|coat of arms|
|coordinates:|| 46° 31 ' n. Break. |
6° 38 ' o. L.
|Height:||375-900 m and. M.|
|Surface:||41,37 km ²|
|inhabitants:||117 ' 152, Aggl. 312 ' 000 (31.December 2005)|
Lausanne [loˈzan] is the capital Swiss of the canton Waadt as well as capital of the district Lausanne. The earlier German name Losanen is not no more used today. The Italian and the rätoromanische name thatCity is lot the matter, again latin the names reads Lausonium and/or. Lousonna. Lausanne is in französischsprachigen (welschen) Switzerland because of the Geneva lake. It is concerning the number of inhabitants the fifth-largest city of Switzerland, an important economic, culture and education center as well as onewichtige Verkehrsdrehscheibe in der Westschweiz. Besides Lausanne is the seat of the international olympic committee (IOC) and can as sport capital be designated.
Table of contents
] geography on 495 m and. M. (City centre) in the Waadtländer central country, at the slopes on the northern bank of the Geneva lake, arranged by several valleys. Within the range of the city centre today to a large extent covered brooks Louve and Flon meet. By its valleys the city centre becomes into the three hills Cité, LeBourg and Saint Laurent partition.
The surface 41,4 km ² of the large Gemeindegebiets covers a section of the Waadtländer of central country north the Geneva lake. The municipality soil enclosure in its southern part the closely settled slope of Lausanne, limits by the deltas of the two river courses Chamberonne (in the west) and Vuachère (in the east) into the Geneva lake. From the lakeshore the city extends over the flat bank edge strip broad depending upon situation to 500 m to the north the slope up up to the high surfaces of La Blécherette (620 mand. M.), into the forest area Bois de Sauvabelin (663 m and. M.) and on the terrace of Vennes (to 700 m and. M.).
of this main part of the city extends a narrow strip after northeast over the slope of Montblesson between the valleys of Flon Morand and Chandelar, both in the catchment area of the Paudèze, up to the high surfaces of the Jorat. Here is the passport transition Chalet à Gobet (873 m and. M.) of the main street Lausanne Moudon. To it closes norththe expanded forest area of the Bois you Jorat on, into only few small Rodungsinseln are (Chalet of the Enfants, Chalet Boverat, Les of all and Moille Saugeon). The highest point of the city Lausanne is at the same time also thosehighest collection of the Jorat (929 m and. M.). Over the high surface of the Jorat the European main water sheath between Rhône in the south and Rhine in the north runs. The northernmost part of the city covers the source area and the upper run of the river talent,to the catchment area of the Rhine belongs.
Besides Lausanne possesses a Exklave in the area of NAND. This is limited in the west and the north by the valley of the Mèbre ( a supply of the Chamberonne), eingetiefte into the high surface, and covers the forest Bois de Vernand as well as the industrie and trade area NAND.
From the municipality surface 1997 42,9% were allotted to settlements, 39,6% to forest and wood, 17,3% to agriculture and 0,2% to unproductive country.
the city centre of Lausanne cover the accomodation La Cité, Le Bourg, La Palud, Saint Laurent and Le Pont. To around the center 19. Century formed these areas the actual city Lausanne. Afterwards the city continued to expand always,and the surrounding former villages and Weiler were inkorporiert into the city, and/or residential districts became. In addition count: Ouchy, Vidy and Cour near the lakeshore, Malley on the lowest terrace west the city, La Blécherette and Bellevaux on thatHigh surface north the city, Chailly (570 m and. M.) in a valley hollow of the Vuachère, La Sallaz (616 m and. M.), Vennes and Rovéréaz at the slopes east the valley of the Flon.
Furthermore meanwhile partly belong in the rural northern citylikewise by new building settlements supplemented Weiler Montblesson (737 m and. M.) at the slope east the Flon Morand, verse chez les blank (837 m and. M.), La Vulliette (850 m and. M.) and Chalet à Gobet (861 m and. M.) on the high surface of the Jorat as well as completelyin the north Montheron (723 m and. M.) and La Râpe (711 m and. M.) at the talent, La Bérallaz (737 m and. M.) southern and Chalet marine (736 m and. M.) northern the valley cut talent to Lausanne. The Exklave NANDcover the Weiler Vernand Dessus (645 m and. M.), Vernand Dessous (613 m and. M.) and Le Boulard (560 m and. M.) as well as the industrie and trade zones NAND and Bel air.
