A cure prince (lat.: princeps elector imperii or elector) those belonged the Kurfürstenkollegium formed and to those since that to the limited number of those realm princes of the holy Roman realm of German nation, 13. Century the exclusive right to the choice (medium high German = cure or kure, see. again-high-German was entitled to cures) of the Roman king. With this king title traditionally the claim on ( Roman) the German Kaisertum was connected.
Table of contents
composition of the Kurfürstenkollegiums
- three of religious,
- as well as four lay,
In 17. Century the Kollegium extended by
The realm deputation main conclusion of 1803 main headers the two religious cures of Cologne and Trier as well as the pfälzische cure up and transferred thoseMainzer on the again created Principality of Regensburg Aschaffenburg. Four realm princes received against it again, could not them however before the end of the old realm 1806 no more exercise. This were
- the archbishop of Salzburg,
- the duke of Württemberg,
- the Mark count von Baden as well as
- the land count von Hessen-Kassel.
history of the Kurfürstenkollegiums
the comparatively frequent dynasty changes in the eastFrankish realm, later holy Roman realm of German nation - of the Karolingern over the Liudolfinger and Salier to pilotfar from - made regularly the choice of a new king and a new ruler sex necessary. Differently than most remaining states of Europe the holy Roman realm had remained therefore a choice monarchy, as itall Germanic succession states in the area of the earlier Roman realm had been original. Also the son of a governing Roman-German king always needed the choice and agreement of the large ones in such a way specified of the realm, those to his acknowledgment as its legal successoroften still during lifetimes of the father took place.
Originally all realm princes were entitled for the choice of the new ruler. However there was a small circle of allotters (laudatores) since ever ago, to which a preliminary decision was entitled. To these allotters did not belongnecessarily the most powerful, but the most distinguished princes of the realm, which became at rank and the king next came. To them the three archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier as well as the Pfalzgraf belonged with Rhine, because their territories on old were appropriate for Frankish realm soil. A choice was legal even if the allotters it had agreed. Probably the later Kurfürstenkollegium from this group of allotters developed.
development until 1356
gradual development of theKurfürstenkollegiums
with death emperor Heinrichs VI. (1190 - 1197) also its hereditary realm plan , the last attempt failed to convert the realm into a hereditary monarchy. In thereupon breaking out welfisch staufischen throne controversy, with that it 1198 for the double choice of twoThrone candidates came, threw myself Pope Innozenz III. to the arbitrator up. Since since the emperor coronation/culmination of Otto of the large one 962 the German Königtum with the Roman was connected, the Popes had always a high interest in a right of participation in the GermanKing choice. Innozenz became generally accepted 1198 with the view that for a legal choice the agreement of the three rheinischen archbishops and the Pfalzgrafen was essential with Rhine.
At the beginning 13. Century became this group of cores around the duke of Saxoniaand the Mark count of Brandenburg extends. In the Saxonia mirror of the Eike of Repgow from the year 1230 it means: With the emperor Kur first should be the bishop of Mainz, second by Trier, third of Cologne.Then the three lay princes follow, while the Saxonia mirror denies the right to vote to the king of Böhmen still expressly, because it is not German.
As exclusive institution, which excluded all remaining realm princes from the choice, the Kurfürstenkollegium stepped 1257 for the first timeafter death king of William of Holland in feature; altogether the Interregnum the position of the cure princes strengthened clearly, which itself particularly in 14. Century to show should. Also the king of Böhmen participated in the following choice, could itscontinuing affiliation to the Kollegium however only 1289 implement. Later, during the Hussitenkriege in 15. Century, rested the böhmische again.
