Kurdistan

Kurdistan - see also autonomous region Kurdistan - is enclosure today geographical the historical settlement area of the Kurds in the Near East and parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria.

Flag of the Kurdish autonomous region

table of contents

territorial extent

Heutige Kurdische Siedlungsgebiete
today's one Kurdish settlement areas
Historisches Kerngebiet der Kurden
historical central area of the Kurds
those Kurdish language within the Iranier

the name Kurdistan became for the first time official as administrative unitthe Seldschukenreiches about 1157 mention and designated an area in the southeast Anatoliens and northwest Mesopotamiens.

The borders Kurdistans cannot be defined for several reasons clearly. On the one hand there are, apart from the autonomous region Kurdistan in the Iraq and a province Kordestan in Iran, officially no political territory and administrative unit Kurdistan. Making more difficult it is added that the settlement area of the Kurds, to large parts with that of the neighboring nations (Turk, overlaps Aserbaidschaner , Arab , Perser , Armenian , Aramäer , Turkmenen , Turkomanen). ThoseAffiliation or non--affiliation of many areas to the Kurdish settlement areas (Kurdistan) is therefore very disputed. Geographically seen Kurdistan is appropriate for 34 between that. and 40. Degree northern latitude and that 38. and 48. Degree of eastern length. It extends over east and southeast anatolien - more exactly saidfrom Iskenderun and the Taurusgebirge to high to the era advice - up to the Urmiasee in Iran and the region of the Zagrosgebirgskette , thus the north Iraq and west Iran , includes as well as parts of north Syria also.

history Kurdistans

over centuries was Kurdistanagain and again scene of fights between western and eastern powers:Romans and part ago, and/or. Sassaniden, Osmanen and Persian Safawiden. Important historical corner points are islamizing in 7. Jh. u.Z., turkmenischer Nomadenstämme in the 11 waves. Jh. and of Turks and Mongols in 13. Jh.

Dorf aus Hewraman im irakischen Teil
Village from Hewraman in the Iraqi part

the first important division Kurdistans was sealed between the Osmani realm and the realm of the Safawiden (Persia ) 1639 in the contract by Qesra series. The majority of the Kurdish princes went under the osmanische sovereignty. Thosedivision at that time is also today still visible at the nearly identically running border between Turkey and Iran.

The Osmani realm is in 19. Century by a crisisful condition characterized. By means of reforms and an opening to the centralEuropean states the Osmanen tries thoseTo retain existence of their realm. A kind official system for the collection of the taxes and deliveries was created, which contained profound cutting of the rights of the feudalen Kurdish class. These reacted the whole century through with rebellions, which were struck down all together by central power.

In the 1. World warthe Osmani realm had placed itself on the side of Germany against the united kingdom , France and Russia. Under Kurdish participation in Ostanatolien about 1.5 million Armenian were murdered.

After the defeat and the decay of the Osmani realm became the Kurds in the contract of Sevres 1920 the right to self-determination granted. The southwest areas Kurdistans were French sphere of influence and in such a way Syria were slammed shut, England became mandate power in the today's Iraq, to which the southeast Kurdish regions were added. At the same time organized Mustafa Kemal Atatürk the resistance against European crew powers and Greece. The Kemalisten publicised a government of all peoples and merged in this way the Kurdish master leaders and sheikh into the Turkish national liberation struggle . Atatürk created so the Turkish national state.

In the contract of Lausanne (24. July 1923) the new becameBalance of power between Turkey and crew powers united kingdom, France and Italy contractually fixed. From the promises of the contract of Sevres opposite the Kurds was no more speech. The settlement area of the Kurds was from then on in four states: the four parts were void upTurkey, Iran, the Iraq, and Syria, whereby received latter only in the following decades their independence.

After the consolidation of the new state Mustafa Kemal turned against its former allies on the inside. He let the Kurdish master leaders systematic liquidate and set the policy A State of a nation through. Under the term Kemalismus became racistic inside more aggressively, direct against minorities - chauvinististic nationalism develops. The kemalistische nationalism planned, within the Misaak i milli - borders a Turkish nation to create, those with its country and its nation an indivisibleUnit forms. The various nationalities and minorities, which were not to be brought with this intention in agreement, should merge during the Turkish nationalization process. In the years 1925-40 Nordwestkurdistan was brought firmly under control of the Turkish state. Several limited rebellions - 1925 sheikh Said rebellion, 1930 era advice, 1938 Dersimaufstand - by the superior Turkish army were struck down.

The Kurds applied in the official linguistic usage as mountain Turks. Their language was forbidden, exposed their country to colonialistic exploitation. However in Ostkurdistan (Iran) the thought at resistance, liberty and independence was kept upright. 1946existed in Ostkurdistan briefly the autonomous Republic of Mahabad. In the Iraq it came again and again to rebellions against the centre government into Bagdad, which ended however all together with defeats. This always was itself at the social structure and because of the guidance by master leaders and Feudalherren,left again play balls of foreign interests to make.

Since the reforms Atatürks into the 1920er years, approached on Turkey to the west. After the Second World War Turkey became member in NATO and had at the southeast flank a strategic role opposite the Soviet Union . Beside Israel Turkey follows as the second country of the region politically, economically and militarily the west. When Turkish province originally positions part of NATO against the Soviet Union, the region lost after the case of the iron curtain first at strategic interest. InThe region would receive again great strategic importance to course of the entry desired to the European union as border region to the middle east.

