Of Laos

of these articles describes the Southeast Asiatic state. For the Greek party LAOS see Laikós Orthódoxos Synagermós.
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
Democratic People's Republic of Laos (Laos PDR)
Flagge Laos'
Wappen Laos'
(Lao flag) (Lao coat of arms)
Wahlspruch peace, independence, democracy, agreement andProsperity
office language Lao
system of government socialist People's Republic of
capital Vientiane
president Khamtay Siphandone
head of the government Boungnang Vorachith
surface 236,800 km ²
number of inhabitants 5.800.000 (2004)
population density of 24 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 371 US-$ (2004)
independence 19. July 1949 of France
currency Kip = 100 RKs
Currency symbol ₭, ISO-4217-Code: LAK
time belt UTC +7
national anthem Pheng Xat Lao
Kfz characteristic LAO
Internet TLD .la
preselection +856
Weltkarte, Laos hervorgehoben

the democratic People's Republic of Laos is a state in Southeast Asia. It borders on China, Viet Nam, Kambodscha, Thailand and Myanmar. The only inland in Southeast Asia has six million inhabitant on a surface of 236.800 km ²; Capital and largest city are Vientiane.

Table of contents

holidays 10 environment

11

literature 12 Web on the left of

[

work on] geography [work on] on the Indochinesi peninsula between Viet Nam in the east, Kambodscha in the south and Thailand in the west. The northern partthe country is appropriate on the actual Southeast Asiatic mainland, here divides of Laos besides borders with the southChinese province Yunnan and Myanmar.

landscape

satellite photo of of Laos

Laos, the only inland of Southeast Asia, leaves itself topographic intwo areas arranged. An area coined/shaped by mountains pulls itself in north south direction nearly by the entire country and reaches thereby heights by means of 2,000 meters, its highest mountain is the Phu Bia with 2.819 M. This mountain region covers about nine tenthsthe country. The remaining region, in which also the capital Vientiane is, is a small low country at the south and southwest border to Thailand.

The most important river is the Mekong, that in Tibet rises and with Ho-Chi-Minh-city (Viet Nam) in the southChinese sea flows. It forms the border on a length of approximately 1,000 kilometers to Thailand and also to Myanmar; altogether it affects Lao territory on 1,898 kilometers. The largest part of the country is inMekong basin and drains thus into the southChinese sea. Only, drain 12% of the territory, completely in the northeast into the gulf of Tonkin. Because of the Mekong is the capital Vientiane and the city Luang Prabang. Other important rivers are that Nam Ou, Nam Ngum as well as the Nam Xebanghieng.

climate

Klimadiagramm Vientiane
climatic diagram Vientiane

in Laos prevails tropical climate with high temperatures, whereby it can come by the large differences in height regionally to strong variations in temperature. The climate becomes muchstrongly of the Monsunen affects. From May to Octobers prevails the summer or southwest monsoon, which is connected with strong precipitation and high air humidity. In this time an amount of precipitation falls of on the average 1,778 millimeters, during between November and February by thatNortheast monsoon a dry and cooler climate to find is. In the months to March and April prevails damp-hot climate.

nature

the country is for instance wooded to 50%. There are both rain forests with tropical plants as well as monsoon forests.Approximately 8% of the forests are classified as jungle.

Of Laos resident robbery animal species such as leopards and tigers. Elephants are used as in the other countries of Southeast Asia than load animals.

cities

the largest cities in Laos are (conditions 1.January 2005):Vientiane of 196,644 inhabitants, Pakxé of 88,463 inhabitants, Savannakhet of 66,552 inhabitants and Luang Prabang of 47,510 inhabitants.

population

the population of nearly six million distributes itself very unevenly over thatTerritory. The levels at the Mekong particularly exhibit the largest population density, among them the region around the capital. The hilly areas in the east and the north are very thinly populated.

Less than a third of the population lives in cities. The largest urbaneCenter of dense development, Vientiane, has a population of roughly 600.000.

the country has groups of peoples defiance of the relatively low total population very high variety in its ethnical composition. Over the exact number of ethnical groups there are discussions again and again,since the partitioning of the groups can take place according to several criteria.

