|coat of arms||map|
|Land of the Federal Republic:||Lower Saxony|
|surface:||2.072, 53 km ²|
|inhabitants:||205.559 (30. September 2005)|
|Population density:||99 inhabitants for each km ²|
|circle keys:||03 3 52|
|circle arrangement:||58 municipalities|
| address that|
| Vincent Luebeck road 2|
|Land advice:||Dock Uwe Bielefeld (CDU)|
the district Cuxhaven is, based on its surface, not only one of the largest districts of Lower Saxony, but generally speaking federal territory. Withabout 99 inhabitants per Quadratkilomter it does not however even reach half of the Federal average. Its situation in relation to the remaining federal territory characterizes itself as a pronounced peripheral location, those by the natural borders in the Elbe and Weser delta to the neighbouringAreas even still one strengthens. In the Mündungsgebiet of the Weser into the North Sea the area of the circle-free city Bremerhaven ( Land of the Federal Republic Bremen ) rises up into the circle area. The coastal line runs first northward and starting from Cuxhaven in eastern direction up toBorder with the district Stade. Further neighbouring districts are in the southeast the district red castle (Wümme) and in the south the district Osterholz.
The district town Cuxhaven places in this remote area then again mathematically from all other pointsthe district at the furthest distant place. The surface of the city is comparable to the medium-sized town category with the surface of Hanover, is however after the number of inhabitants only to be assigned.
Table of contents
geography and geology
the underground in the area of the district formessentially the Moränen and meltwater deposits of the Saale ice age, the next to last freezing up period of the Pleistozäns. These form the sandigen backs of the Geest with their typical Findlingen out of granite and Gneis, like the north south of running Höhenzüge of the Wingst and the Westerberges,as well as the high Lieth (Wurster heath). The Endmoränen of the last freezing up (Weichsel ice age) did not reach the area any longer. Therefore the land forms are here very many gentler and flatter, than e.g. in “Holsteini Switzerland “.
Apart from small, relocated sediment remainders from the Tertiary period and Elster ice-age one “Lauenburger clay/tone”, are only with Hemmoor older rocks: the white “write chalk” from the geological formation chalk. This concerns the same layers, also the famousChalk cliff on Rügen form. Up to the locking of the work in Hemmoor these rocks were diminished for production from portland cement.
With beginning of the Holozäns a clear sea level took place - rise via the melting of the glaciers. The offshore valleys were flooded; into thatLower in the interior, like the valleys of the Geeste, Lune and Drepte, the first Niedermoore formed because of the ground-water level rising at the same time.
In the Hadler bay and in the Weser delta now expanded Watt surfaces formed themselves. Each mark,if the Watt were flushed, the suspended matters carried in sea water failed and settled gradually in easily increased Marren, or Platen. From these sandigen mud banks the today's “high countries” formed, for sea-marches the country Hadeln, Country sausages and . The underflows of the today's rivers Medem and Oste developed from Prielen in the Watt.
In the peripheral areas to the Geest, which were cut off by the Marren of the open ocean, formed however only brackish water andFlussmarschen, today's “Sietländer” (of down German:siet = low), later also Niedermoore.
Into valleys with particularly unfavorable discharge conditions it came even to the formation of Hochmooren, like awl moorland, long moorland, Hymenmoor and king moorland (moorland), with peat powerfulnesses oftwo to six meters, even in parts up to eight meters. Only by modern cultivation and drainage moorland growth was stopped. The Torfmoose was displaced first by heath and dwarf bushes, these then by whistle grass and Birken. Particularly in the awl moorlandstrives one today however the Wiedervernässung and Renaturierung of the moorland surfaces.
Apart from other areas at the German North Sea Coast a similar connection of as different landscapes, as Watts, is march, moorland and Geest probably only in Wash-out at the coast of Lincoln-almost and Norfolk (Great Britain).
economical upper center of the region and seat of the tax office at least responsible for the south circle “Weser-flows” is, against expecting, not the city Cuxhaven, but to the Land of the Federal Republic Bremen belonging city Bremerhaven.
economic basis of the district is, as for centuries, still the agriculture, even if it lost by the structural change of the last decades strongly at meaning. In the year 1979 kept house in the districtstill altogether 5,167 enterprises, 2001 only 3,126, of it 65% in the main acquisition. The number of the enterprises decreases further with rising tendency. Those freely becoming surfaces fall usually however not fallow, but become usually completely of thatremaining yards taken over.
Over 70% of the circle area agriculturally one uses (approx. 140,000 hectares). Of it are again about 70% grassland and 30% field. The grassland surfaces, with fodder cultivation and animal husbandry (85% of the enterprises), dominate in all moorland and Geestgebieten,but particularly in the march and in the Hadelner Sietland. On the Geest the landscape is coined/shaped additionally by the expanded forest and forest areas. Are from the 294,000 cattle about 85,000 milk cows. These place thereby the basis of existence of most farmers. The cattle trimming with 1,53 cattle units per hectare of agricultural effective area is relatively low nevertheless, and the natural conditions appropriately. The high-performances animal bred in the circle area become partially. world-wide markets.
