of these articles is concerned with the metal copper. To waters of the same name see div to copper (river
characteristics nickel - copper -

AG [acre] 3d 10 4s

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name, symbol, ordinal number copper, cu, 29
series of transition metals
group, period, block 11 , 4, D
appearance salmon-pink, metallically
proportion at the Earth's shell 0.01%
atomic mass 63.546
atomic radius (computed) 135 (145) pm
Kovalenter radius 138 pm
van the Waals radius 140 pm
Elektronenkonfiguration [acre] 3d 10 4s 1
electrons per energy level 2, 8, 18, 1
electron affinity 4.44 eV
priority I, II, rarely III or IV
1. Ionization energy 745.5 kJ/mol
2. Ionization energy 1957,9 kJ/mol
3. Ionization energy 3555 kJ/mol
4. Ionization energy 5536 kJ/mol
state of aggregation firmly
modifications -
crystal structure cubically face-centered
density (Mohshärte) 8920 kg/m 3 (3,0)
magnetism dia.-magnetically
melting point 1357.6 K (1084.4 ° C)
boiling point 2840 K (2567 °C)
Molecular volume 7,11 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol
heat of vaporization 300.3 kJ/mol
heat of fusion 13.05 kJ/mol
steam pressure 0.0505 Pa at 1358 K
speed of sound 3570 m/s with 293,15 K
specific thermal capacity 385 j (kg · K)
Electrical conductivity 35-58 · 10 6 S/m
electrical temperature coefficient 0,0039 1/K with 20 °C
heat conductivity 401 w (m · K)
Linear Wärmeausdehnungskoeffizient 16,4 · 10 -6 1/K
oxidation conditions 1, 2
oxides (basicity) cu 2 O, CuO (easily basic)
normal potential 0.342 V (cu 2+ + 2e - → cu)
Elektronegativität of 1.9 (Pauling scale)
isotope NH t 1/2 ZM CPU M eV ZP
61 cu {syn.} 3.333 h ε 2.237 61 never
62 cu {syn.} 9.74 min ε 3.948 62 never
63 cu 69.17% cu is stably with 34 neutrons
64 cu {syn.} 12.7 h ε
β -
64 ever
64 Zn
65 cu 30.83% cu 66 cu are not stable {
syn. with 36 neutrons} 5.088 min β - 2,642 66 Zn
67 cu {syn.} 61.83 h β - 0.577 67 Zn
NMR characteristics
63 cu 65 cu
nuclear spin 3/2 3/2
gamma wheel/T 7,09 · 10 7 7,596 · 10 7
sensitivity 0.0931 0.114
Larmorfrequenz with B = 4,7 T 53 M cycles per second of 56.8 M cycles per second
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Copper (of lat. cuprum: „Copper, metal from Cyprus “) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and the ordinal number 29. It is a metal of the 4. Period in the 8. Group in the periodic system. As it finds versatile use to outstanding warming and conductor. In addition copper belongs to the Münzmetallen.

Latin name cuprumis derived from lat.aes cyprium = ore of the island Cyprus.

Table of contents

Copper as mineral

copper stage, approx. 4×2 cm

copper occurs gediegen in nature . The heavy metal crystallized in the cubic crystal system, has one between 2,5 and 3 lying Mohs hardens and as bright metal a bright, salmon-pink color. Throughsuperficial patina - education changes the metal also red-brownishly up to a bluish green, whereby the Metallglanz is lost. Line color is rose-pink. Copper is well ductile and tough as very soft metal. The melting point is with 1083,4 °C.


copper Nugget

as gediegenes element is to copper mainly in basal tables lavas, where it forms usually by reaction with mineral solutions of hydrothermalen origin from ferric oxide ores. It steps usually roughly or in form of branched structures, sogenannter Dendrite auf, selten auch in kristalliner Form. The portion of gediegenen copper in nature is however very low. In the form of Kupfererzen copper is against it a very frequent component of the earth's crust. It becomes then from Kupferkies (CuFeS 2), copper gloss (cu 2 S), more rarely also from boron rivet (cu 5 FeS 4), Atacamit [CuCl 2 · Cu (OH) 2], Malachit and other ores won. Are particularly decorative door gravel, a copper phosphate and Malachit, a green, basic copper carbonate.

Those world-widethere are largest occurrences in Chile, the USA, Russia, Zambia, Canada and Peru. The most important export countries are organized in the CIPEC. To the CIPEC belong among other things Australia, Indonesia, Zaire as well as Papua New Guinea, on itsIsland Bougainville one of the world largest Kupferminen 1988 to a civil war led, whose consequences still persist.


to characteristics copper in the Oxidationsstufen 0, +1, +2, +3 and +4, whereby +4 is extremely rare (for example Cs 2 CuF6) and +2 the most stable Oxidationsstufe is. Copper (II) - salts (for example copper sulfate) are usually from blue or greener color. Copper shows similar characteristics as half precious metal as the elements silver and gold in the same group. Thus separatesat an iron - nail is dipped into a solution from copper sulfate a layer from metallic copper off, for which iron goes as Eisensulfat into solution (see in addition also: Electromotive series).


copper becomes for coins, decoration, cutlery,Armatures, boiler, precision parts, art articles, music instruments, pipings and much more besides uses.