Karte von Laos aus dem CIA World Fact Book
Map of Laos from the CIA World Fact Book

the government of Laos differentiates the following three groups according to its settlement area (and not according to linguistic criteria):

  • the Lao Loum livesin the levels and particularly in cities. They make approx. 67% of the total population out.
  • the Lao Theung lives on the slopes of the hills and mountains at a value of approximately 1000 meters. Portion of the total population: approx.22 %. They are considered as the Urbevölkerung of today's Laos.
  • Lao Soung inhabit the regions, those over 1000 meters sea-height lie and extremely remote areas. Their portion of the total population becomes estimated on 10%.

In purely linguistic regard givesit in of Laos four large groups, i.e. the Lao Tai, Mon Khmer, Tibeto Burmese ones and the Hmong Yao - families. This partitioning is subject to discussions and changes - during the census 1985 one differentiated still six language families.

Among the language families 47 becomesEthnien and 149 sub-groups distinctive (1985 was it 68 Ethnien and more than 800 sub-groups). In detail is this:Alak, bit, Chere, Hmong, Haw, hectar-nhi, Jri, Kaw, Katang, Khmu, Katu, Kui, Khmer, Kri, Lao, Lue, lavas, Lavae, Lamet, Lo Lo, Lavi, Makong, Mlabri, Museu, Mon (from Myanmar), Nhuon Ngae, Nhaheun, Nguon, Oi, Phu Thai, Phu Noi, Phong, Pakoh, Souei, Samtao, Singmun, SI La, Sadang, Saek, TA-oi, Taliang, Thin, Tum, Yao (from China), Yae, Yang and Yumbri.

Humans,not under these four language's groups, are immigrants of Indian, Thai , Chinese or vietnamesischer origin fall. Their number decreased/went back however in the last 50 years strongly. Most left Laos in two waves - after independence of theCountry and after the seizure of power of the communists.

education

Laos registers a low Alphabetisierungsrate. So only two-thirds of the men and a thirds of the women can over 15 years read and write. Approximately 40% the Laoten have stillnever a school visited, in the northern provinces such as Louang Namtha or Phongsaly is it more than 60%. Two-thirds of the Lao children break prematurely the six years off long primary school, in order to be able to contribute to living costs of the family somewhat.

health

poster of the AIDS clearing-up campaign

by absence of modern mechanisms for the potable water supply and waste water disposal is common in completely of Laos malaria, although the risk is clearly lower into and around Vientiane than elsewhere. Between May and October is the malaria riskmost highly. Some the occurring malarial parasites are already resistant to certain prophylaxis medicines. Further diseases, which will transfer from Stechmücken, are Dengue fever and Japanese Enzephalitis, besides hepatitis and typhoid fever are further dangerous diseases, against the tourists timely enough before thatEntry to Laos to be inoculated must. On a physician 5,393 inhabitants come. The health service maintained by the Ministry of Health places mechanisms to the mobile health welfare service and places per 389 inhabitant a hospital bed to the order. The average life expectancy is at 54 years.

Prepared itsmust travelers also on failure illnesses as well as dehydrogenation. HEAVE/AIDS is common in of Laos still few, even if official statistics are not reliable. Laos is however surrounded by countries, in which HEAVE a general problem became. By strengthened Migration within Southeast Asia, Lao workers in the neighboring countries or foreign persons employed into Laos, as well as tourism and the further low social status of the woman will itself HEAVE probably also in Laos to spread further, although there are government initiatives to the HIV clearing-up.

language and writing

Laos, considering the low total population, a country with extraordinary of linguistic varieties, which is not yet very far investigated however due to the separatingness, is special. Like that the exact number of distinguishable languages is unknownand as 70 to 120 one indicates. The languages belong to four different language's groups:

  • Come Tai languages, whose southwest and northern branches are already spoken for approximately 2000 years in the area of today's Laos. The presence of these languages is thatResult of the southwest migration of Tai peoples from southwest China before approximately 2000 years. To the Tai languages also the office language of the country, the Lao language belongs.
  • Mon Khmer languages, which prevailed before the arrival of all other languages. They are geographically furthest commonand exhibit the highest internal diversity. Many of these languages stand however briefly before becoming extinct, other one, particularly in the north spread languages, are a firm component of the culture life of the there population, as for instance the Khmu.
  • Miao Yao languages become in Laos onlyfor approximately 200 years spoken, it came with Migranten from southwest China into the country.
  • Tibeto Burmese languages (Lolo Burmese branch).

