Lao language

Das Laotische Alphabet (nur die Konsonaten)zum Üben von einem Farang geschrieben.
the Lao alphabet (only the Konsonaten)
written for practicing a Farang.

The Lao language is the language, which is spoken north of the population and south the Mekong in Laos and in Thailand. Some regard it not as single language, but asbare dialect of the Thai: for the Thai national territory this may probably tune, in Laos this is however not in such a way seen. Regardless of its presence of its own writing shows that it concerns independent language.

The transcription should as replaced as possible by phonetic transcription (for the time beingonly stated in some places in square brackets) and by Lao writing to be supplemented.

Table of contents

phonology

the Lao language hasa great many vowels like (approximately in such a way expressed) “A”, “outer”, “to”, “üai”, “egg”, “ää”, “ai” etc. Most vowels have a long and a short discussion, thus “aa” and “A” etc. Also the consonants are a great many, for our ears give it in Lao manyConsonant ones doubles. There are for example several “t”, which are differently expressed however all. Therefore there are also words of different meanings, which sound alike for us. Main difficulty is the correct stress of the syllables and discussion of the clay/tone lengths. Of the stress the meaning, the respective hangsWord off, then the Lao word knows süüa depending upon stress “tiger”, “shirt”, “believes” or “mattress” to be called.

knows

dialects the Lao language numerous dialects, whereby the largest differences itself between in northern Laos and in of central and south Laos spoken dialectsshow. These wise five clay/tone stages up, which suggests a relationship with the Thai, those wise six clay/tone stages up, whereby in the north also more slowly and more stressed one speaks.

vocabulary

of words of the basic vocabulary are usually einsilbig, besides there are many leaning words from the Pali and the Sanskrit, which is mehrsilbig usually. Contrary to the orthography of the Thai however also the leaning words in the Lao one are in such a way written, how they are spoken.

“I” in the Lao one has a great many forming: To approximately of the same age ones one says “I” (koi [kʰɔ̂i]), to older ones one says “I-small” (kanoi), to grandparents and other old relatives says one “grandchildren” than I to itself, with brothers and sisters says one its position in the family, thus to the small brother “large brother” etc. There is still different become outdated “I” and Umgangsformen partially.

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Grammar

Lao is an isolating language, which knows neither declination nor conjugation. Tense and number etc. do not change the words, therefore it means: a tree, two tree, three tree, four tree or evenly many Type. In the time is it therefore like that: “I go”,“Yesterday I go”, to “morning I go”.

writing

Silbe "ka" in laotischer Schrift
syllable “ka “in Lao writing
Der Landesname Laos in laotischer Schrift
the national name Laos in Lao writing

the Lao writing is belonged a Abugida and to the family of the Brahmi or Indian writings. The writing has approx. 30 consonants(The letter R is not always taken into account) and 28 vowels, which can be written also around the Konsonaten. Even if a vowel before a consonant stands first the consonant is spoken.

The vowels are arranged around the consonants, it hand over consonants,under, before or after the consonants stand. If at the beginning of a word a vowel is spoken, one overwrites forwards, behind or under the vowel a certain vowel, which is here not expressed.

The tones become by the combinations of the vowels and consonantsand partly by Diakritika clearly made.

consonants

in the following table are aforementioned as well as their discussion at the syllable beginning in phonetic transcription and the Transkriptionssysteme British permanent the consonants of the Lao alphabet Committee of on Geographical Names, US-American board on geo graphics Names (BGN/PCGN), the LIBRARY OF Congress (ALA/LC) and - so far available - the Transkription, which are used into the university code - names of the letters. (After the diagonal stroke in each case the Transkription at the syllable end stands.)

character IPA BGN/PCGN ALA/LC university code
k k k/k k
kh kh/k kh
kh kh/k kh
ŋ ng ng/ng ng
ʧ CH ch/t C
s s s/t s
s x s/t s
ɲ gn/y ny/ ny
D d/t d/t D
t t t/t t
th th/t th
th th
n n th/t n/n n
b b/p b/p b
p p p/p p
pH ph/p pH
f f/p f
pH ph/p pH
f f f/p f
m m m/m m
j y y y
l r r l
l l l l
w v/o v w
h h h h
- - o
h h h h

of vowels

in the following table are thoseVowel character of the Lao alphabet specified, connected in each case with the consonant ກ. Vowel characters can stand over, under, forwards, and after for consonants, after which they are spoken, also combinations are possible.

IPA BGN process card university University of IPA BGN process card university University of IPA BGN process card university University of IPA BGN process card University code
ກະ/ກັກ A A A A ກາ A ā aa
ກິ i i i i ກີ i ī ii ເກັຽະ/ກັຽກ ia ia ເກັຽ/ກຽກ ia īa
ກຶ ɯ u ư y ກື ɯː u ư̄ yy ເກຶອະ/ເກຶອກ ɯə ua ưa ເກືອ ua ư̄a
ກຸ u ou u u ກູ ou ū uu ກົວະ/ກັວກ oua ua ກົວ/ກວກ oua ūa
ເກະ/ເກັກ e é e ເກ é ē e
ແກະ/ແກັກ ɛ è æ ແກ ɛː è ǣ egg
ໄກະ/ກົກ o ô o ໄກ ô ō o
ເກາະ/ກັອກ ɔ o ǫ ກໍ/ກອກ ɔː o ǭ
ເກິະ/ເກິກ ɤ European Union œ ເກີ/ເກືກ ɤː European Union œ̄
ໂກ/ໃກ/ກັຢ ai ai ai ai/ay ກາຢ/ກາຽ ai āi
ເກົາ outer ao ao
ກໍາ at at at at

the Lao in university code

university code for Lao is U+0E80... U+0EFF.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
E80
E90
EA0
EB0 ຿
EC0
ED0
EE0
EF0 ໿

examples

German Lao
hello/good day sabaaidi [SA-bǎːi dǐː]
good-bye [pǎi kɔ̄ːn]
I choi
you dschau [càu]
how are you sabaaidii bo [SA-bǎːi dǐː bɔ̌ː]
as is called you dschau CSU niang [càu sɯ̄ː ɲǎŋ]
are as old you (one may ask all!) dschau anju tschak pii
dschau, o (not used)
no boo [bɔ̄ː] (at the beginning of the set)
of haste you cigarettes? dschau miijasup boo
I do not have cigarettes. boo mii jasup
have (there are cigarettes) Mii
coffee black coffee daam [kǎː féː…] (in the north); coffee laam (in the south)
western foreigner ((have) large nose) falang (hired mo) [company-lāŋ…]

Web on the left of

Wikipedia on Lao


 

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