Neighbour municipalities of Lausanne are Saint Sulpice, Chavannes près Renens, Renens, Prilly, Romanel sur Lausanne, Le Mont sur Lausanne, Epalinges, Jouxtens Mézery, Crissier, Cheseaux sur Lausanne, Morrens, Cugy, Bretigny sur Morrens, Bottens, Froideville, Montpreveyres, Savigny and Pully.
75915 1950 106807 1960 126328 1970 137383 1980 127349 1990 128112 2000 124914 Lausanne. In addition approximately 11 ' 000 further persons come, eitherSwiss with main domicile in another municipality or Saisonniers (only with temporary residence permit). Lausanne is thereby population-moderately the fifth-largest city of Switzerland. The dye Lausanne counts today approximately 312 ' 000 inhabitants.
From the inhabitants 78,8% are französischsprachig, 4,3% German-languageand 4,0% italienischsprachig (conditions 2000). The portion of the foreigners of the total population amounted to 2002 36,2%. To the largest foreign subpopulations belong the Italians, Spaniard and Portuguese.
The total population of Lausanne rose since the end 19. Century until approximately 1960 very strongly on. In the year 1946 the 100 ' 000-Einwohner-Grenze one exceeded. The highest level was registered 1970 with more than 137 ' 000 inhabitants. Due to the economic crisis into the 1970er years connected with the drift foreign workers the population tookin the following decade around well 10 ' 000 persons off. Afterwards the number of inhabitants oscillated within the range of 128 ' 000; since 1990 the trend points again easily downward.
Nearly the entire slope of Lausanne is covered today, points however some larger open spaces (park plants,small forest areas) up. The settlement area from Lausanne completely grew together with those from Renens, Prilly, Le Mont sur Lausanne, Epalinges and Pully.
beside Geneva is Lausanne the most important economic and administrative centre of the Western part of Switzerland. Approximately 83% of the employed persons are busy in the service sector, the secondary sector united approximately 17% of the persons employed on itself and less than 1% work in the primary sector.
Up to beginning 20. Century gave it at the south slopes below thatOld part of town several smaller Weinbaugebiete and areas of arable land. With the expansion of the settlement area the wine cultivation disappeared meanwhile nearly completely. On the high surfaces of the Jorat today cattle breeding and dairy farming are operated. Owing to the large forest surface of the Bois you also those plays Jorat Forestry a certain role.
The industrielle sector had particularly in the first half 20. Century meaning. Industrie and trade zones developed along the railway line in the west of the city and at the slope foot in the proximity of the Geneva lakeshore. With the increasedSpace requirement of the industry however some enterprises were shifted into the suburbs, in particular to the western and northwest edge of Lausanne (Renens, Crissier, Bussigny près Lausanne).
today concentrates in Lausanne the residentsIndustry mainly on construction industry, the engineering, on metal, food and tobacco industry, on the precision mechanics, electronics and the optics as well as on graphic enterprises and printering and publishing trade.
The service industries are on trade, tourism, administration, banks and insurance as well asaligned to transport and traffic. Lausanne is national seat of institutions, which kantonalen, meaning more differently internationally and, the district and the city administration. Since 1874 the Federal court is in Lausanne. Furthermore also numerous consulates and the secretariat of the environmental program that haveUnited Nations (UNEP) its seat in the city. Important research establishments are the Centre de Recherches of européennes - Fondation Jean Monnet pour l'Europe, the Centre de recherches sur les lettres romandes, Institut Benjamin Constant and Swiss Institut for art sciences.
the local authorities have their seat since that 16. Century in the Hôtel de Ville de la Palud. The local council (Conseil communal) consists of 100 members, that are selected in the Proporzwahlsystem every four years by the people. ThoseExecutive, to which town councillor consists, of seven so-called municipal authorities (Conseillers municipaux), until 1981 by the municipality parliament, since that time from the people is likewise selected. City president (Syndic) is Daniel Brélaz of the Green a party of Switzerland.
With the local elections of 12.March 2006 the red-green parties their majority in the city council removal and place now altogether 64 of the 100 seats (Social Democrats: 30, the Greens: 22, À Gauche Toute 12). The common list of liberals, freeintimate and Christian democrats obtained 28 seats and thatthe SVP their 8.
an important function has educational facilities Lausanne as education formation of the Western part of Switzerland. Among the most important educational facilities rank the University of (Université de Lausanne), which 1890 one based and today in Dorigny is, as well asthe Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL; Swiss federal technical university - Lausanne). The latter developed 1946, after the school of engineering with a again created school of architecture, belonging before to the university, was summarized. The buildings of the EPFL stand on the Gemeindegebiet of Ecublens.