The office language in Laos is Lao, which is a clay/tone language and large similarity to the Thai has. It becomes from approximately 2 millionHumans in Laos as native language spoken, in addition about 20 million persons come into north Thailand, who speak a Thai dialect, which is very similar to the Lao one. The Lao became the communication language between the Lao and not-Lao groups of peoples of the country. It givesan own Lao writing, which is related to the Sanskrit. It is a phonetic alphabet, which means that one writes the words, how they are expressed. The tones become by the combinations of the vowels and consonants and partly through Diakritika clearly made.

Although Lao office language is and the government tries to implement the use of this language generally speaking country they do not control each inhabitant of the country. That is particularly at the weak infrastructure, in addition, because of the strengthother languages, particularly the Hmong languages. Penetrating the Lao one precedes however fast, particularly by the media and by Binnenmigration from the mountain country into the levels.

The two most important foreign languages in Laos are Thai and Vietnamesisch. Thai is for Laoten very easily easy to learn and is in the country particularly by the Thai media present, however also by Lao immigrant workers, who temporarily work in Thailand. Vietnamesisch is spoken along the border to Viet Nam, in order to facilitate the frontier traffic, beside itthere are meaning groups of Vietnamesen in the cities. The French language is due to the colonial past meaning, becomes however increasing from English, which official ASEAN - language, displaces.

Pha That Luang in Vientiane - Nationalsymbol von Laos
Pha That Luang in Vientiane - national symbol of Laos
work on []

Religion

the Lao culture is very closely connected with the religion. The buddhistischen temples formed the mental center in earlier times in each village. The life of Lao humans was certain of the religion and most activities took placeafter the buddhistischen calendar. Vientiane and Luang Prabang are as cities of the thousand temples admitted and exhibit a large number of examples of traditional art and architecture. The king palace in Luang Prabang and that Luang Stupa in Vientiane are thosemost well-known Nationalheiligtümer in Laos.

The main faith direction in Laos is the Theravada Buddhismus, which came around 800 into the area of today's Laos. It is a common custom that boys or young men a few days until weeks in a templespend as monk. Likewise many families have a small altar in their house.

Ancestor cult and Animismus are particularly in the population of the mountain regions common, whereby these people partly went over to the Buddhismus, without giving their traditional faith up.

Small groupsfrom Muslims, Christians as well as trailers vietnamesischer and Chinese sparkling wines are in the cities.

1999 became the Christianity the public enemy No. 1 appointed. (See also Christian pursuit)

history

major item: History Laos see also: List of the rulersby of Laos

archaeological finds in Huaphanh and Luang Prabang occupy human activity in the area of today's Laos before approximately 40,000 years. Established, agriculture of operating inhabitants there were settlements around 4000 v. Chr., during finds in burial places from the timearound 1500 v. Chr. on a complex, developed society to close leave. Starting from approximately 700 v. Chr. in today's of Laos were used iron tools, which point on close contacts with neighbouring Indian and Chinese civilizations. The first inhabitants of today's Laos becomeas Kha - peoples designates. The Kha peoples settled the country around 500 n. Chr. and Funan lived under the administration of the state.