Chemically pure copper

for electrical cables, conductive strips and construction units, and for heat shunts is suitable copper because of its very good electrical and thermal conductivity.

In arts and crafts copper is driven, i.e. through hammer deformed.

Also roofs with copper sheet are covered, on which then a steady greenish patina forms. This patina protects the underlying metal well against further corrosion, so that copper roofs one life span of several centuriesto have can.

Copper is also a component of many alloys such as brass, bronze and german silver. Copper alloys are used gladly variously because of their good characteristics, like color, corrosion resistance, price, workability. One differentiates between forgeable alloys, what means that these well with standard temperature mechanicallyto be deformed, and cast materials (red brass, bronze) can.

Example of forgeable alloys are the silver-similar german silver, copper zinc a nickel alloy, and the gold-yellow brass, a copper zinc alloy. Many Münzwerkstoffe are manufactured on copper basis, so „the Nordi gold “metal mentioned of the gold-coloredEuro coins, a copper zinc aluminum tin alloy.

Also articles with silver-white or high-grade steel-like appearance are in reality highly cupreous alloys, where the copper-own color disappeared by sufficient nickel additive. The Münzmetall of the old 1-DM-Geldstücke, as well as the bright portions of the euro coins consist of cupro-nickel alloys.

Copper connectionsare used into Farbpigmenten, medical preparations and galvanic surface coatings. Cuprous salts color the flame green/blue (spectrographic analysis).

See also: Copper recycling


of the copper tetraminkomplex

copper ii-salts result in in the case of the proof reaction with ammonia solution in the case of pH values over 8low-blue complex salt solutions (Kupfertetramminkomplex [cu (NH 3) 4] 2+ - also as Tetramminkupfer (II) designates):

Cu 2+ + 4 NH 3 <math> \ rightarrow </math> [Cu (NH 3) 4] 2+ (complex education reaction).

Copper halides shine in the Bunsen burner flame green.

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Biological effect

copper is a component of the Hämocyanin, which with many soft animals and Gliederfüssern serves oxygen transport as blood coloring material. Also with all higher organisms copper than a component of many enzymes is a vitally necessary trace element. The daily need of an adult humansabout 2 Milligramm amount to. Copper is contained before all in liver, grain, vegetable and Nüssen.

In more ionized, not form bound to proteins copper works antibacterially, one speaks here as with the silver of the oligodynamischen effect (Oligodynamie), why z. B.also flower water, which is kept in copper containers, becomes not so fast putrid.

The toxic effect results from the fact that copper ions bind at groups of sports clubs of proteins, and Lipide of the cell membrane by-oxidize, which leads to the formation of free radicals, those the DNA andCell membranes damage. With humans is this z. B. the case with disease Wilson, an illness with that above all the liver is concerned. Copper sulfate (Kupfervitriol) is a strong Brechmittel, and for the treatment of many poisonings is therefore used (for example throughwhite phosphorus).


Kupferbergwerk, Herri met de Bles, Mitte 16. Century

copper, gold and tin were the first metals, mankind in its development learned which to know. Since copper is to be processed easily, becameit already of the oldest well-known cultures before approximately 10,000 years uses. The time of its spacious use of 5. Millenium v. Chr. up to the 3. Millenium v. Chr. sometimes also copper time is called. In the Alchemie became copper with Venus/Weiblichkeit associates.

Later it was alloyed with tin (and lead portions) to bronze. This harder and technically more resistant alloy became the name giver of the Bronzezeit. The distinction of lead against tin was only introduced with increasing metal knowledge, so that the termBronze from today's viewpoint only to the high-cupreous tin copper alloys is correctly applied.

A further gold-yellow copper zinc alloy, which was brass, in the antique Greece already well-known. It became by common processing of the respective ores erschmolzen, but only from the Romans more stronglyused. In old Colombia the gold copper alloy Tumbaga was frequently used.

The production of copper takes place in a Affinerie.

the largest promotion nations

the most important promotion nation for copper Chile is followed, of Indonesia and the USA with large distance.In Europe Poland and furthermore Portugal and Sweden are to be called.

The largest promotion nations for copper (2002)
source: Trade paper the world in figures (2005)
Country struggled deliveries
(in Tsd. t)
1 Chile 4620
2 Indonesia 1167
the 3 USA 1140
4 Australia 876
5 Russian Föd. 844
6 Peru 843
7 Canada 577
8 Poland 572
9 China 554
10 Kazakhstan 432
Country struggled deliveries
(in Tsd. t)
11 Zambia 336
12 Mexico 315
13 Argentina 218
14 Papua New Guinea 211
15 South Africa 130
16 Mongolia 120
17 Bulgaria 108
18 India 79
19 Portugal 77
20 Sweden 72

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