By the selection of the raw material, the manufacturing process and the admixture of additives technical characteristics of plastics leave themselves such as mouldability, hardness, elasticity, breaking strength, Temperature, thermostability and chemical stability within wide limits vary. Such molding materials provided with addition materials are then marked according to DIN EN ISO 1043 (thermoplastics) and according to DIN 7708 (thermosetting polymers). Plastics are processed to shaped parts , semi-finished material , fibers or foils.
Halfsynthetic plastics result from the processing of natural polymers (for example cellulose to Zelluloid). Synthetic plastics are produced by polymerization (polyaddition , polycondensation etc.) from a monomer. Raw material is usually GEC rack width units naphtha.
Plastic becomes colloquial and devaluing often as Plastics or plastics designates, even if the material is actually flexible. Therefore in the science the term of plastics is preferred.
Table of contents
characterisation after characteristics
- of plastics, which are enough from, to linear molecules existing. By energy input these materials will be able ductile to plastic and with different procedures to be processed. After the respectiveWorkpiece is again cooled down, keeps it its form. This process is reversible (frz. reversibly).
- Most of the plastics used today fall under this group. For simple consumer goods, packing etc. becomes frequent polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Polystyrene (HP) assigned. Technical parts are usually manufactured from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer (ABS) , Polyacetal (POM) , PP (Pa) , Polybutylenterephthalat (PBT) , Polyethersulfon (PES) , polycarbonate (PC) , Polyphenylensulfid (PPS) , polytetrafluorethylene (ptfe) , Polyetheretherketon (PEEK) or Polyimid (pi). In the building industry, in particular for roof sheets, window sections and pipes becomesoften the material polyvinyl chloride (PVC) uses, which is however usually modified with additives in the characteristics (hard or soft).
- In order not to produce new so far yet existing characteristics, also two or several thermoplastics can be mixed. This newPlastic is then a Polyblend.
- of plastics, which interlace spatially closely during the processing. This cross-linking takes place chemically between the molecules of the raw materials. This procedure is not reversible. As soon as a such material is interlaced, it can only mechanicallyare worked on. Thermosetting polymers are mostly hard and brittle.
- During heat effect thermosetting polymers do not become soft. Therefore they are used frequently for electricity installations. One of the most common and oldest plastics of this class is bakelite. Into this group also practically all synthetic resins fall as for example Epoxide.
- to the elastomers belong all kinds of interlaced india rubber. Cross-linking takes place for example via Vulkanisation with sulfur, by means of peroxides, metallic oxides or irradiation.
- The elastomers are weitmaschig interlaced and therefore flexible. Elastomersbecome not soft when warming up and are not not soluble in most solvents. Therefore they are used for sanitary articles or chemical gloves. The rubber mixture of motor-car tires is likewise an elastomer, this receives its characteristics by Vulkanisation.
- Examples of elastomers are Natural rubber (NR), acrylonitrile butadiene india rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene india rubber (SBR), chloroprene rubber (CR), butadiene india rubber (BR) and ethyl propylene serving india rubber (EPDM).
to processing extruding
injection moulding Kalandrieren foams [ work on] in the order of their portion to the followingsix plastics:
|3. Polyvinyl chloride||PVC||polymer|
|6. Polyethylene terephthalate||PET||polycondensation product|
history of the development of the plastics
forerunners of plastics gave it in all cultures. In Arabia Wasserbecken and channels became with natural bitumen sealed. Likewise there certain tree resins were used as rubber Arabicum and exported to Europe. From Eastern Europe amber is well-known as fossil resin for the use with heads of the arrow and decoration articles. In the Middle Ages animal horn became by certain process steps ina plastic ductile material transforms.
Natural scientists brought from Malaysia and Brazil in 17. and 18. Century flexible masses, won from milchigen tree juices, also. For this the term rubber was introduced to Germany. Since center 19. Century developed one rapidlyincreasing rubber industry. The inventor Charles Goodyear stated that rubber can be transformed by additive of sulfur and by Vulkanisation into a good tire material. Likewise he discovered hard rubber, however a mass hard ductile with warmth at ambient temperature, which at first Ebonite was called. From this for example Schmuckstücke, stylograph, parts of music instruments and telephones were made. These first thermosetting polymer started the development of the plastics as material in the surrounding field of humans.