The specialized agriculture (about 7% of the enterprises), e.g. of different Kohl placesand other vegetable places, as well as the garden and fruit-growing (3.3% of the enterprises), particularly of apples and cherries, concentrates however in the march areas (v.a. in the Hadelner high country). About 4.7% of the enterprises (with increasing tendency) dedicate themselves to the refinement ofPigs and poultry. In the horse breeding associations Weser-flow and country Hadeln are altogether 1,700 Zuchtstuten registered. Due to the breeding results these associations enjoy a country wide reputation.
1999 worked still about 10% of the persons employed directly in agricultural enterprises, the largest partof them as family workers. The stored foodstuffs industry with their slaughterhouses, dairies, processing enterprises, dealers, and further services, employs further 13%.
| Unemployed person statistics
other important is the tourism, as well as the port-associated services in Cuxhaven.
the circle area was opened 1862 by the Hannöver state railway first only in the south between Bremen and Bremerhaven. Only 1881 reached those Unterelbe railway company Cuxhaven of Hamburg over Stade.
The second connection after Cuxhaven created the Prussian state railway from Bremerhaven in the year 1896; it took at the same time the secondary line Bremerhaven Speckenbüttel - to Bederkesa in enterprise. 1899 followed the line Bremerhaven - Bremervörde.
Those Kleinbahn Farge - Wulsdorf GmbH operated since 1911 parallel to the Unterweser and called themselves late Niederweserbahn GmbH.
The terminator point Itzwörden since 1899 of the Kehdinger circular path outgoing from Stade lay likewise in the today's circle area.
The Eisenbahnnetz of more than 160km length was reduced over over a quarter (46 km):
- 1931: Sandstedt - Wurthfleth Aschwarden - Farge Klb 10 km
- 1932: Stade - Freiburg - Itzwörden 1 km (meter pure)
- 1964: Bremerhaven Wulsdorf Klb - waving energy living - Sandstedt 18 km
- 1968: Bremerhaven Speckenbüttel -Are enough - Bederkesa 17 km
the streetcar Cuxhaven operated on a military course operated only one month in the year 1914 for the cure quarter of box. By streetcar AG from 1919 to 1958 also the city being enough was served of the Bremerhavener.
for the history of the region 1866 ago see also: History of Hadeln and sausages.
1885 to 1918
after one nearly two decades continuing transitional phase became in the Prussian province Hanover, former 1866 annektierten Kingdom of Hanover, at the 1. April 1885 a circle condition imported.The circles to a large extent already replaced the hannoverschen offices, those in the center 19. Century had lost their justice. Apart from exceptions, they held however still the entire public administration in the lower instance.
The transitionout of some consideration for local historical and landschaftliche conditions one made. The Prussian circle Hadeln e.g. was. identically to the hannoverschen office Otterndorf 1866 ago, which was again identical to the lauenburgischen country Hadeln 1689 ago. The circle Hadeln andthe circle Lehe (in the core the old country sausages, office Dorum and the northern part of the office Lehe) were together practically congruent with the area of the old Archidiakonats Hadeln sausages before the reformation. In the east of the today's district coveredthe circle new house to the Oste the office new house and the office the east with the Börde Lamstedt (this until 1859 part of the office Bremervörde had been). In the south the circle became Geestemünde from the southern parts of the office Lehe andthe largest part of the past office Hagen in an educated manner. These four Prussian circles educate the predecessors in title of the today's district Cuxhaven together with the hamburgischen office Ritzebüttel. Besides remained existing the bremische Exklave Bremerhaven surrounded by the circle Lehe, as well as ofCircle Geestemünde surrounded oldenburgische Exklave.
1872 had been already formed for marks from the Ritzebüttel and the port settlement Cuxhaven the land municipality Cuxhaven. More thanhalf of the population lived there 1880 still on the agriculture. Besides the fishery of economic importance, as well as naval mechanisms and that was already 1816 created seaside resort. On the salient point of land with box 1879 had been inaugurated “away ball beacon”. Otherwisethe agriculture formed completely predominantly the economic basis in the today's circle area.
The Prussian land advice were “instruction-bound remark organs”, v.a. with police and management functions. Only since 1920 the circle advice led by the land advice came out from general, secret, direct and same elections.Before, after ostelbischem model, only the three choice federations of the larger rural basic owners, the land municipalities and the cities had been involved in the choice of the circle tag members. A political will stating of the remaining (male) social classes took place thus practically only in the realm tag elections .
Only relatively late (compared to other parts of the German Reich) to 1881 the line Harburg Cuxhaven was opened. Again ten years later the line Geestemünde Cuxhaven. As everywhere the lines facilitated industrial development of the region. Apart from the port places Bremerhaven andCuxhaven developed also in the environment of the factory for portland cement in Hemmoor a new social cross-section of industrial workers. Here developed considerable social-democratic and unionized activities, which found also among the agricultural workers resemblance.