The Codex Balduineus contains the first well-known representation of the Kurfürstenkollegiums. The choice of 1308, as Heinrich ofLuxembourg was selected from all six present cure princes to the Roman-German king, made also the new self understanding of the cure princes clear. Together with the king they asked not for the papal license to practise medicine, but gave Pope Clemens V.only the choice oneadmits of new king (and future emperor). The choice made however just as clear that the cure princes, after the experiences in the time Adolfs of Nassau and Albrechts I., which had partly operated both one against the cure princes arranged house power politics, strictlyto the keeping of their rights paid attention and of the new king required to respect these. The scope of action of the Königtums was limited clearly thereby even if Heinrich VII. its power about thereby to strengthen searched that it secured itself Böhmen as house powerand in Italy the renewal dock ore around operated.
curve-purely to Rhense in
the year 1338 united to that the cure princes in curve-purely to Rhense closer, in order to come to an agreement in the future before king elections with one another. Out of that went curve-purely laterthe cure prince advice of Reichstag out. Besides the cure princes determined in Rhens the fact that no license to practise medicine right is entitled to the Pope and that its agreement selected from them to the king does not need. In the Rhenser Weistum so mentioned by the older research of 16. July 1338 is called it:
- After right and since age proven habit of the realm one, that of the cure princes of the realm does not require or, even with discrepancy, of which majority the same is selected to the Roman king, Nomination, license to practise medicine, Konfirmation,Agreement or authority of the apostolischen chair for the administration of the goods and right of the realm or for the acceptance of the king title.
To the conclusion this development came in the year 1508, as itself Maximilian I. with agreement of the Pope, butwithout particularly by it to have been crowned, „chosen Roman emperor “called. Except Karl V. in the future no more emperor was crowned by the Pope. The ceremony found from then on up to the end of the old realm usually in the choice city Frankfurt/Main instead of. The title „Roman king “, whom the rulers of the realm had carried since 1125 between their choice to the king and their coronation/culmination to the emperor, remained from then on for the successor selected during lifetimes of an emperorreserved.
the golden bull
all rights and obligations of the cure princes had up to then usually concerning customary law developed. Emperor Karl IV. the Prozedere of the German king choice left 1356 in that Golden one bull finally legally fix. The golden bull formed the basis of the constitutional system of the old realm to 1806. In the choice regulations specified therein it meant among other things:
- If now the cure princes or their envoys in above-mentioned form and way thisThey swore, are oath to the choice to walk and from now on the ehgenannte city Frankfurt not to leave, before the majority of them selected the world or Christianity a lay head, i.e. a Roman king and a future emperor. If it thishowever within thirty days, from the day of the oath achievement, yet did not do, are they on counted from then on, after process of these thirty days, only bread and water to enjoy and under no circumstances from mentioned city leave, before them or thoseMajority of them a ruler or a lay head of the Gläubigen selected, as stands above.
Of great importance one for the further development of the realm was that the cure princes since the death of the Stauferkaisers Friedrich II.of the dynastischen principle -thus of the choice of a member of the dominant dynasty - to so-called „jumping elections “turned into. Thus practically each realm prince belonged to the possible throne candidates. The Kronprätendenten had to acquire the choice by extensive concessions, approximately with the award of privilegesto the cure princes, who were held exactly in choice surrenders. This strengthened power and independence of the national princes in the realm at expense of the royal central power and had a progressive territorial splintering of Germany to the consequence.
changes in 17. and 18.Century
to the first extension of the Kurfürstenkollegiums came it in the process of the dreissigjährigen war. Duke Maximilian I. by Bavaria required for the assistance, who it emperors Ferdinand II.during driving the winter king in such a way specified, the pfälzischen cure prince out Friedrich V., from Böhmen had carried out, his wittelsbachischen cousin. With the Upper Palatinate the duke the pfälzische, the fourth cure was transferred - 1623 first only it personally, 1628 also for its descendants. The controversy over the pfälzische cure played an important role with the negotiations to the Westfäli peace. It was attached finally 1648 by the establishment of a new, respected cure for the Pfalzgrafen.
For its weapon assistancein the Pfälzi succession war against France 1692 duke Ernst August of Braunschweig Lueneburg for its house required the mechanism of a ninth cure. Also a role played that after the transition of the Kurpfalz to a catholic line of the house Wittelsbach thatEvangelist element in the Kurfürstenkollegium to be again strengthened should. Despite the protests of the remaining, usually catholic cure princes emperor Leopold I. gave. Ernst August efforts after. The ninth cure could be exercised however only since 1708, after also Reichstag of its establishmenthad agreed. There the cure princes were unofficially called of Hanover, like them, 1714 with George I. by succession on the British throne, had in 18 arrived. Century the kings of England a say with the German king choice.
