religious songs in of Schemelli published Gesangbuch, under its works take songs however rather a subordinate on position.

classical period

the first third 18. Century registered a decrease of songs in favor of the air. The term “song” lost at clarity, which shows up also in the fact thatsometimes a solo song as “Aria” was called. Songs were considered as sung texts without high requirement for art. The type of the Strophenliedes is prevailing, to the text of the following Strophen no reference is generally taken. Songs were considered as simply, naturally, popular, and their melodies should according to the 1.Berlin song school, in that among other thingsC.P.E. Brook worked, easily sanglich and understandably its. It is new that the general bass company is replaced increasingly by a publicized company.

In the over-remained songs of the Viennese one notices classical period, who exist today still beside those the romance, clearly thereforethe influences of the operas.Joseph Haydn toned in London Canzonetten with characterizing pre and sequels and wrote also the hymn to “God receives to Franz the emperor”, whose melody is today the basis for the national anthem. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote opportunity compositions with different stylistic characteristics. It composesbeside the usual Strophenliedern also for the first time songs, which work like small opera scenes (e.g. “The violet”, “as Luise the letters of their ungetreuen lover burned”).Ludwig van Beethoven oriented itself first to the 2. Berlin song school. At its songs it was new that it actually attemptsundertook to express feeling contents of the texts instead of remaining at a festgefügten form. Its work “to the far loving “sets a clear impulse toward song cycle.

romance

the German art song strictly speaking developed in 19. Century with thatGeneral agents Franz thrust ore, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and Hugo wolf.

Franz thrust ore extended the conventional term of the art song to a considerable degree. The Strophenlied prevailing so far extended by it to the varied Strophenlied, but likewise are completely through-composed songs in its work.The accompanying piano emanzipierte itself completely from the singer and created so a richer Gegenpart to the melody. For thrust RTS of songs it is typical that he repeats usually a characteristic figure. In highest increase in “Gretchen at the Spinnrade”, in that permanent the even rotation is to be heardthe Spinnrades in the piano voice one represents. Its two large song cyclesthe beautiful Müllerin “(1823) and “winter journey “(1827) on texts of William Mueller are traditional to today gloss lights of the song literature and Prüfstein for each male singer, althoughLudwig or Jessye Norman the “ winter journey ” already interpreted also large singers such as Christa. The “swan singing “covers songs from the last work time thrust RTS.

Its songs became finally in such a way admit that one transferred the German word “song” to other languages (French: “Le song”,English: “The song”). The art song is specifically named, which experienced an enormous revaluation by thrust ore. The Vertonung of a song obtains new creative value.

Robert Schumann created the likewise meaning cycles “poet love apart from numerous songs, which were very closely composed at the literary collecting main,“OI. 48 and “woman love and - “OI live. 42. Its “song circle” OI. 39 over poems of Eichendorff is exactly the same as “Myrten” OI. 25 a contentwise directly connected collection of songs.

Johannes Brahms enriched and further these cycles around “the beautiful Magelone”a large number written at songs.

Hugo wolf composed likewise strongly oriented at the text. It called its songs also “poems for a Singstimme and a piano”. 1888 succeeded to it the break-through with its “Mörike songs “. A “Spanish song book” and a “Italian song book” belong likewiseto its works like numerous individual songs.

An advancement is the song and the song cycle with orchestra company (“orchestra song”), e.g. Gustav of mealsthe song of the earth “and the” songs of a driving associate “.

The art song finds abroad imitators, e.g.in Modest, and spreads mash ensuring ski and Claude Debussy increasingly as independent composition form.

modern trend

Arnold beautiful mountain resumed the kind of the song into the classical modern trend. Its contribution to the song cycle is “the book of the hanging gardens “OI. 15 upTexts of Stefan George, in addition it wrote individual songs, which point its way out from the lateromantic clay/tone language to the own free Atonalität beside the speechsinging-like Gurreliedern. In its later works the dissonance comes to the priority.

Alban mountain and Anton webers experimented in extremely short songs(15 seconds, 18 seconds) with the tonality and Atonalität, in order to find an own clay/tone language. The Singstimme loses increasingly in Sanglichkeit by unusual interval jumps.

Hanns Eisler did in its songs completely without locking cadences and breaks its songs off often abruptly. Its songsbring Song and art song with one another in connection. The often socialcritical text is the center of attention with it, which piano rather illustrating treated.

Paul Hindemith turned formally again the baroque time, wrote however in his own clay/tone language. Its cycle “the Marienleben “on textsby Rainer Maria Rilke tells history Biblical Maria after.

Wolfgang Rihm of toned texts of the schizophrenen Adolf Wölfli in its wolf lily the book. In the end of the cycle a duo comes for two Schlagzeuger before (“Wölfli works like mad”)

the song found abroad inspired composerslike e.g.Maurice Ravel, Leonard amber, Gabriel Fauré and Benjamin Britten and was established finally as independent kind.

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see also:

Wiktionary: Art song - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)