the approach flight (ABC APCH) is short the last phase of the flight before the landing. In the approach phase the airplane is prepared for the landing.
During flights to visual flight rules (VFR) into the airfield traffic circuit one flies. To Gegenanflug and transverse approach „the final approach comes “. The final approach (the actual landing) always consists of five sections: Approach, interception, descent glide, putting, landing run on. Before the approach flight a landing check is always implemented (position of chassis, flaps, speed). With gliders for example with a higher speed than the normal airspeed one lands. In bad weather generally faster one approaches.
Pilots to (VFR) visual flight rules fly, catch up a motoring information. (Weather, in enterprise runway present, other traffic) and accomplish the approach flight in own responsibility.
Pilots to (IFR) Instumentenflugregeln do not fly, have this liberty. They get instructions for the approach. In addition they have to partly decide with the landing, when among other things the chassis is driven out and the speed is lowered. The airplane must be aligned accurately to the runway assigned by the control center, which in particular with bad weather conditions such as z. B. Fog or strong cross-wind every now and then a difficult venture to be can. With the military it is considered as the most difficult exercise at all to land with complete darkness and only small lighting on an aircraft carrier. The approach plays thereby a crucial role, because only by accurate maneuvering this is at all possible.
Table of contents
kinds of approach
During the instrument flight one differentiates:
- as procedure of approach of precision ILS - approach
- as Nichtpräzisionsanflugverfahren the BEFORE - approach, NDB - approach or the government inspection department - approach.
A soil-led blind landing procedure is the Ground control LED Approach.
with the procedure of approach of standard will become very early swung into the final landing configuration and the landing flaps the lift increase driven out. If itself the airplane 12 Nm (about 22.2 km) before the runway in approx. Finds 3,000 Ft height on the extended runway center line, is driven out the chassis. This increased air resistance causes the intensified noise emissions. The descending flight begins approximately 9.5 Nm before the landing, with which the speed is then reduced. In 1300 height ft quite early the final configuration for the last phase of the approach is reached. This procedure represents thereby for the pilot simplest approach procedures, which most most noise and pollutant-most intensive procedures is however simultaneous.
Low dragee/Low power Approach
with this approach procedure become the landing flaps only later, approx. 12 nautical miles before the landing, driven out. Descending flight begins as with the standard Approach with 9,5 Nm, the chassis with less than 5 Nm is only driven out. Since the engine achievement is put back, in order to accomplish descending flight with constant speed, noise and kerosene consumption reduce at the same time, why here of „a Clean in such a way specified Configuration “one speaks.
“Clean Configuration” is the name for an airplane with not driven out Slat/Flaps and brought in chassis and is connected not with lower kerosene consumption.
Only after driving the chassis out the brake delay begins. However also the requirements rise to the pilot with this procedure.
Continuous the cent Approach
this procedure contains a continuous descending flight led by radar, which leads to a reduced engine achievement. Descending flight begins here already 20 Nm before the landing with approximately 5000 ft height. The landing flaps become eleven nautical miles before the landing with approx. 3300 ft driven out, more highly thus than with the past procedures. In 3000 height ft the engine achievement is reduced and descending flight with constant speed continued. About 5 Nm before the set-up point the chassis is driven out and the speed is reduced. The attitude of the final configuration is then final with three nautical miles before the landing with a height of approximately 1000 ft.
Two segment Approach
characteristic for this approach procedure is the late beginning of descending flight about six nautical miles before the landing. Then „more steeply a “descending flight begins with 6° up to 1000 ft height, afterwards the gliding angle 3° is changed over and the final configuration is stopped and stabilized. With beginning of descending flight also the chassis is driven out, while the landing flaps were already substantially in former times opened. The engine is left thereby in the no-load operation. From the high descent rates an endangerment proceeds, since fewer security reserves are present. Accordingly also the pilots are demanded. Additionally a flatter descent rate represents a larger comfort for the passengers. Predivide this procedure are clearly the small noise emissions, since the airplane flies longer in larger height.
Delayed Flap Approach
the procedure is accomplished first similarly the Continuous the cent Approach with a continuous descending flight, which likewise begins with 5000 ft. However the engine is set starting from a height of 3000 ft into the no-load operation, eight nautical miles before putting on are driven out the landing flaps. Only with only 500 height ft the stable final configuration is adjusted. A larger safety risk faces the smaller noise emissions by the late final configuration.