As Bavaria 1777by inheritance to the pfälzischen Wittelsbacher, reduced the number of the cure princes fell eight.
end of the cure principalities
during the Napoleoni wars annektierte France the entire left Rhine bank and thus far areas of the four rheinischen cure princes.In the realm deputation main conclusion of 1803 therefore the religious cures and the pfälzische cure were waived. The Mainzer was transferred to the Principality of Regensburg Aschaffenburg. For the ore diocese Salzburg, the duchy Württemberg, the Mark county bathing and the land county Hessen Kassel becamefour new cures furnished. All this remained however without practical meaning, since the holy Roman realm of German nation already stopped 1806 to exist and in the meantime no new emperor was to be selected more. Although thus their meaninghad lost, kept Hessen Kassel the designation cure principality with (see in addition also cure Hessen).
choice regulations, rights and obligations
the choice of the German king by the cure princes had to originally take place unanimously. Only curve-purely from Rhens 1338 agreedon the majority principle. The choice of the successor could take place during lifetimes of the governing king. If this had not happened, bull the archbishop at the latest of Mainz the remaining cure princes or their deputies had four months according to the regulations of the golden ones summon together after the death of the ruler for the choice of a successor to Frankfurt/Main. The representative of Kurtrier had the right to deliver its voice as the first. The every now and then crucial, last voice was entitled to the representative of cure Mainz. Although itneither in the golden one bull nor otherwise somewhere was realm-legally fixed, became it in the modern times usually, which böhmische, which held the having citizens since 1526 nearly continuous, as a condition for to regard (the Roman crown heardon the böhmische).
The coronation/culmination originally took place in Aachen via the archbishop from Cologne. Of the emperor choice Maximilians II. in addition, 1562 up to the end of the old realm nearly all coronations/culminations in Frankfurt took place, the latter in the year 1792. With the coronation/culmination the cure princes practiced - later only their deputies - who so-called offices for ore (archiofficia) out, which were firmly with connected: the lay cure princes of the Pfalz, of Saxonia, Brandenburg and Böhmenfunctioned in each case as Erztruchsess, ore marshal, ore treasurers and ore-mouth-give. The three religious cure princes of Mainz, Trier and Cologne were ore chancellors for the three handing hurry Germany, Burgund and Italy.
After the golden one bull stood for the cure princes oneSeries from privileges to: They possessed the Münzregal and other king rights: They became of age with 18 years, attacks on them were considered as majesty crimes, and their territories, cure country, were indivisible. Against judgements of its highest courts nobody knew appointmentinsert at the realm Court of Appeal or at the realm yard advice. The king could not actually draw a law case, which fell under its jurisdiction.
of the Kurfürstenornat consisted of onebroad, coat-like skirt with broad sleeves or arm slots, completely with Hermelin - became more royal a symbol - deflected. In addition came a broad Hermelinkragen, violet gloves and the cure hat, a velvet cap with Hermelinumrandung. The sleeve skirt and the round cure hat of the layCure princes were manufactured from dunkelkarmesinfarbigem velvet, the arm slot skirt and the square cap of the religious princes from dark-crowd-laugh-colored cloth.
- Hans Boldt: German condition history, Bd. 1: From the beginnings to the end of the older German Reich 1806, Munich 1984.
- Arno shrub man (Hg.): Emperor and realm. Classical texts and documents for the condition history of the holy Roman realm of German nation, Munich 1984.
- Franz pure Erkens: Cure prince and king choice, Hanover 2002, ISBN 3-7752-5730-6.
- Martin spring: Consent and disagreement.German king choice (1273-1349) and contemporary historiography (= forms of the memory 5), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Goettingen 2002, ISBN 3-525-35424-X. Review
- Hans K. Schulze: Essential structures of the condition in the Middle Ages, Bd. 3: Emperor and realm, Stuttgart and others 1998.
Web on the left of
- Rhenser Weistum of 1338
- quotation from the golden one bull
- cure principality Mainz
- cure principality Cologne
- cure principality Trier
- link collection for the history of the Kurpfalz
- cure principality Saxonia
- history of the Mark Brandenburg
- kings of Böhmen
|This article became into the list of the articles worth reading taken up.|