The roots of today's Laos lead in 14. Century, as a company Ngum the Kingdom of Lan Xang,the realm of the millions elephants, based. The kingdom covered entire today's Laos, as well as the today's north Thailand and parts of Myanmars. It reached in 17. Century under king Sulignavongsa its gloss time, into which remarkable cultural properties, particularly in literature and seal,were created. Trade and education achieved a high level in this time. The Lan Xang kingdom existed to in 18. Century and disintegrated then into three rivaling dynasties: Luang Prabang, Vientiane and Champasak. All three were constant invasions of the more powerful neighbours out Burma, Siam (Thailand) and Viet Nam suspended. Siam finally reached the sovereignty by means of the area and forced many inhabitants from Laos to settle in siamesischem area.

Map of the region around 1888

starting from the center 19. Centuryattained the Frenchmen as colonial power ever stronger influence in the continental Southeast Asia. In the year 1893 the Frenchmen conquered the left bank side of the Mekong and forced Siam to the acknowledgment of the Mekong as border. Today's Laos became as “protectorate Laos” into thoseFrench colony French Indochina integrated. All plans for the economic development of the country remained however unrealized. In early 20. Resistance movements formed century against colonial rule in French Indochina. Among other things Ho Chi Minh 1930 created the communist party Indochinas, their goaldriving the colonial gentlemen out was.

In the Second World War Laos was occupied temporarily by Japan. After Japan had unconditionally capitulated and from the country to withdraw itself had, Laos explained to 12. October 1945 its independence. It arrived however again under thoseRule of the Frenchmen. To 19. July 1949 was signed the French-Lao contract, which should make Laos an independent member within the union Française. Thereupon the Lao split eating era (movement of independence), there only one part of the Lao independence fighters with thisContract was content. In the following years the influence of France decreased/went back, elections took place and the USA won at influence. France was subject finally in Viet Nam and gave to 21. July 1954 during the Indochinakonferenz (Geneva conference) officiallyall requirements in Indochina up, assured, to withdraw its troops and independence Laos' recognize, with which of Laos finally attained its complete sovereignty.

During the Viet Nam war Laos was not neutral and it gave an official declaration of war of the United States at Laos. Neverthelessbombarded the US-American armed forces Laos substantial, because the Ho-Chi-Minh-path ran to an important part over Lao territory. Over of Laos more bombs than together in the Second World War on Germany and Japan were thrown off, with which Laos to the schwerst bombarded countriesbelongs to the world.

After the end of the Viet Nam war transferred the communist coined/shaped forces of the Pathet Lao by (in the comparison to the happening in the neighboring country Kambodscha) unblutige a revolution in the year 1975 power and proclaimed to 2. December 1975 the democratic one People's Republic of Laos. The Lao revolutionary people's party was determined to the governing party of the country and a first prime minister, Kaysone Phomivane remained until 1992 in its office. By political and economic Repressionen the country remained far away uncertain and unstable and about 10% of the population left Laos, particularly toward Thailand, France, the USA and Australia.

Due to serious economic problems Laos led an opening and a reform politics starting from 1986 under the name of new economic mechanism with the goal, thatgradual transition of the plan - to realize to the free-market economy. In the context of these reforms restaurant economics were accomplished and the relations with the foreign country were strengthened.

Also political reforms are tackled gradually. Thus the popular assembly discharged to 14. August 1991 thosefirst condition since the seizure of power of the communists and since 1997 is of Laos member of the ASEAN.

There is a still unresolved conflict in the special zone Saysomboun northeast from Vientiane, where it this very day freedom fighters against the communist governmentgives. These recruit themselves mainly from members of the Hmong - minority and into the mountain regions withdrew themselves, where they live in large poverty. Repeated it comes however to attack and assassination attempts into and around Vientiane and at important traffic routes, thoseforeign tourists to the victim do not please last are. On the other hand also by heavy violations of human rights of the military in the fight against the insurgent ones one reports.

politics

the communist Lao revolutionary people's party (LRVP) govern the country since the proclamation of the democratic ones People's Republic of Laos to 2. December 1975. Only since 1991 there is a condition (national assembly) and a parliament, which have 99 seats since 1997. Since then also the principle of the centralized democracy, i.e. applies that the national assembly decisions in arrangementwith the lower management levels falls.

legislation

the head of state of Laos is a president, whom the Lao revolutionary people's party places and which is usually also party chairman. The president appoints the prime minister and its deputy, Minister,Province governors and mayors of the prefectures, whereby it must be able to be confirmed all personnel decisions of the parliament.

