Latin

of these articles describes the language latin, for the type of dance of the same name sees Latin American dances.
Latin (Lingua latina)
spoken in: Vatikanstadt
speaker: Only as secondary language
linguistic
classification:
official status
office language in: Vatikanstaat
language code
ISO 639 -1: la
ISO 639 -2: lat
SIL: LTN

as latin and/or. Latin (lat. lingua Latina „latin language “) one calls the language, which was originally spoken of the race of the Latiner, the inhabitants of Latium with Rome center.

Within that to indogermanischen languages latin belongs to the group of the italischen languages. It formed the basis for all today's Roman languages.

Table of contents

development

oldest delivered Latin text

original in Rome and the surrounding area (Latium) spoken, common latin gradually inthe areas conquered of Rome. Beside Greek latin was the office language of the Roman realm. Because of the cultural superiority of the east it lost its primacy thereby occasionally in North Africa and even in Rome. Like that was the Liturgiesprache of the Roman Christiansto around 300 the Greek. In this time numerous Greek leaning words flowed into latin.

During late ancient times different people languages and dialects began themselves to away-develop phonetically and grammatically from latin high-level language. This Vulgärlatein lives today in the different Roman languages away. Although high latin in the early Middle Ages was hardly still spoken, 6 still developed in. Century of works in classical latin. In the eastRoman realm was latin to in early 7. Century beside Greek one of the two official office languages. Becausethe people however no latin spoke and only few humans of the writing was, came it powerful during the Middle Ages to the pure scholar language.

In the west transferred the Teutons with the basic elements of the lateRoman administration also latin language, in thatAdministration into the early modern times remained prevailing. Since the people migration and Christianisierung (first mostly arianischen) of the Teuton peoples latin in the west of the earlier Roman realm and in the Roman-catholic subsequent states became language of the Klerus (church latin), the jurisprudence (Glossatoren) and the forming universities (studia generalia) uses. Latin formed thus the writing language, particularly for the church and lay document nature (Diplomatik) in early Europe.

In international-law contracts (z. B. in the Westfäli peace from 1648) latin in 17 dominated. Century inside. It still forms to in 20. Century the affix supply for the terminology in the sciences and loses by the progressive absorption in the English and other languages only onmore directly, not however at indirect meaning. It is informed still at many schools.

antique one

antique way of writing

latin language became originally as scriptio continua, D. h. as connected river of indications without gaps written.Also punctuation marks and small letters were not used in the antique one, since on wax boards little place was expensive to the letter and papyrus. Antique latin the texts are difficult for us today therefore to read.

The following example compares:

Old way of writing:

AVREAPRIMASATAESTAETASQVAEVINDICENVLLO SPONTESVASINELEGEFIDEMRECTVMQVECOLEBATPOENAMETVSQVEABERANTNECVERBAMINANTIAFIXO AERELEGEBANTVRNECSVPPLEXTVRBATIMEBAT IVDICISORASVISEDERANTSINEVINDICETVTI NONDVMCAESASVISPEREGRINVMVTVISERETORBEM MONTIBVSINLIQVIDASPINVSDESCENDERATVNDAS NONDVMPRAECIPITESCINGEBANTOPPIDAFOSSAE NVLLAQVEMORTALESPRAETERSVALITORANORANT NONTVBADIRECTINONAERISCORNVAFLEXI NONGALEAENONENSISERANTSINEMILITISVSV MOLLIASECVRAEPERAGEBANTOTIAGENTES

today's way of writing:

Aurea great sata est aetas, quae vindice nullo, sponte sua, sine puts to fidem rectumque colebat. poena metusque aberant nec verbs minantia fixo aere legebantur, nec supplex turba time-askediudicis ora sui, sed sine vindice erant tuti. nondum caesa suis, peregrinum ut orbem, montibus in liquidas pinus descenderat undas, nullaque mortales viseret more praeter sua litora norant. nondum praecipites cingebant oppida fossae, non tuba directi, non aeris cornua flexi, nongaleae, non ensis erant: sine militis usu mollia securae peragebant otia towards width unit.

Excerpt from Ovids metamorphosis: The creation (the golden age)

to details to the used letters are in the article latin alphabet. See to this topic also: Paläografie (there latin Paläografie), Capitalis, Versalschrift and Majuskel.

antique discussion

on the antique discussion of latin language is received the article latin discussion .

literature

with antique Latin literature is occupied and.A. the article latin literature.

present

also today is to be found latin still at many High Schools of all fields. For instance a third of all high school students in the German linguistic area learns latin as the first, second or third foreign language. On human High Schools becomes latin, apart from which Greek one, a lifted out meaning measured out, which aimed in former times at an active control of latin.

Also today still for numerous courses of studies the Latinum or latin knowledge is actually demanded, in particular in numerous spirit-scientific subjects.The Latinum is as condition for study for the fan medicine and jurisprudence as far as possible abolished (excluded in Austria and Germany), frequently however not in subjects such as Anglistik, philosophy or even music sciences.

Of the study requirements becomes independent by proponents of latinit stresses that learning latin language is further basis for the correct use of foreign words, which facilitate a learning of other Roman languages substantially and substantial transfer - effects for the thinking training would arise. Translating Latin texts promotes due to the substantialComplexity of many Latin sentences also logical thinking. In particular obtain latin instruction typically deeper understanding of grammatical structure as the modern languages, since the grammar is more strongly accented in the curriculum.