Nitrocellulose became later the impregnation of textiles and in in Englandthe USA develops shellac. In the year 1869 John Wesley Hyatt invented the Celluloid and 3 years later the first jet moulding machine. The material Casein (Galalith) was invented 1897, and resembles strong horn or ivory. From this became indifferent colors for example buttons, sticking on needles, housings for radios, cigarette doses, toy, grasps for umbrellas and. A. manufactured. Plastic consumption lay in the year 1930 already with approx. 10,000 t. The patent to polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA), announced by Otto Röhm 1928, started oneEra, which continues until today. Further the phenolic resins become effective in this time, whereby the inventor is very successful Leo Hendrik Baekeland with the material Bakelite. By the good electrical characteristics it becomes and. A. rapidly in the rising Electrical industry assigned.
The resident of Munich chemist Dr. Ernst Richard Escales gives 1910 to the group of materials the name „plastics “. The magazine of the same name created by it appears for the first time 1911. Fritz Klatte discovers 1912 background the polymerization procedure by PVC of which already 1838 for the first time producedbecame. 1926 published Hermann Staudinger important theories about the structure of plastic. For this it received the Nobelpreis to 1952. 1930 are begun in Ludwigshafen „HP “- production. 1931 are manufactured for the first time with ICI in Great Britain polyethylene. In Ludwigshafen 1934 becomethe production of epoxy resins of Paul clinker begun. In the year 1935 becomes at the same time from handle (Main cure) and Ciba (Switzerland) the development of Melamin Formaldehydharz and of DuPont the development of PP 6 (nylon) described. By PaulClinker 1937 manufactured PP 6 on basis of Caprolactam then perlon one baptizes. About at the same time into the Buna - works of the industrial union colors the manufacturing is begun of Buna S and Buna N as synthetic rubberizing set. Otto Bavarian developed in thisYear PU in Ludwigshafen. With DuPont 1938 the plastic polytetrafluorethylene (teflon) is developed. 1939 follows with ICI Low Density polyethylene (PE-LD). The material polyethylene terephthalate (PET) became from J. R. Whinfielt and J. T. Dickson with Calico printers in the year1941 invented. 1942 discovered Harry Coover (the USA) with Eastman Kodak „the second adhesive “ Methylcyanoacrylat.
in the period of 1910 to 1950 became plastic of a substitute with special meaning a material for the industrielle mass production.The world production exceeded 1949 the border of 1 million t. The thermoplastics became generally accepted from 1950 to 1980. In these years materials became such as HP, PE - hp, PP, PC, FEP, PVF, PES, PSU, PPE, PPO and some different develop. In the year 1976 the world production already was about 50 millions t. In the year 1971 LCP and PPS followed as well as in the year 1972 PBT. In the year 2003 the world production reached approx. 200Million t. Here the portion of the thermosetting polymers constantly decreased/went back, and lay in the year 2000 only with approx. 15 %. The pros Kopf-Verbrauch at plastics in the year 2000 with 92 kg in Western Europe, 13 kg in Eastern Europe, 130 kgin NAFTA, 19 kg in Latin America, 86 kg in Japan, 13 kg in southeast Asia and in the middle east/Africa with 8 kg. The plastic industry is to today further a growth branch, whereby the manufacture capacities in Asia approximately inYears 2006-2008 the prominent and equally strong regions Europe and north/South America will overhaul.
future of the plastics
due to the high dependence of plastic production on the oil deposits is the future of the plastics on a long-term basis in question posed. After exceeding of the Peak Oils could come it to a shortage, if does not succeed at given time, regenerativ raw material alternatives such as z. B. To make industrially usable rapeseel oil as equivalent replacement. Substantial price increases with extensive consequences for the world economy would threaten then.
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- Otto black:Plastic customer ISBN 3802319176
- Gottfried W. Honour stone: Polymer materials. 2. Edition. Carl Hanser publishing house, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-446-21161-6
- Brigitta Huckestein, ThomasPlesnivy:Possibilities and borders of the plastic recycling. Chemistry in our time 34 (5), S. 276 - 286 (2000), ISSN 0009-2851
- Hans Domininghaus. The plastics and their characteristics. Springer publishing house, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005), 6. Edition, ISBN 3-540-21410-0
Web on the left of
- plastic table
- History of the plastics (of Peter Lutz)
- German plastic museum, plastic museum association e. V. To Duesseldorf