The legislative body is the national assembly, an in chamber parliament, which is determined in general elections. There is a member of parliament per 50.000 humans, whereby it per provinceat least three parliamentarians to give must. There is a general active right to vote starting from 18 years and a passive right to vote starting from 21 years. With the parliamentary elections it usually gives more candidate than seats. The national assembly becomes for one period offive years selected.

Task of the parliament is it, law suggestions of the president, the constant committee of the national assembly, the government, to discuss and discharge the president of the highest court or the highest public prosecutor's office. Also mass organizations may bring in bills under certain conditions.The parliament is responsible also for the permission of economic planning, budget as well as changes in the government. It selects the president, the vice-president as well as the presidents of the highest court and public prosecutor's office. It approves also personnel suggestions of the president.

executive

The prime minister is also chairman of the Council of Ministers and thus a highest representative of the executive. It has a set of deputies (the Ministers for defense, finances and exterior). Its term of office is fixed to the parliament delegate like those on five years.

The administrationsthe provinces and districts have the same structure as the centre government. The Gemeindevertreter are selected on the other hand by the population and appointed afterwards by the province governor formally.

Judikative

nominal gives it up in of Laos a highest court as well as courtsProvince and district level, besides there are still military courts. Likewise there are public prosecutor's offices on land, province and district level.

The legislation in Laos is not however very consistent and right security is to a large extent not given. For the solution of conflicts therefore conciliation hasa great importance, and on district level usually lies this in the responsibility of the village elders.

administrative arrangement

major item: Administrative arrangement of of Laos

Laos is divided into 16 provinces (khoueng), a prefecture (kampheng NAK-hone) as well as a special zone (khetphiset). Among them a partitioning follows into approximately 140 districts and over 11.000 municipalities.

infrastructure

Laos has 13,000 kilometers road, about which however only about 1,700 is asphalted. The most important road connection is the national route 1, which leads from Pak Mong in the north after Khong in the south and the important cities Luang Prabang, Vientiane, Savannakhet and Champasak traverses.

Public traffic with penalties is to be found momentarily still rarely, only between Vientianeand Pakse operate regular regular buses. Otherwise rather trucks with wood seats are to be found due to bad road conditions. The travel time can last depending upon weather situation and technical condition of the vehicle longer or more briefly.

The largest airport is close Vientiane (airport Wattay).

Air traffic is dominated by the national Lao airlines ( in former times Lao aviation). It offers flights in the neighboring countries as well as inland flights. The line is however highly indebted, since the ticket prices are too low, in order to cover the costs.The service and also security do not achieve western standards. Lao airlines is therefore restrukturiert in co-operation with European advisors and again aligned. A joint venture was created, in order to procure new airplanes. For visitors most interesting the way, byAirplane to Laos to arrive, is over Bangkok, from where it gives regularly connections to Vientiane. Other connections are frequently cancelled.

It gives to of Laos no railway, but plans, to tie up Vientiane over the Thai Lao Freundschaftsbrücke to the Thai Eisenbahnnetz.

A passenger boaton the Nam Ou between Nong Khiao and Luang Prabang.
Fährboote at the port of Nong Khiao.

Laos has some navigable rivers, everything in front the Mekong, which is navigable on approximately 1,300 km. By currentfast and a Wasserfallthe Mekong has however only a limited meaning for traffic. Other rivers important for transport are Nam Ou, Nam Khan, Nam Tha, Nam Hgur as well as SE Don. On the Lao water routes occur -particularly due to the use of Speedboats - above average many accidents.

The telephone network of Laos does not take still the whole country off. The number of the telephone connections is also very low with approximately 30,000. Direct telephone connections of and afterLaos gives it not yet for a very long time and is very expensive. Laos has four GSM portable radio of nets, which densely populated areas and parts of the traffic routes, for example the Mekong on much-traveled routes to take off at present. Roaming is possible since short.

