Lanzarote is the most northeast of the Kanari islands in the Atlantic ocean. It is appropriate approximately 140 kilometers west for the Moroccan coast and 1,000 kilometers far away from the Spanish mainland. The island has a surface of 845,5km ² and 123,039 inhabitants (ISTAC, 2005), which corresponds to a population density of 146 inhabitants per km ². The capital of the island is Arrecife, the national language Spanish. The Kanaren belongs to the territory of Spain, forms together one for its17 autonomous regions and belong since 1996 to the European Union. Lanzarote has like all other islands its own island advice (cabildo insular) and belonged to the province read Palmas.
As the first complete island Lanzarote became 1993 of the UNESCO as the biosphere reservation explains.
Table of contents
Lanzarote is divided into seven Gemeindegebiete:
Lanzarote measures 60 kilometers from north to south and approx. 25 kilometers in the broadest place. In the south of Lanzarote lies in 11 kilometer distance the island Fuerteventura, and in the north the Chinijo archipelago with thatsmall islands La Graciosa, Montaña Clara, Alegranza, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este. From that altogether 213 kilometers of coast 10 kilometers of sand and 16.5 are kilometers gravel beach, the remainder consist of rock coast. The island possessestwo mountain courses. In the north of the island the Famara massif rises to 671 meters and.NN on, and in the south the lot Ajaches on 608 meters and. NN. South the Famara massif follows the sand desert of El Jable, those thatFamara massif of the fire mountains in such a way specified (Montañas del Fuego) of the Timanfaya national park separates. In the Timanfaya area last farmsteads occurred also together about from 1730 to 1736 and 1824 strong volcanic eruptions, the large parts of the most fruitful field and several villages and420 houses under itself buried. The remainder of the island is coined/shaped by a hill landscape, which is interrupted by saliently rising volcanic cones.
Lanzarote is an island of volcanic origin. Approximately 35 million years ago formed repeated submarineVolcanic eruptions the base of the island. 19 million years ago Lanzarote exceeded over the sea surface.Alfred Wegener supplied 1912 with the theory of continental drift the first explanation model for the emergence of the Kanari islands. Therefore the islands developed withBreak apart the African and American plate. It could be occupied by submarine measurements that Lanzarote and Fuerteventura rest together on the African continental plate. In the sixties the drift theory was supplemented by Wegener by the modern model of plate tectonics. Thereforethe foundation of the island is to be because of a place, in which the expanding Atlantic soil tossed itself and folded. Beginnings developing the Kanari islands with the Hot Spot theory in agreement to bring failed. Although the Kanari islands of the east(Lanzarote) to the west (El Hierro), could not the recent volcanic eruptions become ever younger 1730 - 1736 (many millions years after the emergence of the island) on Lanzarote with this model to be explained. At this time the active would have Magma chamber of the Hot Spots of many far west in the range of the island La Gomera to lie must.
first reports by Greeks and Romans
by the proximity to Africa and the European continent was probably Lanzarotethe first Kanari island, which was settled. It is assumed that the Phönizier already around 1100 v. Chr. the island visited. Also the Greek writers and philosophers Herodot, Platon and Plutarch report of the garden of the Hesperiden, ofCountry writes the fertility, where fruit and flowers smell in the Brise of the Atlantic wind, and Homer in the fourth singing of the odyssey of a paradiesischen place. It is however unclear, whether it concerns with these descriptions only seal, orwhether concretely the Kanaren was meant. The first reliable recordings come from Plinius the older one, which reports in its enzyklopädischen natural history Naturalis Historia from an expedition to the Kanari islands. In this recording for the first time names for those become Insulae Fortunatae (islands of the luck leagues) assign: Canaria (Gran Canaria), Ninguaria (Teneriffa), Junonia Mayor (La Palma) and Capraria (El Hierro). One believes that Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were connected, because both, and also Lobos, are mentioned not individually loosely, however an archipelago. After the plants found there, with which it concerned with high probability the Färberflechte (Rocella tinctoria), they are called „magenta islands “. Archaeological finds, on the 1. Centuryv. Chr. to be dated could, occupy the presence of the Romans on Lanzarote.
