Kurpfalz

Historischer Grundriss von Mannheim
historical sketch of Mannheim

Kurpfalz is the historical name for the territory controlled in former times by the Pfalzgrafen with Rhine, that today the Lands of the Federal Republic Baden-Wuerttemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Hessen, Bavaria (“upper Pfalz “= Upper Palatinate), as well as today to is assigned to French State of region belonging to Elsass. That the designation today - particularly in the region - is still common, is connected above all with the fact that the central area of the historical Kurpfalz on both sides of the Rhine lay and that those today essentiallyentlang desRheins verlaufende Landesgrenze zwischen Baden-Württemberg und Rheinland-Pfalz von vielen Menschen der Region als "künstlich" empfunden wird (siehe auch: Rhine Neckar triangle). However today with Kurpfalz only the rechtsrheinische part of the historical Kurpfalz is usually marked ( the Rhine-Neckar-region as well as the cities Mannheim and Heidelberg, here also the kurpfälzische dialect spoken), the remainder is well-known as Pfalz.

The Kurpfalz played than 600 years an important role in the history of the holy Roman realm more. In the course of the re-organization of Germany and Europe during the Napoleoni time around 1800the Kurpfalz lost its autonomy and was divided.

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the historical Kurpfalz

Kurpfalz marks the area of the Pfalz in the holy Roman realm of GermansNation with the main and Residenzstadt Heidelberg. Starting from the year 1720, up to the renewed transfer of the yard in the year 1778 to Munich, the obvious city Mannheim takes these on position. As also is the case for many other territories of the old realm, it actednot over geographically or landsmannschaftlich clearly defined area, but around one „patch carpet “, as the view of the historical map (see Web left) shows. The central area extended to both sides of the central Rhine of the Hunsrück in the northwest up to the east slope of the desert forest with MOS brook.

The name Pfalz leads itself off from the name for a castle-similar king yard, the emperors of the Staufer period at important places let which establish, such king or imperial palaces e.g. is. in bath Wimpfen or Worms. The Pfalzgrafschaft with Rhine (comes palatinus Rheni)one was that Reichslehen from 1198 to 1623 and from 1648 to 1806, which with were linked (cure country). The Pfalzgraf ordered therefore over a voice in seven, later neunköpfigen Kollegium of the cure princes, that the king and/or. Emperor of the holy one Roman realm selected. Since 1512 the country belonged to the Kurrheini realm circle.

In the pfälzischen succession war (1688 to 1697) large parts of the Kurpfalz were devastated by French troops.

In the course of the French coalition wars the linksrheinische part of the Kurpfalz became due to French occupation ofrechtsrheinischen part separated. In the period 1794 to 1815 the linksrheinischen areas were integrated as part of the Départements Mont Tonnerre (French for the thunder mountain) into the French state federation.

The Kurpfalz was dissolved 1803 after the French coalition wars in the course of the realm deputation main conclusion. The rechtsrheinischen parts of a territory including thatCities Heidelberg, Mannheim, Schwetzingen and Weinheim were slammed shut predominantly bathing revalued at the same time to the Grand Duchy and governed from Karlsruhe.

In the desert forest scattered territories, those belonged the Pfälzer cure prince due to their services of many years as Vögte of the realm monastery Lorsch of inheriting of to the KurpfalzMonastery, had stressed cure Mainz, and finally by wars and seizing under their control had brought. These areas in the desert forest and at the mountain route (Neckarsteinach, four-home, Heppenheim) arrived together with the cure-Main-hissed areas over the short-lived Principality of Leiningen 1806 mostly Hessen-Darmstadt und sind bis heute hessisch, auch Rheinhessen mit Städten wie Alzey oder Oppenheim wurde 1815 Teil von Hessen-Darmstadt und blieb dies bis 1945 Die Großherzöge von Hessen führten von 1815-1918 den Titel Großherzog zu Hessen und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.

The linksrheinische heartland thatKurpfalz around Ludwigshafen, Speyer, Landau and Worms, today as Pfalz admits, came 1815 first as „Rheinpfalz “to the Kingdom of Bavaria, since 1945 belongs it to the Land of the Federal Republic Rhineland-Palatinate, the Kurpfalz for two centuries was thus three-divided.

The Pfalzgrafen with Rhine

1156 gaveEmperor Friedrich Barbarossa its half brother Konrad the Staufer the Pfalzgrafschaft with Rhine as hereditary Lehen. The coat of arms of the Staufer - the upright standing golden lion on black reason - is from then on the coat of arms of the Pfalzgrafschaft with Rhine, which itself until today still inthe Landeswappen of all South German Lands of the Federal Republic regains. When Konrad died 1195, its son-in-law inherited Heinrich I. the long one from the house of the Welfen the Pfalzgrafschaft with Rhine.

Heinrich II. deceased without inheriting. The Lehen became of king Friedrich II. at Ludwig von Wittelsbach assign.

the cure princes from the Pfalz

the cure princes from the Pfalz (Pfalzgraf with Rhine) originated from the dynasty of the Wittelsbacher. 1356 received the Pfalz and lost it1623. 1649 were assigned a respected cure to the Pfalz. The Bavarian cure expired 1777 after becoming extinct the residents of Munich Wittelsbacher; the pfälzische inheritance Karl Theodor one led the title „cure princes of Pfalz Bavaria “. The pfälzische cure expired with its abolition by the realm deputation main conclusion.

between 1623 and 1649 lost the Pfalz to the Bavarian duke Maximilian I.

literature

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