1905 began the municipality and the circle Lehe their areas bordering on the WeserBremerhaven off, in order to make the extension possible of the there port. After in the same year the municipality box in in common December was, the Cuxhaven 1907 received municipal rights to marks. One year later was equipped the fishing port with a large fish market.
Into thatthe social-democratic party (SPD) received last realm tag elections before the First World War 1912 nearly a third of the votes in the province Hanover. Thus it was with distance the largest party in the country, which itself however, because of the Prussian three-class right to vote, notin appropriate realm tag mandates struck down. In the Elbe Weser triangle citizen and the peasantry were correct to a large extent for national liberals Representative of the German state. Their loyalty was considered rather to the German Reich, as the kingdom Prussia. The individualistic anti-Prussian Welfenpartei, the one return of the welfischen monarchy, first hardly found trailer aimed at. Just as few the catholic central party.
1913 received the municipality Geestemünde, because of their increasing meaning as handels and industrial place and its fishing port, municipal rights and became circle-free. Although the district of the same name now no more principal place, remained the administration had in the city Geestemünde. Similar efforts toward municipal rights and the circle liberty in Lehe were only once stopped by the outbreak of the First World War.
Into the Vorkriegszeit also the first beginnings of a telephone network in that fallRegion. The lectures of engineers of the company “Siemens” aroused first interest in the electrification, even under the sceptical Landbevölkerung. But still around 1910 the land advice of new house is to have banished the motorized traffic from the circle, because ofit riding horses preferred by the noise were frightened.
the outbreak of the war aroused, like generally speaking German ones Reich, and as practically in all other nations concerned, first an intoxication of patriotic enthusiasm. Only few suspected that itself the endone epoch prepared. Many land inhabitants were surprised by the events however completely and were rather dismayed. They were straight in the middle in the harvest work, which was sensitively disturbed by the sudden summoning by reservists.
The indirect consequences of the war actions beganto affect itself soon also in the today's circle area: From fear of feeler gauges one strengthened the quantities of awake people. In order to give to possible British aggressors from lake no guideline assistance, one removed the Kirchturmspitze in Wremen. In addition one strengthened the attachments onthe coasts. District hospitals were converted into military hospitals. The past “youth care” changed itself into a kind paramilitärische training. In the agriculture soon the workers began to be missing. The construction of roads and the development of the electrical Überland-Netzes came into coming to a hold, and soon afterBeginning of the war was established southeast from Wanna a camp for Russian prisoners of war, who should be used with the raclamation of the awl moorland. The first pleasure messages arrived.
Already 1915 began itself to make the shortage noticeable for food and feeds.In times of peace one had believed that possible war opponents would never avail themselves of the according to international law forbidden means of the hunger blockade, and therefore no precaution had met. The first refugees from East Prussia were quartered. Starting from August became the farmers Russian, French and BelgianPrisoner of war made available, in order to settle the farm work. In the evening these became again into their guarded community accommodations closed.
In April 1916 all land advice of the governmental district Stade received strictly confidential circulars: Because of the “numerous losses to officials of the inside and generalPublic administration ", as well as out “consideration for the financial situation of the state” they should make themselves thoughts over saving possibilities, particularly over the reduction of the district administration offices. The Otterndorfer land advice recommended in addition the pool of the circles Lehe and Geestemünde, as well as the pool of the circlesHadeln, new house and Kehdingen to a circle “Unterelbe”, with administrative seat in new house. Here he feared only difficulties with the conservative Welfenpartei. This possessed in Kehdingen agrees influence, there it with the old country Kehdingen, contrary to the country Hadeln, overaltwelfische areas acted. At that time from these plans nothing became, but in later times such ideas were once again taken up again and again.
The shipyards in Geestemünde produced nearly only for the war need, the Hochseefischerei came in the mined North Seapractically to succumbing. Already in December 1916 it came into Lehe to plunderings of baker's shops. Putting carrots became the Hauptnahrungsmittel. In the following two years the economic and moral signs of decay increased still.
1918 to 1933
The empire ended in the today's circle area to 5. and 6. November 1918. In Cuxhaven and in the Unterweserstädten revolutionary worker and soldier advice formed, without it before to bloodyArguments would have come. Everywhere meuternde naval soldiers red flags on the public buildings hissten, and in Cuxhaven they organized a peaceful demonstration course with thousands of participants. From the cities also in the rural areas revolutionary advice were used. This existedofficially up to the circle tag elections in January 1920, were however in fact usually harmless and from the old forces were only waited. Despite the strong agricultural coinage of the region e.g. sat. in Hadeln not one farmer in the worker andFarmer advice. Also in the district administration offices no personnel change took place; nobody was nevertheless to more, which would have operated seriously the re-establishment of the monarchy.
