|of these articles treats the antique city Kyrene. For further meanings see Kyrene (term clarifying).|
Kyrene, a old-Greek city in today's Libya, was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities of the region and gave to east Libya the classical name Kyrenaika, which it kept until today. It lies in one lowers in the high country Dschebel Akhdar.
Kyrene was created as Greek colony of Thera, and as delivers, approx. 630 v. Chr. of Aristoteles (late Battos called) of Thera governed (see: Battiaden). Herodot in the book IV of histories describes the details regarding the town foundation. After Kyrene under the Battiaden had successfully maintained ground against the Persian Achämeniden, the monarchy became 440 v. Chr. fallen. In the future the city experiences a large cultural bloom.
Kyrenaika became in 4. Century v. Chr. Part the Ptolemäerreiches and late Rome. Kyrene was place of birth of the Eratosthenes; the number of the philosophers, who are located in connection to the city, is large; in addition Kallimachos , count Karneades, air-tap and Arete.
The inhabitants of Kyrene at present the Sulla (approx. 85 v. Chr.) were divided into four classes: Citizens, farmers, foreigners and Jews, who formed a restless minority. Lucius Licinius Lucullus was sent from Sulla to Kyrene, in order to suppress unrests, in those Jew an important role played. 74 v. Chr. became Kyrene Roman province; but while under the Ptolemäern the Jewish inhabitants had enjoyed same rights, they saw themselves now suppressed by the autonomous Greek population. Cultural conflicts sharpened themselves too by the rereviving of the Jewish nationalism on the one hand and Hellenisierungstendenzen with a part of the Jews on the other hand. The tensions unloaded themselves in the rebellion of the Jews of Kyrene under Trajan (117). This revolt was suppressed by Marcius turbo, but before were approx. 200,000 Romans and Greeks killed (Cassius Dio, LXVIII 32). This vibration depopulated after Euseb Libya in such a manner that some years had to be created there later new colonies.
Kyrenes main export extended since its early history to the herb Silphium harvested there, which is represented on most kyrenischen coins. Although the commercial competition Karthagos and Alexandria was detrimental to the trade, Kyrene with its gate remained of Apollonia (Marsa Susa) an important urban center up to the earthquake of 365. Ammianus Marcellinus described in 4. Century the abandoned city and Synesios, in Kyrene born, described it in the following century as wild, the Nomaden delivered ruin.
Kyrene is today an archaeological place near the village Shahat. Among the considerable thinking marks rank the temple of the Apollon, originally already in 7. Century v. Chr. one established. A far temple of the Demeter and a partial unausgegrabener Zeustempel (the latter on go-eat damaged by Muammar aluminium-Ghaddafi in the summer 1978). There is one approx. ten km ² large Nekropole between Kyrene and the old gate of Apollonia.
coordinates: 32° 49 ' N 21° 51 ' O