Internet is inLaos likewise not particularly far common, about 60% the Internet user are foreigners, and only 14% the user are outside of the capital Vientiane. Laoten go usually into Internet Cafés on-line.

The Lao post office is considered as inefficient, letters ofSeveral weeks can need foreign country to Laos.

economics

since 1986 tries to convert the Lao government in the context of the new Economic Mechanism (NEM) formerly the planned-economy organized economics of the country into a free-market economy. Thus became graduallyApplications of fixed prices and subsidies abolished, the rate of exchange of the Kip to the market price adapted, a bank system after western model imported and private economic activity promoted. With the structure of institutions, which regulate the free-market economy, as for instance on the right of and management system, were begun.

ThoseCurrency in Laos is the new Kip. The exchange of goods in the rural areas takes place however usually in the bartering; the money economy is limited to the cities. The commercial balance sheet is negative. The most important export products are wood, coffee, current energy and Tin. In addition coffee, Benzoin, resins, Kardamom, leathers and skins are implemented. Are imported chemical products, motor vehicles, machines, electrical system, steel and cotton. China, Thailand and Japan are the most important customers of Lao goods. Thailand, China, Japan and Singapore are the most important suppliers.

The gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) amounted to 2002 1.5 billion Euro, the Pro-Kopf-Einkommen was 2001 about 275 euro. Gros domestic product growth amounted in the past 15 years to in each case six to eight per cent, whereby itself during the Asia crisis growthtemporarily on four per cent slowed down. The majority of growth comes from the agriculture, the export of textiles, wood and wood products, the electric power as well as foreign investments (development assistance or FDI).

agriculture

Laos is an agrarian state, approx. 80Per cent of the population are active in the agriculture. They gain thereby about 50% Lao GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. Particularly for the agriculture suitably the washing levels of the Mekong and its tributaries are as well as the Bolavens plateau in south Laos. The soils in other regionsthe country are less fruitful.

The entire agricultural activity is in private hands. Many of the households operate Subsistenzwirtschaft, in particular in the remote areas, where missing infrastructure refuses the entrance to the markets. Rice is the Hauptprodukt of agricultural production andabout 40% of the entire produced volume constitute. Only 10% of the produced quantity are sold on the markets, which remainder consumed by the farmers themselves. Laos has with rice a very high diversity of species, about 3000 to4000 sorts are well-known, of which most to sticking rice - sorts belong.

Beside rice corn, potatoes, Yams, Mungo - and cotton, sugars, coffee and dte are cultivated to soy beans , peanuts .

The agriculture becomes onlyin the levels of the Mekong operated intensively. There lie also the 12% of the field, which can be artificially watered. Particularly in the remote areas neither Pestizide nor fertilizers are used and it give also no irrigation. Rice production is for these reasons lower than in the neighboring countries. About 2.2 million tons were harvested in the year 2000, with which the country in punkto rice can nourish itself.

The cattle breeding gains about a fifth GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, although it only extensively andat little expenditure one operates. The farmers suffer frequently losses, if their animals die for lack of veterinary support or are not suitable for the sales the meat. The growth potential within this range is however very high. Something similar applies to fish production.

Laosif a potential exporter of food is, one regards its relatively small population density. Oppose that momentarily however the subsistenzorientierte restaurant form, the missing or unsatisfactory infrastructure, the bad training of the farmers as well as the absence of financial establishment ions in the country.

For instance thoseHalf of the country is with forest bewachsen, under what also tropical noble woods are, which find for the production of furniture use. Besides from the forest spices, about Kardamom, Rattan, medicine and tree resins are won.

industry

The industry is hardly developed. The economic development strongly impaired by a badly trained population, hardly available in and foreign capital. The most important industry is the production of river from water power, whereby several smaller power stations are momentary in enterpriseand several further in planning. The generation of current is without exception in the hand of the national Electricité you Laos.

Besides to small extent textiles are produced as well as processed wood. About 90% of the industrie and crafts enterprises are Kleinstbetriebe. The larger enterprisesuntil recently if pure state enterprises were or became from national organizations, as for instance the military, controls.