At the 11. January 1919 called the worker and soldier advice dissatisfied with the political development of Berlin those “Socialist Republic of Cuxhaven” out. The city should with the office Ritzebüttel from Hamburg is solved, and with which circles Hadeln and new house to a soviet republic combined. The worker and soldier advice of the circle Jork (old country) stated its readinessto step the “Republic of” Cuxhaven. In addition, under less revolutionary signs other politicians and local official considered the pool of the circles Lehe and Geestemünde with Bremerhaven. Again these plans remained without consequences, because when the citizen of Berlin advice of the people-assigned, thus the actingsocial-democratic realm government, that let Unterweserorte occupy militarily, and also threatened the “Republic of” Cuxhaven with the use of troops, the revolutionary adventure after six days was terminated.
Up to some radical groups, like the again created local federations of the KPD, demandednearly all political directions the summoning of a national assembly. In the following general elections for Weimar national assembly, as well as on land circle and district level, the majority wing of the SPD (MSPD) in the office Ritzebüttel received more to than 50% of the validVoices. In the Hadler high country dominated from now to however the conservative German national people's party (DNVP), which particularly represented the interests of the large farmers. The DNVP faced the Weimar Republic to a large extent rejecting, and supported in such a way specified cuts Putsch. In the reasonone wished oneself the authoritarian structures of the empire back, if also not absolutely the emperor. In the Otterndorfer executive committee were several higher officials and an influential publisher of the restaurant press. In the Hadler Sietland and in the other circles attained on the other hand to1928 the volkstümlichere German Hannover party (DHP) increasing successes. Here it concerned the likewise conservative, but anti-Prussian successor of the Welfenpartei. In this party, which addressed particularly rural and layers smallrelating to crafts, was in addition, a vague, anti-Semitic loaded Grollagainst the liberal-capitalistic economic system, by which many felt disadvantaged. Thus nearly everywhere civil-rural three quarters majority resulted against the weak opposition of the SPD.
The cut Putsch in Berlin and food unrests in such a way specified in the Unterweserstädten ensured in the spring and summer1920 for excitement.
In the same year the municipality Lehe was separated from its circle and received municipal rights, as it had for a long time aimed at it. The circle Geestemünde had to deliver the municipality Wulsdorf to the city Geestemünde. The remaining districtslost in this way naturally not only a large part of their population, but also a good part of their resource to the cities. The nearly purely agrarian circles Hadeln and new house had in the last decades, by emigration to America andDrift into the cities, likewise noticeably at inhabitants lost.
Only 1921 became the last Russian prisoners of war into their homeland to dismiss.
In the inflation year 1923 the savings banks of emergency money lights publication, whose nominal values achieved soon astronomical values. Finally it came, as into wholeGermany, to daily wage disbursements, and that official residence impacts in million even trillion-per cent height were demanded from Otterndorfer land advice later.
Arose right after for the conversion to the pension Mark, with which the swindle exciting currency depreciation could be finally stopped, for the march farmers, contrary tothose on the Geest, large difficulties by high fiscal claims. The tax offices had and. A. the constant dyke and water loads too small estimated. The indebtedness of the yards was increased additionally by increasing wage demands of the agricultural workers.
1924 became the cities Lehe andGeestemünde to the city Weser-flows together closed. There Bremerhaven, because of which far existing autonomy of Bremen, not with could be included, resulted a quite strange thing: the two quarters hardly touched themselves, and the way of one on the other hand accomplishedthe territory of another country. To 1927 also still ship villages became dam, Weddewarden and some of being enough in in common December, around the city “to round off”.
Up to the realm tag choice 1928 the district administration office had been in Otterndorf a domain of the DNVP. The party enjoyedlong time the support more numerously “national” groups, like the front soldier federation steel helmet, the federation the German east and the federation of the farmers (BdL), in addition, church groups, like the Evangelist federation. Many of the members took the activities of these groups onlyas unpolitical care of tradition truely, but some from them already had begun themselves to actually radicalize, and extracted the DNVP the assistance. The BdL for example, was already from the times of the First World War for its martial nationalism, boundlessness inadmits of the war goal discussion and Antisemitismus been. It stirred up now fears of alleged expropriation plans of the SPD with landed property over 5 hectares, demanded a strong agriculture for a “people without area”, the protection of the domestic markets, as well as “arms parity” with the EuropeanForeign country.
Due to the drift of its voters to such groups of fragments, under which the NSDAP had attained still no special meaning, the DNVP in Hadeln lost the absolute majority. Throughthe regroupings to favour of the SPD now Hinrich William head, a farmer son from new churches, land advice in Otterndorf became. Although head had been only one decade before member of the Cuxhavener of soldier advice, it became now unanimous from its by the majority conservative circle advicenominated. In his term of office became the west he and Osterende from Otterndorf to local parts of the city. Above all however the large pumping station for pumping large qu at the delta of the Medem and the Hadelner of channel was taken in enterprise. The past, nearly annual inundations inSietland was finally set thereby an end.
The prices for
agricultural products began to purge to ascent of the national socialism in the course of the world economic crisis of 1929. Into the early 1930er years took the losses of the agricultural enterprises, particularly on the Geest andin the Sietland, finally in addition, in the high country, dramatically too. The mass unemployment in the cities intensified the political climate additionally.