1945 became the Kurdish national clothes, to which Sal Sapik forbade, likewise the use of the language in the public. 1967 took place a renewed official prohibition from Kurdish language, music, literature and newspapers. Militärput (1960, 1971, to stabilize 1980) should again and again serve to prevent Islamic governments and to maintain the laizistischen course Atatürks, as well as the situation on the inside. (October 2004 ) becomes present underthe pretext of the border safety device to the Iraq with military actions of the population of village the stay in the villages with the reason forbidden, Unterschlupf would grant them to freedom fighters.

Many of the Turkish military by force abroad refugee Kurd reimportierten starting from end of the 1960er years thoughts from other parts of the world,where peoples were in the resistance against colonialism , corruption and culture imperialism. Under this influence a conscious becoming process began in parts of the Kurdish society. A result of it was among other things the emergence of the socialist labour party Kurdistans (Kurdish worker's party), itself the fight against colonialism, strange exploitationof natural resources, which set right to cultural self-determination, independence and socialism against the Turkish state to the goal. In that now 20 years continuous armed conflict of the Guerillarmee classified as a terrorist organization on the one hand and the Turkish army on the other hand died more than 30,000 humans, about whatmost victims civilians are.

Center of the 1990er years began to recruit the Turkish state whole trunks as village contactors, which fought from now on against the Kurdish worker's party. Village contactors were loyale kurdischstämmige great land owners and farmer the support of the state, financial for their services, received. Became partial village contactorsin addition, obligates under obligation to the service.

For the implementation of its goals the Kurdish worker's party uses also means of the force, which is violently criticized by other one, force-free representatives of the Kurds. The Kurdish worker's party becomes of most states of the world and the United Nations as a terrorist organizationclassified.

provinces and cities

are listed in the following the provinces and the cities of these provinces, in which the Kurds place the majority and constitute an important portion of the population. In the first place the official name is and in parentheses the Kurdish designation.

Turkish part

provinces:


Cities: (beside the Provinzhaupstädten of the same name)

  • Azapert (Adakli)
  • Cizîra Botan (Cizre)
  • Dara Heni (Genc)
  • Depe (Karakocan)
  • Elbistan
  • Sewergi (Siverek)
  • Tux (Tatvan)
  • Xolxol (Yayladere)
  • Xozat (Hozat)

Iraqi part

Die Haci-Omeran-Berge im irakischen Teil
the Haci Omeran mountains in the Iraqi part

of provinces:

of cities:

Iranian part

of provinces:

of cities:

  • Bane
  • Bidschar
  • Bukan
  • Choi
  • Dehgulan
  • Diwandere
  • Ilam
  • Kamyaran
  • Kirmashan (Kermānschāh)

Syrian one part

of cities:

  • Afrin
  • Amude
  • Derbassiya
  • Derike
  • Hasakê (aluminium-Hasaka)
  • Kobani
  • Qamişlo (aluminium-Qamischli)
  • Sere Kaniye
  • animal-spit at

literature

  • Andrea Fischer Tahir: ” We gave many martyrs “. Resistance and collective identity formation in Iraqi Kurdistan. Unrast, Münster 2004. ISBN 3-89771-015-3
  • Azad Salih: Free Kurdistan. The protected zonethe Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan. Thesis. Free University of, Berlin 2004.
  • Azad Salih: Free Kurdistan. The administered region Kurdistans. Background, developments and perspectives. Köster, Berlin 2005. ISBN 3-89574-581-2
  • Ferdinand Hennerbichler: The Kurds. OD. fhe, Albert & Hennerbichler, Mosonmagyaróvár 2004. ISBN 963-214-575-5
  • Hans Lukas Kieser (Hrsg.): Kurdistan and Europe.Chronos, Zurich 1997.ISBN 3-905312-32-8
  • Karin Kren: Kurdologie, Kurdistan and Kurd in the German-language literature. LIT, Münster 2000. ISBN 3-8258-4642-3
  • Martin straw Meier, Lale Yalçin Heckmann: The Kurds. Beck, Munich 2000, 2003. ISBN 3-406-42129-6
  • Mehmet Şahin, purchase field: Data and facts to Kurds and Kurdistan.Per Humanitate, Cologne2002.ISBN 3-933884-08-X
  • Namo Aziz: No way home. Pain and dream of the Kurds. Spectrum lines up. Herder, Freiburg in mash gau the 1991. ISBN 3-451-04074-3 (dedication: The dead ones of Halabdscha)
  • Nazif Telek: The people without lawyer. History, culture, literature and religion in Kurdistan.Paper inNorthlive. Erfurt 2003, Weimar 2004.
  • Sabine Skubsch: Kurdish migration and German (education) policy. Contributions to the Kurdologie. Bd 5. Unrast, Münster 2003. ISBN 3-89771-013-7
  • Selahaddin Mihotuli: Arya Uygarliklarindan Kürtlere. Koral Yayınları, İstanbul 1992. ISBN 975-7780-01-4
  • Siamend Hajo, Carsten Borck, EH Savelsberg, Sukriye Dogan (Hrsg.): Gender inKurdistan and the Diaspora. Contributions to the Kurdologie. Bd 6. Unrast, Münster 2004. ISBN 3-89771-014-5
  • Şerafettin Kaya: Diyarbakır - experience in a Turkish dungeon. Edition CON, Bremen 1984. ISBN 3-885261-35-9

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