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the Kutsche developed around 1600 from the car, as the suspension was introduced, in order to offer the travelers more comfort. From then on the Kutsche carried outa constant improvement and indicates the development to the technology.
In many countries the Kutsche is still an important means of transport.
Today bottom plate driving into Central Europe is nearly only exercised as hobby or kind of sport. In the official timetable however further a Kutschenlinie exists to Switzerland (between Pontresina and Rosegglet).
the Kutsche as forerunners of the automobile
to 8. March 1886 ordered the automobile pioneer God-dear Daimler a Kutsche of the design “Americain” with William Wimpff & sons in Stuttgart, which were delivered in August 1886. Originally as gift for his Mrs. Emma meant, it, after Daimler had inserted an engine there , ended as the first four-wheeled automobile.
Kutschen were built in former times by Manufakturen individually after order of the customer. At the end of the era of the Kutschen at least individual parts were industrially manufactured only completely. Therefore historical Kutschen are always Unikate. Also the different types of car are not therefore with the today's models of the automobile industry comparably.
Here to be able to classify nevertheless some characteristics around a Kutsche:
- Number of axles: 1-achsig e.g. the Gig or that Sulky.
- To drive city strain or
- land strain self driver or from the Kutscher to: The self driver is driven by the owner of the car. Recognizably from the equipmentthe driver's seat. Typical self driver: The Phaeton. With some Viktoria there are Kutschen to dismount the possibility the support seat and convert thus to the self driver.
- Cabin layout of the passengers: E.G. DOS A DOS (back at backs), or Vis A Vis.
- Cover: Open cars, canopy, Klappverdeck (e.g. with the Landauer),firm roof (e.g. the Berline).
- Intended purpose: E.G. for the area or to the Dressurfahren etc.
- The brakes
- in areas with few upward gradients one finds this very day Kutschen without brakes. The course animals can brake the car over the Aufhalter or a Hintergeschirr.
- Hindrances (also: Brake shoes) particularly in the mountains for braking on longer departures uses
- mountain brake (the mountain unreeling of the Kutsche) block brakes
- disc brakes
- prevents are usual in modern Kutschen.
- The brake lever
- course brake (similar the emergency brake with the car)
- pressure brake (press an emergency brake to forward)
- screw retainer (to crank)
- Handwheel brake
- foot brake (with most modern Kutschen)
- the kind of the suspension
the suspension differentiates the Kutsche from the car, the execution shows the progress of the technology, in addition, the conditions on (see also:Equipage). The suspension makes the transport of persons more comfortable and safer.That will pull to the course animals facilitated.
- The suspension of the Wagenkastens on four posts by means of a leather belt was the first form of the suspension. The posts were finally replaced to spring rods later by leaf springs and .
Typical feather/spring forms:
- S-form and C-form
_ _\ \ \ _ _
- elliptical feathers/springswith the Untertypen:
- Simple elliptical feather/spring
- Halbelliptikfeder (also Dreiviertelelliptikfeder called)
- elliptical feathers/springswith the Untertypen:
_______ ____ ________/ \/ \ ______/\ _______/\ ________/
- nose process card feather/spring
- Some modern trend Kutschen have a pneumatic cushioning. (e.g. for area travels).
- The arrangement of the feathers/springs at the Wagengestell:
- OneFeather/spring per wheel
- Denuett suspension. 1 additional feather/spring per axle connects the primary feathers/springs.
- Parallelogram - suspension. 4 feathers/springs per axle. Two additional feathers/springs connect the primary feathers/springs transverse to the car direction.
- Special equipments:
- Into the Wagenkasten box with louvers integrated around dogs to accommodate surely ( the Dog Cart).
- Game catch around hunted game to transport (characteristics of the game cart).
- Berline: Similarly as the Landauer, but with firm roof)
- BREAK: Heavy type of car to bring in young horses.
- Carruca (Roman car)
- Coupé: four-wheeled Kutsche with two seats in one Cab, with which the driver sat far in front and in addition outside.
- Dog Cart: Open two-wheel a tension adjuster. In the Wagenkasten a lockable area/subject for dogs is integrated.
- game cart: At the tail a catch is installed to the placing of hunted game.
- park car
- Spider Phaeton: Easy execution of a Phateon.
- Stanhope Phaeton
- covered wagon
- Vis A Vis
- Kutschenmuseum in Laa at the Thaya (Lower Austria)
- Marstall - museum lock Nymphenburg (Munich)
- the car castlethe art-historical museum in Vienna
- prince Thurn and taxi Marstallmuseum lock pc. Emmeram (Regensburg)
- course animal
- horse haven
- Benno of oh brook
- table-ware (course animal)
- body, car
- horse course
- Londoner Kutschenstreit