Already 1930 succeeded the NSDAP the crucial break-through: In Hadeln she attained in the circle elections approx. 21% of the voices, andbecame thus the strongest party beside the SPD. Particularly disappointed march farmers had turned from the DNVP off and to the NSDAP. Among the agricultural workers in the marches however the SPD put further too (approx. 35% of the voices). On thatGeest, or in the Sietland attained the SPD however only about 6%, probably because the Standesunterschied between farmers and farmhands had been never so pronounced there. The KPD remained insignificant in the rural areas.
1931 led a catastrophically verregneter summerto the nearly complete loss of the harvest in the Hadler Sietland. Many farmers saw themselves from the ruin had suddenly threatened, there them briefly before, to expectation of higher harvest proceeds after the building of the pumping station for pumping large qu, new credits had taken up. Instead of national assistance met however nearlyonly food and feeds “steel helmet”. With the help of the freiwilligen work service (in the v. A. Unemployed persons from the cities Unterschlupf found) carried out the “steel helmet” in addition fast clearing up supplying and patching up. This caused an enormous prestige gain for those, meanwhile of“Steel helmet” supported, NSDAP. Besides the promise of the NSDAP on “refraction the interest farmhand shank” found an open ear. Antisemitismus was during the choice decision for the NSDAP only conditionally of importance. First of all the Jewish population was rather small in the today's circle area and becamenot as threat felt. Secondly most Jews worked as outstanding cattle dealers, and not as suspicious “speculators”, or something similar.
1932 in the context of a Prussian administrative reform, not without resistances, the circles Hadeln and new house, supplemental by the Leher municipality old person forest,to the circle country Hadeln together calm. With areas met which had gone through up to then a quite different political and social development. Neither in the Middle Ages, nor in the modern times, the office new house, or the Börde Lamstedt was, ever part thathistorical landscape Hadeln been. Likewise the circles Lehe and Geestemünde folded up to the circle Weser-flow. This was into so far more simply, since for the two old circles a common upper center had already formed, i.e. growing together the cities to the Geestemündung(Bremerhaven). A goal of the pool were urgently necessary budgetary economies.
In the election campaign for the realm tag elections 1932 the disconcerted civil parties put further (state-basic) the SPD as enemy picture. They imitated thereby the successful agitation style of the NSDAP and swore to the fear that property,Family and Christianity on the play would stand. This strategy proved however as counter productive, there it the voters in addition arranged nevertheless directly for the “original” to be correct. The NSDAP attained in the new circle Weser-flows the absolute majority; in the circle countryHadeln approached it the 50% - mark. Thus it lay clearly over the realm average.
Differently than in the turbulent times at the beginning of the Weimar Republic this mark three of the four old land advice remained no longer longer in the office, but becameeither soon shifts or into the retirement skillfully. Only the old-served Dr.Walter to the Nieden remained as a land advice of the circle Weser-flows until 1935 in the office. 1933 he worked even for short time as a boss of the Gestapo in the governmental district Stade.
1933 to 1945
development of the National Socialist rule
after the “seizure of power “the NSDAP to 30. January 1933 before the Otterndorfer city hall the flags of the “old regime” were burned. One began immediately also on area level the civil service with tenure of “foreignrace-triumph to clean for unsuitable and politically unreliable elements ”. All officials had to furnish from now to a Ariernachweis. Up to district level down “with the idea of the national socialism deformed men” were used.
After the first circle elections in March 1933 the change of power gavein the population first however cause for hope, satisfaction and easement. One seized the indebted farmer with tax exemptions, conversion of debts actions, favorable credits and secured producer's prices under the arms. In order to achieve the food autarcy desired in Germany, it came to several cultivation programs,and to the development of a unit and an obligation organization. (Since 1935 no more freiwillige) the work service was used in the dyke construction and drainage measures. National defense contracts, building of barracks, the plant of airfields and troop exercise areas provided soon for full employment. All workers became obligatory in the unit trade unionGerman work front (DAF) organizes. The national indebtedness rising rapidly thereby was first hardly noticed.
The districts developed in the course of “synchronising” ever more from local mechanisms to national authorities. The role of the Kreistage became soon insignificant and the entire responsibilitylay with the person of the land advice. On the other hand (of Adolf Hitler obviously wanted) an authority confusion often prevailed between the national and the party organs. With contentious questions then in each case the higher in each case instance, finally only the “leader” could make, final decisions.
After 1935 the places Groden, westhe and southget, Stickenbüttel, Duhnen, new work and parts of Sahlenburg of the city Cuxhaven in in common December were, took place 1937 a further large regional reorganization. In the context large Hamburg law came it for the change of Prussian and hamburgischen areas.Cuxhaven became Prussian and circle-free thereby. That to Cuxhaven office belonging to Ritzebüttel fell before to the circle country Hadeln.
