Vertikale Verwaltungsstruktur Deutschlands

vertical administrative structure of Germany

a circle (in North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein) or district (in all other surface countries) is after German local legislation a local authorities association and a regional administrative body. It administered its area after the principles of the gemeindlichen autonomy.

Table of contents

arrangement (land) of the circles

all circles and/or. Districts of Germany subdivide themselves into several (circle-belonging) municipalities. The amount of thatMunicipalities for each circle and is enough from 6 municipalities in the district bunting country (Lower Saxony) up to 235 municipalities in the district Bitburg Prüm ( Rhineland-Palatinate) is very different. Not all municipalities have their own administration (“unit municipality”). Many have themselves toCompletion of their administrative business to central administrative bodies together closed. These have different designations, characteristics and authority depending upon Land of the Federal Republic. See for this the article co-operation of municipalities.

designations of the municipalities

some circle-belonging municipalities can carry also special designations, thosethey due to their history or size received, examples:City, market, marks, mountain city etc. Designations of this kind are administrative without meaning. (See for this the article kinds of municipality in Germany).

Some circle-belonging cities receive in different Lands of the Federal Republic upReason of its inhabitant strength an administrative special status, which is connected with the transmission of further tasks. That happens from country to country differently on request or officially, as soon as the prescribed number of inhabitants is reached. The threshold is likewise in the Lands of the Federal Republicdifferently fixed. It is in Baden-Wuerttemberg with 20.000, in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rheinland-Pfalz about 25.000 and/or. 60,000 inhabitants. These special status cities remain circle belonging, carry then however a special designation, e.g. Large district town, large one independent city, large one city circle-belonging or Medium-sized town.

Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants (in some Lands of the Federal Republic also smaller cities) are circle-free in most Lands of the Federal Republic, i.e., they do not belong to circle/a district. In Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Wuerttemberg there are however cities with morewhen 100,000 inhabitants, who are circle-belonging of cities, e.g. Hildesheim, Moers, Neuss, Recklinghausen, victories, Reutlingen.

Note: The term “large district town “does not have to do necessarily something with the seat (“district town”) of the circle. One Large district town does not have to be seat of the district. Example: Backnang is “large district town” in the rem Murr circle, seat of the rem Murr circle is however Waiblingen, which however even likewise large district town is. That is, also a large district town knows seat of the circleits. (Further examples for this: The large district town new castle at the Danube is circle seat of the district Neuburg Schrobenhausen, which large district town freesing is to seat of the district freesing). In contrast to it the district town of the Hohenlohekreises Künzelsau is not a large district town, becauseit less than 20,000 inhabitants has.


the land/circle and the municipalities circle-belonging stand to each other in a close partnership relationship. They divide the completion of those tasks, which are alone noticed by a circle-free city. Due to thatNumber of inhabitants and the associated different efficiency settle larger circle-belonging municipalities additionally tasks, which for smaller municipalities the circle notices. The circle takes care of thus a task if the efficiency of the municipality is not sufficient or a financial reconciliationnecessarily for the production of equivalent living conditions in the circle, in addition, if a uniform completion over municipality borders is away necessary. Those are primarily services, like for example the building and the maintenance of circle roads, the driving licence nature, the health service, the disaster control, the food monitoring, the garbage disposal, the public local passenger traffic, the social welfare assistance, the emergency measures, the animal protection among other things

For the administration of the land/circle an authority at the seat of the regional administrative body (in the “district town”) (district administration office, district administration, district house is etc.) furnished. Smallest district town is Seelow, in the west old person churches. Here the land advice has its service seat. This takes apart from the local tasks “as extended arm of the state” in addition, tasks as lower national administrative authority (organ-borrow) truely. InCase of the Vollkommunalisierung these tasks of land advice and district administration office are implemented not as lower national administrative authority to separate as transferred task of the district. Thus it implements the general supervision and the special supervision over the municipalities circle-belonging. It can toExample also director/conductor of the education office and the circle police authority its.

The German district day describes in detail the tasks of the circles.


the name circle for a political mechanism with functions of the administration goes on the Czech word kraj (=Land) toin the Middle Ages back. At the beginning of 19. Century tried to introduce the Prussian statesman baron of the stone according to the model of the city order of 1808 also in the rural area the full autonomy of the citizens. Its suggestion was realized only in the eighties,when the first circle orders became to issue, e.g. for the Prussian province Westphalia 1886 and the Rhine province 1887.


of organs of the circle are

For the covering of their financial requirement the circles raise a circle reallocation from the municipalities circle-belonging.

protection of interests

for co-ordination and for political protection of interests are united all 323 districts in 13 regional organizations and on federal level in the German district day (DLT ). This represents 74% the subject of function, 68% of the population and 96% of the surface of Germany.

See also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: District - word origin, synonyms and translations

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