agriculture is the process, by the purposeful cultivation of plants (agriculture, horticulture, fruit-growing, viticulture, not however forestry) and by the use and breed of domestizierten animals (cattle breeding) food, fodder, Fibers and other desired raw materials to produce, which serve on the one hand the nutrition of mankind, on the other hand however also than raw material for manufactured products as for example rapeseel oil to the employment come. A person, who operates professionally agriculture, is called farmer.
table of contents
agriculture contains three:
- Subsistenzwirtschaft: Here the farmer produces enough food for itself and his family (howeverno more).
- (generally into the so-called countries and in other countries likewise more and more “developed”) the production of a financial income by land cultivation or commercial cattle breeding.
Beside food and fodder the production of other agricultural products takes such as ornamental plants, fertilizers,Leather, industriellen chemicals (strength, ethanol, coloring materials and plastics), fibers (cotton, wool, hemp, Naturseide and flax), fuels (methane, bio Diesel, biomass) as well as certified medical active substances (Biopharmaceutica, legal drugs(Alcohol, tobacco) and forbidden drugs (marijuana, Opium, cocaine) too. Also the production of genetically changed plants and animals rises.
meaning in Germany
in the year 2003 gave it in Germany approx. 420.700 agricultural enterprises starting from 2 hectars LF. In it were approximately 1.3 millionPersons main or sideline employs, which corresponded to 560,000 full time jobs.
Altogether 17 million hectar (hectare) soil were agriculturally used (those are approx. 49.3 per cent of the total area). Of it were allotted to the plant production approximately 11.8 million hectares and to continuous grassland approximately5 million hectare. In the comparison to it do not play fruit plants, nursery gardens and Christmas tree cultures regarding the land consumption a large role. Germany was 2004 with goods in the value of 13,8 billion Dollar world-wide fourth largest exporter of agricultural products.
meaning in Switzerland
Swiss agriculture is on an agrarian large-scale building site. From 1990 to 2005 the farms decreased from 93.000 to 65.000 and the persons employed in the agriculture from 254.000 to 190.000. Simultaneous the incomes are in this time overapproximately 30% broken in, while the consumers 14% had to pay higher prices. 40% of all plant manager are missing a future prospect. 11% of the entire culture surface are managed as ecological compensation area. 30% fewer plant protection agents and 68% less artificial fertilizer than before are used 15 years.6114 agriculture enterprises are certified (bio bud label) bio enterprises (2005). Buys on the average each Swiss for nearly 160 Franconias bio products per year, which means in accordance with bio Suisse world record.
By the agricultural policy (AP) 2011 are aimed at a further reduction of agricultural production. The World Trade Organization negotiationsand a possible free trade agreement with the USA are not yet foreseeable in their negative effect on the agriculture.
the term of the agriculture is regulated in Germany fundamentally through § 201 building law book (BauGB).
general can be divided the agriculture in two production directions:
Which of these forms outweighs locally, depends on the location: On easy locations (bad soil) the aminal husbandry is competition-stronger, during on betterSoils the plant production is more economical.
- securing of food supply by the production of high-quality food,
- indulgence of natural resources soil, water and air,
- infrastructural, economic, social and cultural stimulation of the rural areas,
- care of the culture landscape and receipt of the diversity of species,
- inFuture possibly increases production of regenerativ energies
forms of the agriculture
- historical agriculture
- up to the invention of the mineral fertilizer
- traditional agriculture
- to approx. 1960
- tries to use modern knowledge and thoseto avoid negative reciprocal effects of the modern agriculture.
- obtains high Ernteerträge by breeding special sorts (in some states also already under employment of the genetic engineering), by Monokultur, as well as the use of feeds, artificial fertilizer, insecticides, fungicides, Herbicides and growth modulators (the plant protection agents in such a way specified). The intensive employment of the factors of production mentioned serves the constant increased returns, however often leads to negative reciprocal effects with nature (environmental protection) and the produced food (questions to arrears in Food).
Agrarian and nourish-scientific faculty of the Christian Albrechts university to Kiel accomplishes on several years a laid out comparison of production forms, whose result can be helpful in the current discussion since summer 2003.
regarding the production methodstoday distinctive in (alphabetically):
- Biological agriculture (or also ecological agriculture)
- biological-dynamic agriculture is a esoterische method, which appoints itself to the Anthroposophie and cosmic rhythms. It fulfills the ecological criteria and can these be also certified.
- Conventional agriculture alsothe Unterform of the integrated agriculture
- synergistic agriculture
major item: Agricultural policy
political conflict fields
the agriculture in Germany, Europe and world-wide is in a deep paging: Large successes in the productivity increase on the oneSide face unequal distribution, Preisdumping, numerous terminations of activities as well as ecological problems. Since 1992 introduced reforms of the European agricultural policy with a complex system of compensations erroneous trends could not prevent. The present situation is for the social situation of the agricultural families,for the national economy and for the ecological situation connected by soil, waters and animal protection with high loads. The large number of terminations of activities is certification of a existenziellen emergency. The diseases violently discussed in the public and/or. Scandals - BSE crisis, muzzle andClaw epidemic - are no single phenomena, but are partial expression of structure problems of the agriculture in the burst test between economic and ecological requirements.
The world-wide crisis of the agriculture is at the same time a central problem of global justice: During on the world markets a surplus of foodprevails, the prices ever continue to fall and if the own production of food in developing countries back urge subsidized surplus products from the USA and the European Union, did not succeed mastering the problem of the world nutrition. The rapid loss at fruitful soil and thatthreatening decrease of the availability of water, which is used to 70% in the agriculture, is already today one of the primary poverty causes. Effective poverty fight for the 800 million hungernden humans is not possible without a profound reform of the global agricultural policy.
major item: Agrarian history
the systematic cultivation of plants probably began before approximately 12,000 years at the end of the last ice age. It is probable that the development almost at the same time in America, China and that the middle east used. The change of the climate by the end of the ice age, the population growth and the permanence beginning as itself favouring factors are regarded.
no more cannot
carry renewable sources of energy out the agricultural production of renewable sources of energy than the energy entry given by the sun. As long as the non--balance of the use of fossil fuels in our economic systems continues, each form of agricultural production can from regenerativ sources of energy (independent of their lastingness) with the use of the fossil power production do not compete.
The principle of the lastingness is legally fixed in Germany.
portal: Land and forestry, agricultural policy, forestry, farmer, Leibgedinge, producer community, Federal Ministry for nutrition, agriculture and consumer protection, Food and Agriculture Organization, main acquisition enterprise, supplementary income enterprise, Zuerwerbsbetrieb
Web on the left of
- Infothek - search machine about agriculture
- Cartoons and caricatures about agriculture
- agriculture in former times andtoday - farmer rules and lives on the farm
- picture archives of the house of Bavarian history (select project “on the country”)
- agrarian report of the Federal Government 2006
- materials about agriculture of the CMA
- statistics to the agriculture in Germany
- promotion community lasting agriculture - informationto the lasting development of the agriculture
- information medium agrarian (i.m.a) registered association. - Training aid for generally screen end schools over agriculture
- “critical agrarian report” agrarian alliance of the registered association.
- Forum for the agriculture
- outside machine switching - auxiliary incomes for farmers in Germany
- situation report of the German farmer's association
- specialized information center: Range libraryfor nutrition, environment and agrarian sciences, Bonn
- agriculture in former times by the example Altenstädts (village in North Hesse)
|Wiktionary: Agriculture - word origin, synonyms and translations|