It is to be heard by the opponents however that the argument alsoeach kind of grammar, all the same which language, which structured a thinking promotes, and that learning of modern Roman languages, which are still used contrary to latin is at least just as well for it suitable, numerous latin the leaning words in German correctlyto use and to learn other Roman languages. Besides pupils, who learn an alive language, would not only have advantages with the acquisition of other Roman languages, but already controlled one. Indeed many totalRoman are, thus in all Roman languagesarising words in classical latin available and do not have again to be learned then:guerra „war “, testa „head “, caballo „horse “, mangiare/manger „“, andare* go “, boc (C) a/bouche „ mouth “, blanco /brightly „ white “, the directions etc. eat. Many of these words explain themselves from the colloquialor late latin or originate from the soldier language, thus from Varietäten, which are not at school taught.

From German and US-American investigations it follows that between completed latin instruction and the control of the English language in writing and forwardsall word exists a significant correlation. An actual causal connection was not proven however - possibly a high linguistic gift of a child more probably makes the choice as with difficulty valid latin.

There also in modern latin instruction language production clearlyis subordinated to the Rezeption (readunderstand), believes many, latin falls humans with pronounced gift for mathematics and formal thinking procedures generally more easily than other foreign languages, whereas humans with pronounced gift for intuitive learning of languages would find other foreign languages easier. This connectioncannot be verified however frequently: The experience shows that the pupil achievements go into latin predominantly hand in hand with those into the native language and other foreign languages.

modern latin

also today German latin encyclopedias becomes due to again latin of word propertygiven change, z. B. „lexicon the auxiliare “or of the Vatikan the given change „lexicon recentis latinitatis “, which experienced a revision only in the year 2004. The Finnish broadcasting station YLE (Yleisradio) spreads week messages in again-Latin language. Radio Bremen publishes regularly the NuntiiLatini in written and spoken version. Since April 2004 also the German-language editorship publishes Vatikan message on Latin with radio. It concerns originally German messages. Gero P. Pointing head translates it for the editorship into latin. Much likesalso latin version of the Asterix is - Comics, those the German Altphilologe count v. Rothenburg (Rubricastellanus) wrote.

The author Nikolaus large, vocationally since ten years German lector in Seoul, has 2004 a completely latinisierte transmission of Patrick Süskinds the perfume in Brussels publishing house of the Fundatio Melissa, a supraregional association for the care of spoken latin, publishes. Is added to the book with „the Glossarium Fragrantiae “a larger list of updated new creations. From the same wortartisten of kind ofword exists the moreoverBook concerning baron Mynchusanus (Muenchhausen). 2003 appeared already the first part of the Harry Potter - books of Joanne K. Rowling on latin (Harrius Potter philosophy Lapis et). Besides there are still many further translations „classical “works to latin, thus toExample Karl May Winnetou III, or the small prince (Regulus) of Antoine de Saint Exupéry.

By Internet was substantially favoured the availability of old Latin texts as well as developing new Latin texts. In the meantime there is even latin versionsof Popsongs. Besides also new Popsongs in Latin language, about for Cursum Perficio, develops sung from Enya, Liberatio, one of many latin music pieces of the group „Krypteria “sung from Sylvia Gonzalez Bolivar, or at groups that Dark Wave and/or. Gothic (youth culture). Roma Ryan wrote still further Songs in Latin language beside Cursum Perficio for Enya. In Internet forums such as Grex Latine Loquentium communicate to participant from many countries exclusive in latin. A Wikipedia on latin contained in May 2006 scarcely 5000 articles.

In the classical and/or neoclassical music latin finds use likewise. Thus for instance the Netherlands composer Nicholas Lens on its work Flamma Flamma toned latin libretto, for its work Terra Terra hasLens a libretto in Latin language writes. To forget also the numerous Vertonungen of Latin poems are not such as z. B. of January Novák. Carl Orff supported texts in latin or Greek for several of his vowel compositions. Igor Strawinski left thatafter Sophokles of Jean Cocteau in French verses wrote libretto too Ödipus Rex “ from Jean Daniélou in latin translate.

The text book Lingua Latina by SE illustrata the Danish author Hans H. Ørberg has so far mainly for instructiontransfer used einsprachige teaching method into modern languages to old-linguistic instruction. The text book enjoys in different countries of rising popularity.

latin in the sciences

in biology takes place the name forming of the scientific names Latin and Greek,whereby newer suggestions plan to infer the rules only from latin language. In the medicine the anatomical technical terms are Latin, for which individual organs additionally also latinisiertes Greek used. The descriptions of disease are derived from the Greek one. Numerous one Proverbs have latin an origin and partly also in the German translation winged words became. In the jurisprudence different latin of theorems and technical terms (latin in the right) exist. Also in the science of history above all latin plays furthera large role. In the meteorology latin terms are used in the cloud classification.

latin in the catholic church

latin is apart from Italian the office language of the Vatikanstaats. The catholic church publishes all official texts of world-church importancein latin. That applies to the liturgical books, the Katechismus, the Codex of the canonical right as well as the papal legislation (canones, decretales) and circular (Enzykliken). Up to the second Vatikani council (1962-1965) latin was the official service language and is this (according to Sacrosanctum Concilium) officially this very day, whereby other languages are however also permitted. Only very few services in latin are kept actual. The Pope Benedikt XVI officiating at present.preferred with its fairs however latin to thatItalian one.

For the care and advancement of latin language Pope Paul VI. called. 1976 the donation Latinitas in the life, which strives for it the modern linguistic usage appropriate latin to provide. For this it publishes the Lexicon Recentis beside a magazineLatinitatis, the encyclopedia of new latin, which in its last revision 2004 with 15.000 new terms, among them for instance latin word for „computers appeared “„instrumentum computatorium “.

See also: Latin church

reference lists

Mehrbändiges latin dictionary in the read hall that To university library Graz

see also

Web on the left of

Wikipedia on latin
Wikibooks: Latin - learning and teaching materials
Wikiquote: Latin of proverbs - quotations
Wiktionary: Latin - word origin, synonyms and translations


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)