cure country (lettisch: Kurzeme) is beside Semgallen (lettisch: Zemgale), live country (lettisch: Vidzeme), Lettgallen (lettisch: Latgale) and Oberlettland (lettisch: Augšzeme) one of the five historical landscapes of Latvia.
cure country is after the people that Cures designated, which is come up in the Letten. It lies southwest the river Daugava (German: Düna) and designates the western part of the country covered by Baltic Sea and Riga sea bosom around the cities Liepāja (German: Libau) and vent play (German: Windau). Beside Letten and Germans traditionally also Sweden, the live ones at the north point, nearly become extinct, around Domesnäs/cape scours and recently Russian lived in this area.
Large-landed property and city middle class, ministers, physicians (thus the formed layers) and also master craftsmen were until farin 19. Century predominantly German-language, it gave German schools and churches.
The area is relatively flat, only the area around Talsi (German: Talsen) in Kurländi Switzerland has some hills. Main river is the Venta (German: Windau).
the earlymodern duchy cure country covered also Semgallen, the capital was Mitau. It was thereafter one of the three Russian Ostseegouvernements. After the independence of Latvia 1919 the East part became around Jelgava/Mitau as ownProvince Semgallen organized, the remaining cure country received Liepāja (Libau ) as capital.
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end 12. Jhs. n. Chr. down-German buyers established andMission acres at the Düna handels and mission stations. Cure country became at the beginning 13. Century subjected by the sword brother medal; German cities were created, on the country settled however far the cures, now under German aristocracy rule. 1237 united the sword brother medal with that German medals.
Parallel to it the German medal from the Kulm began that at 1231 with the conquest of the area of the Pruzzen, by Friedrich II. 1226 handed over in the golden one bull by Rimini the medal as medal country were and 1234 were subordinated formally the Pope. 1309 conquered the medal Pommerellen of Poland and received thereby a common border with the German Reich.
By the Polish litauische union 1386 the medal received for the first time a over-powerful opponent. After that 2.Peace of Thorn 1466 the Prussian part of the medal country opposite Poland lean requiring, Pommerellen and Kulmerland had at Poland to be returned. The northern areas of cure country and live country with the capital Riga remained first independent against it under line of a land masterthe medal, however Begehrlichkeiten Sweden and Russia aroused.
The first Russian raid was repelled 1502 by land master Wolter of Plettenberg. A second raid 1558 by Iwan IV. opens the Livländi war (1558 - 1582). Live country takes shelterPolish protection. As Friedrich II. from Denmark for its brother Magnus of Holstein the dioceses Ösel and cure country buys, intervenes Sweden, to which Estonia with Reval takes shelter. The government of the medal breaks down, land master God hard Kettler leads the southernRegion 1561 as lay duchy cure country under Polish sovereignty. Poland comes thereby into conflict with Russia and Sweden (three-crown war).
After death God-hard from Kettlers divided duke its sons William of Kettler and Friedrich of Kettler 1596 the duchy in the western cure country and the eastern Semgallen. William over-threw himself with the land aristocracy, which was supported by the Polish upper gentlemen, and had to finally leave the country. Friedrich combined with it 1616 again both regions under itself.
Under duke Jakob Kettler reached cure country its highest economical bloom. The world-turned duke was inTrailer of merkantiler ideas and looked for trade relations not only to the direct neighbours, but also to England, France, Portugal and other one. Shipbuilding and metalworking were promoted. The kurländischen ports Windau (vent play) and Liebau (Liepaja) became home ports of one of the largest European merchant fleets.Cure country tried several times to develop colonies in Tobago and the Gambia. This led to conflicts with other colonial powers and native ones, the small cure country only with difficulties mastered. The end of the kurländischen colonialism came with the second Swedish-Polish war 1655 - 1660: 1655 broke in the Swedish army into the rich cure country, 1658 turned out the duke into Swedish shank. The colonies fell at the Netherlands and England, which became merchant fleet to a large extent destroyed. After the peace treaty Tobago could be won back,but the resource of cure country was destroyed.
The son of duke Jakob, Friedrich Kasimir Kettler, operated a aufwändige yard attitude, while the economy went further down. For financing it sold Tobago to British Kolonisten. (Further information to history the smallest colonial powerEurope under Kurländi colonizing Americas and James Iceland)
1726 selected the conditions of cure country on drive of the duchess widow Anna Iwanowna, the daughter of the Zaren Iwan Alexejewitsch, Moritz count from Saxonia to the duke. However by the influence of the Russians displaces,Moritz went 1729 again abroad.
After the third Polish division 1795the area came completely at Russia, as “German province” of Russia (likewise Estonia and Livland (1710)). In peacetime of Nystad (1721) Peter the large one assures privileges to the cities and the knight shanks. They lead to the autonomous autonomy in city and country.
1816-1819 - Abolition of the body characteristic in cure country, Estonia and Livland by resolution Baltic knight shanks.
The GermanBaltic group of peoples was resettled 1939 by the German Reich into the area by floats, of where they were later driven out, and/or. fleehad. To 8. May 1945 capitulated the army group cure country under Fritz Töpper not, but explained themselves as the “free corps” according to kind of 1919. Töpper was a major of the armored force and wanted to each inhabitant a piece field to assign. The Soviets prevented that finallyby force.
cities in cure country
- Liepāja (German: Libau)
- of vent play (German: Windau)
- Grobina (German: Grobin)
- Aizpute (German: Hasenpoth)
- Kuldīga (German: Goldingen)
- Saldus (German: Woman Mrs.)
- Pāvilosta (German: Paulshafen)
- Piltene (German: Mushrooms)
- Tukums (German: Tuckum)
- Talsi (German: Talsen)
of dukes of cure country
- 1562 - 1587 God hard Kettler
- 1587 - 1642 Friedrich of Kettler
- 1587 - 1616 together with William of Kettler (1596 - 1616 divided)
- 1642 - 1681 Jakob Kettler
- 1681 - 1698 Friedrich II. Kasimir Kettler
- 1698 - 1711 Friedrich William Kettler
- 1711 - 1737 different rivaling regents, under it also the later Zarin Anna
- 1726 - 1729 Hermann Moritz
- 1737 - 1758 Ernst Johann von Biron
- 1758- 1763 Karl Christian
- 1763 - 1769 Ernst Johann von Biron (again)
- 1769 - 1795 Peter von Biron
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