The growth of the industrial production slowed down since the Asia crisis, which is to due particularly to worse the export possibilities become, by that very muchsmall domestic market not to be compensated know. Besides the financial system is underdeveloped: three state banks 9 dominate the market, have however high sums on putrid credits, which make them illiquid. The banks were of course once rekapitalisiert, however a bad credit culture hasand particularly borrowing to national industrial companies led to the fact that new putrid credits accumulated.

foreign trade

the most important export goods are river from the hydro-electric power plants (20% of the exports), wood and wood products (41%) as well as coffee. To thatmost important import goods count food, machines, vehicles and other industrial goods. The foreign trade, particularly the export, braked by the lack at infrastructure, those relatively widen routes of transportation (Laos is an inland) and by the absence of well trained workers.

Laos imports more,as it exports. The developing deficit on the balance of payments on current account becomes balanced by Kapitalzuflüsse, which partly come as development assistance or as foreign investments. Largest investors in Laos are the neighboring countries Thailand, China and Viet Nam.

In order to fight the one-sided dependence from Thai ports of exportation to, cooperatesLaos strengthens with vietnamesischen ports.

tourism

Laos is, unaffected contrary to Thailand and increasingly also Kambodscha or Viet Nam, still to a large extent by the large tourist stream. In Vientiane the closing hour changes constantly, usually is attached it23 o'clock. Due to low pro head income, communism, health status and routistic infrastructure lacking the country is at present unattractive for overall tourists. Nevertheless the tourism is one of the rising industries and Devisenbringer, then one sets in Laos on the gentle Öko andCulture tourism.

There are two international airports, Vientiane (VTE) and Luang Prabang. The national national airline is Lao airlines with seat in Vientiane.

There are regular bus connections on the asphalted roads, whereas into the more remote regions with priority small transporters with structure of plank bedand drive to two seats (Songthaew). Depending upon road condition and weather can thereby the travel lasting strongly vary.

On the Mekong boats of Huay Xay over Luang Prabang operate after Vientiane. This journey with overnight accomodation in Pakbeng and LuangPrabang lasts two to three days. In addition speedboats (Speedboats) are on the way, which master this distance in only some hours; however the speedboats are accident susceptible, and the passengers must carry protective helmets.

drug problem

with Opium are thoseInhabitant of today's Laos since that 18. Century trusts, when the Opiumhandel with the Chinese as well as the Opiumabhängigkeit came into the country. The knowledge about the production of Opium came into early 19. Century with the immigrating Hmong to Laos.Starting from 1899 the French colonial administration in Viet Nam let produce and later also in Laos Opium.

Opium and other drugs are recognized for different reasons until today in Laos socially. For farmers the Opiumproduktion represents an important source of income. Opium is importantly in the local bartering and it compensates rice harvests failed too low. Besides Opium has a high meaning in the traditional Lao medicine.

Into the early 1970er years became estimated the number of opiumabhängigen Laoten on 50.000. In the year 1971 becamethe production of Opium forbade, however heroin became immediately available in the consequence. For 1992 it became estimated that about two per cent of the population Opiumabhängig were. 60 per cent of the dependent ones were inhabitants of the hilly regions in the north of the country (v.a. Belonging one the Akhas, Hmong, Yao, Lantan, Lahu), where the per-capita consumption lies between 1,3 and 1,8 kilograms and year. For 1995 it became estimated that of Laos 80 tons Opium for own consumption produced and further 40until 60 tons exported. Thus Laos was to Afghanistan and Myanmar the third-most important opiumproduzierende nation.

Only since 1996 are punishable production, trade and use of Opium. Nevertheless a number of 58.000 drug-dependent became estimated for 2001. Become increasinglybeside Opium also heroin, Amphetamine and adhesives consume.

