Copper stone time

Three-periodic system
Holozän historical time
Late Bronzezeit
Middle Bronzezeit
Early Bronzezeit
Copper stone time
Mittelsteinzeit / Epipal.
Pleistozän Jungpaläolithikum
Paleolithic age

as copper stone time or a copper time (Chalkolithicum, Äneolithikum) one designates the last section of the metal time.During this time fundamental techniques of the extractive metallurgy became and - processing develops. After the copper time the Bronzezeit followed. It is the period of transition of the end of the Neolithikums to the early Bronzezeit.

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in the research from a set of reasons no uniform name intersperse could itself. Partially it is connected with the fact that copper not in all regions the same Zuspruchand quite also no attention found to find could. Other carriers of the culture were not able to seize on copper than raw material back. Thus the material in the inheritances forms such a small portion that archaeologist no moreof a copper time to speak like. Archaeologically a metal time - and completely particularly the copper time - at the precipitation of the material in the find ensembles is fastened. Here however the presence of the material is not sufficient approximately as Schmuckstück, but the copper time is definedover the employment of the metal with the heavy-duty fastening tool, thus the axes and hatchets about. Since this is not however in many areas the case, for these regions of a copper time one does not speak.

The term Äneolithikum as epoch designation becomes above allin South-east Europe (Vinča culture, Tripolye) and in the front Orient (Halaf culture) uses.


metalworking was developed first at gediegenen ( elementarily occurring ) metals such as gold , silver and copper. The oldest copper finds date outthat 8. Millenium v. Chr. and originate from Anatolien. In Central Europe the copper time began around 4300 v. Chr. and lasted to approx. 2200 v. Chr.

One of most well-known humans of the copper time is Ötzi, that approx. 3300 v. Chr.lived. Its corpse is received as freezingdried mummy. It had typical Gerätschaften of the Jungsteinzeit with itself and carried already a copper hatchet. The blade of the hatchet was poured and was geschäftet. The form is similar as with hatchets polished from stone.

Before the development of the bronze the value in use of the Metallgegenstände was not yet very high, since copper is flexible in cold condition also and copper cuts became fast blunt. Fundamental metalworking techniques like the metal casting were nevertheless already developed the Bronzezeit ago. Throughthe casting was for the first time a quantity production looking homogeneous tools possible.

Not only for the treatment, but also for the production of metals the copper time represents a break . Thus first techniques of the Prospektion and production of ores became, primarily ofKupfererzen in open pits (mining industry) develops. By the development of smelting of copper the bottleneck at gediegenem copper could be defused. Also lead was smelted at this time already, and often becomes in the Zusammnenhang with the production of theSilver seen. Together with the exploitation of tin this put a technological basis for the following Bronzezeit.

The copper-temporal smelting process went particularly from oxidic and/or. karbonatischen ores Malachit and Azurit out. These could during a single-step process under heatingin a reducing atmosphere to be smelted. These ores develop in the oxidation zone of the Erzgänge and can exhibit powerfulnesses up to 30m. Beside oxidic ores partly also more complex ores became, as Kupferkies (CuFeS 2) and copper gloss (CuS) smelted. With theseOres, that is present copper as sulfide and had to be first roasted, in order to transfer the sulfur in sulfur dioxide. In a separate process then the reduction to copper took place. For this reduction charcoal was, necessarily there carbon Carbon monoxidesupplies with to the reducing atmosphere. Melting for the Kupferguss needs likewise charcoal, since copper melts only with 1083°C.

Culturally the copper time brought several changes with itself: The settlements in Central Europe were tendentious smaller more strongly fastened, but however. They were presenteverything on hills. In particular in the Mittelmeeraum the development of the copper technology led to an intensified remote trade. Copper from the Balkans one negotiated partially until Germany, how a copper disk found at the Bodensee proves.

It is to be accepted that the utilization ofMetal to a strong social change led. The first Oberschichten began themselves to form, the dismantling and smelting the metal controlled. The grave field of Varna on that supplies a reference at the west coast of the black sea to Bulgaria.Here a Oberschicht lies buried, which was characterised by extreme wealth, which was expressed in rich gold-added (weapons, tool, decoration, ceramic(s) with gilding).

In South America there was 1 starting from that. Century a Parallelentwicklung in the Mochica - culture, those within the rangethe Pacific coast northern Peru settled. On a narrow, but approximately 600 km long strip in the coastal desert operated the Mochica a productive building of irrigation fields with Guanodüngung. Ceramic(s) was highly developed, likewise metalworking. Beside gold and silver became alsoCopper processes. The Mochica manufactured also copper alloys, above all Tumbago. Technologically remarkably is also a procedure, in order to gild copper.

cultures and discovery sites

  • play mountain (Austria): Settlement
  • Bisamberg (Lower Austria): Fragment of a casting spoon
  • Götschenberg with bishop yards (Salzburg):To mining industry settlement, Kupfererz, workpieces from copper
  • Jevisovice culture

see also

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