the Wiederentdeckung by Arabs and Europeans
in the following centuries turn out the Kanaren after the collapse of the Roman realm again into oblivion, and become inYear 999 n. Chr. by Ben Farroukh rediscovers. The Arabs gave the name aluminium Djezir aluminium-Khalida (lucky islands) to the islands and followed thereby the names of the Romans. In the year 1336 a fleet stung under from Lisbonthe guidance of Lanzarote there Framqua alias Lancelotto Malocello in lake, in order to investigate the end at that time of the world, which lay at that time before the northwestAfrican coast. Beyond this point sea-monsters and the hell glow of the seeing era surviving should make impossible. Lancelotto Malocello never around-applies the cape of the fear (cape Bojador), discovered however the Kanari islands again, and established themselves on Lanzarote. In the proximity of the today's city Teguise he built a small on the Montaña de Guanapay Away. Again arrived at Portugal, reached it it that from it discovered and one draws in in possession taken island in the map of the world of the Angelino Dulcert as Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus. Since that time Lanzarote carries its name.
Subjecting by Europeans
attracted by valuable raw materials such as Orseille (red Färberflechte) and slaves, undertook Jean de Béthencourt 1402 an expedition under king Heinrich III. from Kastilien to the kanarischen islands. It went in the south Lanzarotes (of thatGuanchen Titeroygatra mentioned), with the Papagayo beaches ashore, and could convince the native island king Guardafia to work with it peacefully together in which it offered protection from Portuguese and Spanish people dealers to it. With his assistance could in the Rubicón- Level a fortress build. This was however a deception, since Béthencourt used the peace, in order to conquer the other islands. It determined however soon that its equipment and it the available the soldiers were not sufficient, control overto attain all islands. Béthencourt went so back on the mainland. During its absence Gadifer uses de la Salle the small pre-aged island lot Lobos as base. Here Bertín de Berneval led then however a rebellion and took native ones asSlaves also to Spain.Gadifer had now no more ship and verdurstete almost on lot Lobos, while the native ones began with the killing of Europeans. With the help of the Guanchen Atchen wanted Gadifer its people throats. Atchen took the king Guardafíaon Lanzarote and wanted even to power.Guardafía could flee however and let Atchen alive burn. Béthencourts bring along of clergyman baptized Guardafía and hurried with the baptism of many Guanchen, which made these slaves. To Béthencourts return 1404Lanzarote was subjected. So one could dedicate oneself well prepared Fuerteventura to the conquest of the neighbour island. Béthencourts less successful nephew Maciot de Béthencourt will remain as its deputy on Lanzarote. It takes itself the daughter named Teguise of the past ruler Guardafiato the life companion, and Acatife designates the place at that time after it.
Rubicón with the Papagayo beaches becomes even first bishop seat by Benedikt XIII. Bishop Alfonso Sanlúcar de Barrameda showed Maciot de Béthencourt because of its tyrannischen behavior with the Spanish crown on (see also: List of the bishops of the Kanari islands). Thereupon Enrique de Guzmán handed, 1430 on instruction of the crown the possession of the islands conquered so far to count over von Niebla at Guillén de read Casas. 1435 took over Fernán Peraza throughInheritance this possession. On pressure of Béthencourt occupied Portuguese Lanzarote, was from there driven out however after two years. After Fernán Peraza followed the married man of the Inés Peraza, Diego Herrera, which Lanzarote and Fuerteventura on its children Sancho deHerrera, María de Ayala and Constanza de Samiento distributed. In the following years history Lanzarotes through always recurring assaults of Piraten is characterized. The worst itself in the year 1618 , as the Piraten Jabán and Solimán that occurredHiding place of the located ones in the caves of the Cueva de loosely Verde discovered, and imprisoned took approximately 1,000 island inhabitants, in order to offer they afterwards on the African slave market for the sales.
natural catastrophes in 18. Century
1730 came it on Lanzaroteto heavy volcanic eruptions. At the 1. Septembers formed on a distance of 18 kilometers of 32 new volcanos. The outbreaks, those of the minister of Yaiza, Don Andrés Lorenzo Curbelo, until 1731 was documented in detail, took altogether 2,053 daysand ended in the year 1736. At the end the lava had buried a quarter of the island surface approximately under itself, under it the most fruitful soils of the island and several villages and farmsteads. Instead here one hundred new volcanos developed,those to the name Montañas del Fuego (fire mountains) received. At first it was the island inhabitants, under menace of punishment, forbade the island leaving, since the island guidance feared, having no more workers available. The supply of food worsenedbut appreciably, so that on the neighbour island Gran Canaria was permitted to half of the population to emigrate. 1768 came it to a dry disaster, after the winter precipitation did not fall several years long. The Dürre demanded numerous dead ones, many inhabitants moved on thoseNeighbour islands or to Cuba and America out. In the year 1824 it came to a renewed volcanic eruption within the range of Tiagua, which was by far not as bad however as the outbreaks in the years 1730 to 1736. 1974the Timanfaya national park was created here.