The government of Laos tries in co-operation with the UNDP and Nichtregierungsorganisationen to fight the problem of the drug abuse. Emphasis is put to offer to the producers of Opium an alternative source of income.Parallel to it education programs are accomplished in the regions concerned. Projects for Vorbeugung and treatment are started by drug abuse, which stand in conformity with the local culture. Besides there are measures for the penetration of the law of the Opiumhandels. A goal is it,to be drug-free in the year 2015.

culture

media

in Laos prevails a strict censorship and national control of the media. The Lao press agency is the “Khaosan Pathet Lao” (KPL).

holidays

Most important holidays
date name notes
1. January New Year
6. January Pathet Lao day
20. January day of the army
22. March day of the party
14. April Lao New Year water resistant
1. May day of the work
1. June day of the children
13. August Lao eating era
2. Decembers independence day

to the official holidays in Laos belong to New Year (1. January); Pi May, the Lao New Year, which is computed after the moon calendar, mostly takes place in May. The day of the work (1. May) and that National holiday (2. Decembers) are spent with complex ceremonies. If a holiday falls on a Saturday or a Sunday, then it is shifted on the preceding or the following working day.

Religious holidays are Boun fear for Fai, at that the birth, illuminating anddeath Buddhas to be celebrated, Khao Phansa, that the beginning of the buddhistischen chamfering time rings in (July) and Ork Phansa, ended the chamfering time (at the end of of Octobers). To these causes finds usually a celebration, which the Laoten calls basi or sukhwan,instead of. With these celebrations Opfergaben (meals and rice wine) are taught. With the so-called cord binding ceremony friends health and prosperity wish themselves, by her itself cords around the wrists windings.

environment

by wide deforestations in the last decades sankthe ground-water level in some areas, which ensures to a precarious drinking water situation in Laos. Besides are by the destruction of the habitat of Flora and fauna a multiplicity of the animal and plant types of becoming extinct threatened. In the year 1996 applied 68 kinds ofMammals, birds, reptiles and fish as endangers. Meanwhile however about 14% of the territory are protected. The forest is particularly by the wood production, endangered by Rodung for field production and by the fuel extraction, whereby about 8% of the power requirement of theCountry with wood to be covered. The annual forest loss becomes estimated on approximately 300,000 hectares.

Landscape in Vang Vieng

a large environmental problem of Laos are duds, which originate from the Viet Nam war. They take part in the country to one of the statesthe largest quantities on not exploded war material in the soil. From more than 2 million tons at bombs, which were thrown off between 1964 and 1973 over Laos, are concerned to today about 50% of the territory. For a agriculturally coined/shapedState such as Laos represents this a large problem, and regularly humans are hurt or killed by duds. The UXO-LAO - Project, which concerns itself with the clearing-up of the population and the removal of duds, is one of the largest employersthe country and financed of the UNDP, unite industrial nations as well as by relief organizations.

literature

barking trichloroethylene TIC

Special books

  • Asian HarmReduction network: The Hidden Epidemic. March 1998, pp 80ff.Download
  • N. J. Enfield: Of Laos - LANGUAGE situation. LANGUAGE and Cognition Group, Max Planck institutes for Psycholinguistics Nijmegen. With long bibliography to the topic. Download
  • Heinz Kotte/Ruediger filter ore: Laos, departure at the Mekong(2002), ISBN 3-895021-50-4. Current from society and politics.
  • January Düker and. Annette Monreal: Laos (2003), ISBN 3-7701-6142-4. Travel guide.
  • Martin H. Petrich: Viet Nam, Kambodscha, Laos (2004), ISBN 3-7701-4398-1. Art travel guide.
  • 迈克尔Schultze : The history of Laos (1998), ISBN 3-8890-136-4.
  • Michael school TZE: Laos manual (2004), ISBN 3-8317-1363-4. Travel guide.
  • Michael school TZE: Culture shock Laos (2005), ISBN 3-831712-96-4.
  • Harry Thürk: Road to hell. Report on the battle at the road 9 in Laos 1971 (1984).
  • Ann Helen and. Walter Unger:Of Laos - country between yesterday and tomorrow (1999), ISBN 3-7774-8390-7.

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Coordinates: 14°-22° N, 100°-107° O

 

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