On the other hand 1939 also the city Bremerhaven Prussian and the city Weser-flow attached, thereby to a large city with moreas 100,000 inhabitants became. Much to the displeasure of the Weser mouths however the actual port area remained further with Bremen. The oldenburgsche Exklave was not touched.
contrary to the First World War held itself with outbreak second the enthusiasmwithin limits. However the systematic war preparations of the last years had not remained ineffective. From the beginning the collusion ( darken a switching of the road lighting off from vehicle headlights and windows,) belonged to the everyday life, in order to offer to hostile airplanes no goals.
After all kinds of official difficultiesand the party comrade and SA took - member Erich hate 1939 its parting to embarrassing incidents as a land advice of the circle country Hadeln. It was replaced by the competent administrative lawyer Ernst Klemeyer. However this, like many other officials of circle, was drawn in soon to the military serviceand was in the following years hardly in the circle present. In order to prevent that the land advice of Weser-flows, the “party man” Theodor of meals, in this time the office business would notice, transferred he the director/conductor of the Bremervördener district administration, baron Schenck to pig mountainthe agency. 1943 were replaced latter by the disabled veteran government advice Waldemar Büning.
Starting from 1942 the war happening affected ever more strongly the economic situation: Food, household appliances and building materials were to be only received for many over reference lights. There manyFarmer sons to the military service were drawn in, and very much more frequently than in the First World War, never, the yards returned of had to be managed the old persons and women remained back. The forced laborers and prisoner of war used thereby were usually humanly treated, thereone was dependent on their worker. In addition, there were cases of abusing.
After the allied air raids on Hamburg in July 1943 thousands of Ausgebombten had to be accommodated. Apart from occasional attacks of low fliers (often on individual Passanten, or farmerswith the farm work!) and the emergency drops of ally bombers, which got rid of on the return flight of the large ports of their surplus bombs, the rural areas remained however exempted from fighting.
After the substantial air raid on Weser-flow (Bremerhaven) to 18. September 1944, which large parts of the city fell to the victim, accommodations had for thousands of Ausgebombten are procured in the environment. At the same time the first waves of refugees and refugees from the German east areas arrived. Also circle inhabitants disappeared inthe concentration camps, and in the course of the yearly 1944 it came also here to executions of citizens, who had adversely expressed themselves over the regime. One knows that around 1900 in the circles Lehe Weser-flows to about 300 gläubige Jews andlived. Since 1816 a synagog in Ritzebüttel existed. At the end of the war the region of the today's circle was “Jew-free”.
To last in the circle area antitank barriers and earth attachments were put on for defense, which however often removes from the population secretly againbecome. Old men and young person were set up to the people storm. Back flooding German troops and toe thousands refugees flowed into the circle. But still to 21. March 1945 provided land advice of meals a document with the note: “Again to submit after the victory” thatacting land advice Büning however could prevent, under substantial personal risk, some senseless destruction, like the breakup of the east bridge with Hechthausen. Near the “British front” moving from the south and southeast was with the surrender to 4. May on the line Lintig Kührstedt coals.Bederkesa had been still under low flier and artillery bombardment. Three days later the total surrender took place.
1945 to 1977
after the invasion of British armored units a nocturnal going out prohibition for the population were immediately imposed. As the first the political becameLeader arrests and interns. All leading officials and mayor were replaced in several waves by persons, who could not have been member of the NSDAP. Because of its courageous and prudent behavior land advice Büning was left however in its office. The BritishBesatzer behaved to the population opposite generally correctly, but coolly and essentially. Some the released prisoners of war and forced laborers however armed themselves and oppressed the farmers with those them to work had had. Apart from the refugees from East Germany pushed themselvesin the villages also the German soldiers, who had back pulled themselves in the last war weeks here, because on arrangement of the British were allowed not to leave them the area first.
In the first year after the surrender quartering of refugees tookeven still too. The Landbevölkerung suffered not in such a way nevertheless long from the food scarceness, like the Städter, which were dependent on dispatchings, or the black market.
Soon crew power recognized that its original intention of excluding all NSDAP members from the public work notto realize was. Thereupon Entnazifizierungs became - commissions furnished, that should judge the personal load of each carriercarrier carrier, before it could return possibly again to its occupation. As educational measure many former party comrades had to eliminate obligatorily the antitank barriers and the earthwork. Besidesone in addition, value put on exercises in democratic thinking and acting. The previous “one-man principle” was waived by appointment of committees on municipality and area level for decision making.
With approval of the Besatzer the old democratic parties were again created. In October 1946 gave it already again selected Kreistage. The again-justified SPD dominated only in the circle-free Cuxhaven. In the two districts it remained however, as if since the times of the Weimar Republic nothing would have happened, in the minority. Likewise the KPD disappearedsoon again. The national party of Lower Saxony attained safe majorities, later renamed into a German party instead of its (DP). Here it concerned, as had, the follow-up party of the welfisch anti-Prussian DHP. It demanded v.a. the free union of the welfischen landscapes to oneCountry Lower Saxony. (In the later years of the strengthened democracy most voters of the DP, as well as some their politicians, moved away to the CDU.) finally the British military government kept itself however until 1947 (with an American Intermezzo in the circle Weser-flow)in all interests the final decision forwards.