Lanzarote possesses an all year round mild and climate of light precipitation. The daytime temperatures amount to in the summer between 30 and 35 °C at the day and about 20 °C at the night. In the winter amount tothe temperatures between 20 and 25 °C by day and about 13 to 16 °C at the night. Lanzarote lies in the trade-wind zone, which leads to the fact that on the island all year round fresh hoist from north to northeast sore andthe partially high summer temperatures make bearable. The water temperature of the Atlantic ocean varies between 22 °C in the summer and 17 °C in the winter.
the highest precipitation falls in December and January. With only135 to 250 millimeters precipitation per year Lanzarote is the driest of the Kanari islands. In the gebirgigen north of the island fall more precipitation than in the south. Here the northeast trade winds coming from the Atlantic meet high mountains that approximately 600 meters,which with the Famara massif the highest point of 670 meters reaches. The trade winds back-ups and force themselves to the ascent. Damp Atlantic air cools during the ascent around 1 °C per one hundred meter off (drying-adiabatic cooling). There thosecooler air however less water vapour to store can, which remains however alike absolute quantity of water vapour, condenses the water vapour, if the Sättigungsgrenze is reached. Clouds , and/or nebulas develop. The humidity from the clouds is sufficient, over in thisTo operate area agriculture. Here still the bulb, one of the few agricultural goods, is cultivated. The humidity is sufficient likewise, in order to create in the valley of the 1000 palms in the area around Haría a sight unusual for Lanzarote. Withone finds green oasis to the many palms (kanarische Dattelpalme, Phoenix canariensis) and the vegetation particularly sumptuous in spring in this valley one „“on the otherwise very vegetation-poor island.
the water supply always represented a problem on the island of light precipitation. In the past the precipitation in large cisterns was collected. Approximately 25 per cent of the water requirement was covered into the 1950er years by water-prominent lugs in the Famara massif.Used by the sieved water-prominent lugs 1950 four, today a lug have only used, Grundwasserstände sinking there to pressing down heavier sea water and thus to a salting (brackish water) of the groundwater to have led. By inthe 1950er years using tourism the water requirement rose to Lanzarote precipitously, so that with tankers water had to be transported by the neighbour islands Teneriffa and Gran Canaria on the island. 1964 became then north of Arrecife the first plant Demineralization of sea water built, which was extended in the following years constantly and this very day in enterprise is. The production of fresh water in sea water desalination plants represents an ecological problem. For the production of fresh water it needs much energy, which means,that additionally oil must be imported. Each tourist on the Kanaren per day on the average uses about 586 litres water, the native inhabitants however only 157 litres water per day.
upLanzarote, as also on the other Kanari islands, comes it several times per year to special weather conditions, if over the seeing era dust particle (aerosols) by sandstorms and strong thermionics into large heights are transported. With southeast hoiststhese aerosols are transported then far on the Atlantic outside. During such weather conditions the range of vision drops on the island up to few 100 meters. Air is then full dust and the sky appears in already nearly an unrealRed to brown clay/tone. The high content of aerosols in air leads to the fact that air traffic is stopped, since the engines of modern airplanes the dust particle can destroy. By the native ones (Lanzaroteños) this hot southeast wind Levente is called. During this weather conditionscan the temperatures occasionally up to 40 °C rise.
Levente is not completely suitably for this „storm “, on the Kanaren it Calima is called. If a Calima occurs, the range of vision up to few meters can be reduced. Very often is from a wind nothing to feel, the dust floats in air and it becomes accordingly hot.
Flora and fauna
Lanzarote possess a meager Flora due to the small precipitation. So far approximately 500 kinds on that becameIsland found, among them also seventeen endemic kinds, which occur only on the Kanari islands. Lichens are the pioneers during the settlement of the young Lavagesteins. So far 180 different lichens one counted. The lichens settle the rock as the first way of life andintroduce its decomposition . In places, where the decomposition continued to progress already, Euphorbien ( wolf milk plants) grow. These plants adapted in amazing way to the water and the nutrient poverty, just as as the Sukkulenten, likewise frequently upLanzarote to find are. In the damper north the diversity of species is larger. Here one finds the Kanari Dattelpalme (Phoenix canariensis), different kinds of fern, Kanari Kiefern (Pino canariensis) and isolates the wild oil tree (oleums europaea). After thatthe vegetation in the north awakes to winter rainfalls to a colourful bloom carpet, and transforms the wild-similar landscape into a green carpet in February and March. In the past laurel forests are to have covered the high surfaces of the Risco de Famara. A small remainderthis forest is this very day in the highest place of the Famara - Steilküste.
The animal world precipitates on Lanzarote still more monotonously than the plant world. Except the bat all other mammals arrived to Dromedare by humans at the island, under it also, which were very in demand as work and load animals, since they were perfectly to the environmental condition on the island adapted. Today these animals are only used in the tourism. The bird world of the island is more varied, it gives approximately 35 kinds,among them the very rare Eleonorenfalke, in addition, moving falcon and fish eagle. Also under the reptiles is an endemic kind, which lizard Gallotia atlantica, which occurs primarily in the island medal. An unusual characteristic is the small Albinokrebs (Remipedia),in the underground lagoon of Jameos del Agua occurs. One finds this cancer otherwise only in depth of water of several thousand meters. It was probably rinsed with a volcanic eruption into the cave and could survive there until today.
viticulture on Lanzarote
the total cultivated area Lanzarotes amount to about 2,300 hectares. Most important wine places are the red Listán Negro and Negramoll. Weissweine become from Listán Blanco, Malvasia, Moscatel and Diegomanufactured. The area of cultivation of wine La Geria is well-known a protected area and for its traditional cultivation method. Here there is the Bodega El Grifo with own wine museum.
- see also: Kanari kitchen
of the artists César Manrique carried crucially toOrganization of the island. Manrique even reached it that except a multistoried building in the capital Arrecife, a building on the island could not be built more highly than two floors, and thus the island not for the typical mass tourism suitablywas. This development for some years increasingly changed, so that toward the beautiful Papagayo - beaches now likewise more highly one builds.
objects of interest
- El Golfo, half sunk Krater with a lagoon
- Montañas del Fuego,Fire mountains in the Timanfaya national park
- of Papagayo beaches
- Salinas del Janubio
- Jameos del Agua, Kunstwerk César Manriques in lava caves
- lot Hervideros, “cook holes” at the southern lava coast
- Mirador del Río, nördl. Lookout point of César Manrique
- Cueva de loosely Verde, longest lava tunnel thatWorld
- La Gería, area of cultivation of wine
- Jardín de Cactus, Kakteengarten von César Manrique in Guatiza
- Fundación César Manrique, donation and museum in Tahiche
- Castillo de Santa Barbara in Teguise
- Castillo de San Gabriel and Castillo de San José in Arrecife
- farmer museum in Tinacho
- farmer monument with market with San Bartolomé
half in the sea of sunk Krater El Golfo
by algae green colored lagoon in the Krater El Golfo
island La Graciosa, seen by the Mirador del Rio
volcanic cones in the Timanfaya national park
partial of closed volcanic cones, Timanfaya
Lanzarote in the south, Papagayo beaches
close one of the island capital Arrecife lies the airport Lanzarote. Here the large charter fliers land mainly made of England,Germany, the Netherlands, Austria and Switzerland. The moreover one a regional air traffic is operated here to the other islands of the archipelago.
The sea port of Arrecife is the most important place of transshipment of supplies for the island. From here it gives alsoVehicular traffic with connections to the other islands. A further ferry goes in the south of the island from Playa Blanca out to the neighbouring island Fuerteventura.
The road system is very well developed, so that nearly all places are comfortably attainable Lanzarotes. Betweento the airport and Arrecife there is a motorway connection, likewise in the south between Playa Blanca and Yaiza.
- Pott, Joachim/Hüppe, Joachim/Wildpret de la Torre, Wolfredo: The Kanari islands. Nature and culture landscapes, Ulmer: Stuttgart 2003, 320 S., 295Color photo, 28 Farbgrafiken, 3 tables, ISBN 3-8001-3284-2 (representation of the Geobotanik rich-illustrated)
Web on the left of
- Web de Lanzarote
- very extensive geological information and description of most objects of interest
- Lanzarote from air photographs
- geo panorama Lanzarote - an interactive travel guide andPicture elbow in 360°
- map and city plans of Lanzarote
coordinates: 29° 02 ' 56 " N, 13° 37 ' 12 " W