After the dissolution of Prussia found at the 1. November 1946 by regulation of the British military government actually the establishment of the country Lower Saxony instead of. First Prime Minister became by the way the former Hadler land advice Hinrich William head. (Thereit never make no secret from its sympathies for the representatives of the old monarchy made, became known it as the “red Welfe”.)
the functions of the land advice went (after centuries old English administrative tradition) largest part on the again created office of the director of upper circleover. This was from now on intermediary between the Land authority and the population of circle, and represented the circle outward. The land advice was thereafter only, when “first under resembling”, member of the Kreistages, that operated the actual local administration, and its office becamehonorary.
Occasionally however the understanding for such, their opinion after, secondary projects, in the face of the state of distress which can be mastered was missing to the German representatives, like striking housing shortage and refugee misery. In the rural areas one was almost again into preindustrial times back pleases.Money had lost its value nearly. Few that one could not produce, against food one exchanged. One heated the darkness illuminated only stable lanterns with dried peat. One smoked pulled tobacco, “burned black” and slaughtered also in such a way.
At the beginning of of 1947the city Weser-flow into the country Bremen integrated and into Bremerhaven renamed. Nevertheless the administrative seat of the circle of Lower Saxony remained Weser-flows in the new city. In the review it seems that one would have some annoyance with the later regional reorganization savescan, if at that time, instead of its, which would be fallen relatively small bremische dockland at Lower Saxony.
In the context of the currency reform of 1948 also the so far still dominant state-controlled economy was to a large extent diminished. Many consumer goods were suddenly freely for sale, and also available! Forthe public and private economy meant this however first that many goods became also substantially more expensive. Radical savings in the administratives expense of the circles, in addition, tax increases and raisings of credit, became necessary. Even the Heimkehrer from Russian war shank got using the nowTo feel shortness of funds with the office for emergency aid. The inserts of the savings banks fused from one day on the others to a fraction. So they no more were not to be supported in a the position the local economy with credits. In the private sector it cameto increased dismissals and to a rise of unemployment.
To 24. May 1949 came into force the Basic Law as provisional condition of the Federal Republic of Germany . With the choice to the first Bundestag, to 14. August of the same yearly, became in Constituency 10, which was exactly congruent with the today's district, a candidate of the SPD directly selected. Over the national list additionally a candidate of the DP from the constituency arrived into the Bundestag. Compared to later elections was the participation also72% not very highly. Particularly yet really domestic the refugees become did not hesitate to take at the political forming of an opinion part.
To 21. September ended in the area the activity of the military government.
In the first months of the yearly 1951 it cameto flood disasters in the Hadler Sietland, with Lüdingworth and in the area around the Balksee, particularly because the Otterndorfer pumping station for pumping large qu had failed. Likewise unusually high storm tide levels became apparent in this time.
In the same year the former Hadler became land advice KlemeyerDirector of upper circle in Weser-flows.1954 began the likewise former Hadler land advice Büning the same office in the circle country Hadeln. With it the actual post-war period ended in the today's circle area.
were to some extent solved reconstruction into the 1950er the problems of the almost existence safety device. ThroughSchool extensions and additional positions for teachers was a bearable everyday life for those, by Zuwanderung (refugees) and Geburtenüberschuss (!) reached around more than half risen, number of the pupils. The circle boards of works promoted through would give own means, as well as procurement of state supports and firstHypotheken, the building of dwellings and homes of one's own.
One tackled likewise the raclamation one of the last remaining Hochmoore to beginning of the 1950er in Lower Saxony, the awl moorland. The intention stood of creating new farmer places for the refugees those usually likewisefrom rural areas originated. At that time probably still nobody could be dreamed that a daily the agricultural overproduction would become calculated one of the largest problems of the circle. The remaining moorland became, up to few small protected areas, the industrialmoderate Abtorfungfreely given.
Later however already an awaking environmental protection consciousness already became few years apparent, when it succeeded to stop the British exercise bomb releases on the large farmhand and before the Wurster coast. This important race and mouse-suppl.-offer for fire geese and other sea-birds1957 were proven as the largest German protected area.
End of the 1950er years also in remote circling hurrying water and Stromleitungen were shifted. In the context of the “Green of plan” the Wegenetz was improved.
Although the devastating storm tide of 16. and 17. February 1962 thathighest ever measured level achieved, and in Hamburg many victims demanded, withstood the dykes in the circle area this mark the uncontrolled forces of nature. Apart from the native Deichverbänden also Freiwillige fire-brigade, German Federal Armed Forces - soldier, police - accepted officials and the technical welfare organizationthe dramatic defense of the dykes part. The developed damage could be rapidly repaired.
The living conditions on the country began themselves to adapt in the city ever more to those. To large extent new schools were built. Most refugees were afterand after into the prosperierenden cities moved away, also into other parts of Germany, like the Ruhr district. Because of the increasing use of machines in the agriculture, in addition, because of the task of many smaller enterprises, had itself ever more a native job inCuxhaven or Bremerhaven look for. On the other hand also many Städter pulled again back on the villages, in order to rent itself there a dwelling “in the country” to build or their own house into the 1960er year. The appearance of some villages, those changed therebyinto commuter suburbs transformed in such a way, of everyone as improvement one did not feel.
In the course of the 1960er years developed also the tourism to an increasing restaurant factor.Before it it had been only in the seaside resort Cuxhaven of importance. The attraction of the region “Cuxland “, how it is gladly called in the today's advertising brochures, lies however probably not so much in the Trubel of the bath beaches, but rather in the harshAttraction of the far feasting and moorland landscapes, with the high, changeful sky; in the fascination of the eternally same and nevertheless eternally changeable sea; in the pictorial old part of town fronts of the small towns and marks; in the maritime flair of the transatlantic harbors.
1969 separated the director of upper circle Klemeyerfor age reasons from the office;1971 likewise director of upper circle Büning. Up to the conclusion of the regional reorganization the past deputy director of upper circle Jürgen H transferred in the circle Weser-flows. Th. Priess the office; in the circle country Hadeln Dr. Torsten Quidde, last local departmental head with thatOsnabrücker district government.
1966 had already used the federal state government of Lower Saxony the weber commission in such a way specified, in order to examine the possibilities for improvement in the administrative and area structure of the country. The conclusion appraisal of 1969 solved however violent, partially. party-tactically, discussions in the country motivated out.The number of the existing districts and the circle-free cities should be reduced by approximately half. Since resistances on regional level seemed insurmountable, one began with the reform first with the weakest members, the municipalities.
As 1970 to 1971 thoseMunicipalities Sahlenburg, getting clips and Berensch were separated - Arensch from the circle country Hadeln and incorporated the city Cuxhaven, still happened this with active support of the circle. When this was forced however already two years later, also still the greaterOld person forest to surrender and althadler municipalities the old person break and Lüdingworth to the city this happened against its express resistance. Again the trend was confirmed that itself the cities only too gladly, debited to the surrounding districts, with their area and populationequip.
Also in the circle Weser-flow came it to 1974 to re-organizations: the Exklave existing since the Middle Ages was attached the circle, likewise parts of the circle Bremervörde. But Weser-flows areas to the circle Osterholz had to deliver. Particularly the union of the areasSpaden and ship village, over the Geeste away, as well as the union rural new forest with the outskirts community being enough, excited little enthusiasm under the concerning.
While in other parts Lower Saxony the area reform was final now, here the unpleasant Gezerre pulled itself stillsome years. The original suggestions of the weber commission were 1977 long outdated. This had a union of the circles Weser-flows and considered Osterholz with the city Cuxhaven and the western half of the circle country Hadeln. Bremerhaven should become seat, although itto Bremen belonged, and today still belongs. The remaining circle country Hadeln should be folded up with the circle Stade, with seat in Stade. When then however the federal state government suggested, instead of making Bremerhaven Osterholz Scharnbeck the circle seat, one was inWeser-flow, to understandable way, rather dissatisfied. The city Cuxhaven was on the other hand endeavored to receive their circle-free status. In the circle however itself the parliamentary groups, attached country Hadeln depending upon party-political adjustment, were not united, whether the circle Weser-flows better on, or Stadewill should. A division of the circle was applicable however for nobody.
Excluding negative effect of the Hick Hacks was not however that itself the district administrations felt pushed to accomplish rapidly some long preserved projects so long it still existed. One arranged, School centers historical buildings to museums, built bridges and homes for the elderly, restored old windmills, etc. removed, prepared libraries and psychological advisory boards.
Around the regional reorganization to lock generally speaking eight setting were necessary. Finally became with effect the 1. August 1977the districts country Hadeln and Weser-flow with the circle-free city Cuxhaven to the district Cuxhaven folded up. Seat became, the still understandable displeasure of the Weser mouths, Cuxhaven. Jürgen H. Th. Priess remained as a new director of upper circle of the increased circle in the office.
Cities and municipalities
(numbers of inhabitants of 30. June 2005)
- Cuxhaven, large one independent city (52.384)
- being enough, city (18.630)
- Loxstedt (16.302)
- north wood (7.611)
- ship village (14.145)
integrated municipalities with their member municipalities
* seat of the integrated municipality administration
Web on the left of
- official Website of the district Cuxhaven
- Cuxland information
- homepage in the district Cuxhaven
- information of the Landwirtschaftskammer Hanover, district place Bremervörde
- Erich von Lehe: History of the country sausages.With a contribution by Werner hair nail.Bremerhaven 1973
- Rudolf Lembcke (Hrsg.): Circle country Hadeln. History and present. Otterndorf 1976.
- Rudolf Lembcke: 100 years of circles at Elb and Weser delta 1885 - 1985. The district Cuxhaven and its predecessors in title. Otterndorf 1985.
- Hans Jürgen Hansen, Klaus Rohmeyer: Coastal circle Cuxhaven.Urbes publishing house Gräfeling before Munich, 1983.
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