Besides there are numerous vocational schools, under it the hotel management school (Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, EHL), the school of engineering of the canton Waadt (Ecole d'ingénieurs you CAN clay/tone de Vaud, EIVD), struck Ecole de Gestion you CAN clay/tone de Vaud (Preserve Vd; Administration),the nursing for the sick school of the Swiss red cross, the academy of art (Ecole CAN-tonal d'Art de Lausanne, ECAL) and a conservatoire.
Besides Lausanne seat of different sport world unions, so that internationally Table tennis Federation, is the Fédération international one de Volleyball, that internationally baseball Federation, the Fédération international one d'Escrime (fence), that international Equestrian Federation (riding), the FédérationInternational one of the Luttes Associées (rings), that internationally thanks sport Federation (dance sport) and the Fédération international one de Natation amateur (swim).
The city possesses itself important sports sites, particularly in the proximity of the lakeshore and on the hills above Lausannefind. In addition La Pontaise and the Centre Intercommunal de Malley with approximately 10000 places count the olympia stadium. On the height of Chalet à Gobet at the municipality border to Epalinges is a golf course.
Lausanne was one of six venues of the soccer world championship 1954.
thanks of its sunny situation at the slope over the Geneva lake, which pictorial old part of town, which Lausanne an important tourism exhibits numerous museums, cultural mechanisms and causes, which welcome incomes to the city brings.
cultural mechanisms and causes
for the cultural mechanisms belong the city theatre, the Théâtre de Beaulieu and the Théâtre de Vidy, besides numerous further smaller auditoriums and concert halls, as well as the Cinémathèque suisse. Furthermore Lausanne possesses city archives, oneMunicipal library, several public libraries, the canton and the university library and different technical libraries.
Since 1968 the festival de la Cité takes place, since 1973 the Prix de Lausanne (a dance competition) in Lausanne. Besides there are the Concours de Lausanne of the new Choreographie,the Béjart ballet, annual concerts with classical music, jazz, skirt and people music. In each case in September the Comptoir Suisse is held.
a number of important museums possesses museums as cultural center of the Western part of Switzerland. Among them is the art museum (shows since 1841 the art collections in the possession of the canton Waadt), the Kantonale museum for archaeology and history (with collections since 1852), the Musée de l'Elysée (a museum of the Swiss photography) and the Musée Olympique (the modern olympic movement documents since to call 1896). The Fondation de l'Hermitage shows changing art exhibitions. In the further the city has numerous private museums, art galleries and further exhibitions.
nearly the entire lakeshore on the city is as expanded recovery zone with leisureand sports sites, swimming pool, seaside resort, boat harbor facilities, camping site and play meadows arranges. It concerns here the transformed area, which was used 1964 for the Swiss national exhibition Expo 64 Lausanne. The covered city is loosened up by several parks and green belts, for example throughthe Botani garden at the isolated hill Montriond, the park de Valency, the area with Monrepos and the Esplanade de Montbenon. Among the further local recreation areas the forest of Sauvabelin and the area rank around Chalet à Gobet.
Lausanne is an important traffic junction in west Swiss central country. It is because of the old main and trade route of Geneva over the passport Chalet à Gobet to Berne. Further one already existed in in former times time important connections along the Geneva lake after Vevey and Montreux as well as northward toward Cossonay, Orbe and Yverdon.
At the beginning of the 1960er years took place the building of the motorway A1 from Geneva to Lausanne, which ended with Lausanne Vidy. The distance became 1964 in time for the national exhibition inLausanne taken in enterprise. Today the section between the bypass Ecublens and Lausanne Vidy under the designation A1A runs as western city feeders Lausanne. The northern by-pass of Lausanne, a distance section of the A9 (Lausanne Sion) with several bridge construction works over the valleys became 1974 opened. 1981 were added the northern continuation of the A1 after Yverdon les Bains.
The SBB - Station of Lausanne is one of the most important entire country. From here direct express trains into nearly all regions of Switzerland, as well as a TGV line operate to Paris.The first railway reached Lausanne to 5. May 1856 with the opening of the distance Renens Lausanne. Thus Lausanne was first connected with Morges (starting from 1858 with Geneva) and Yverdon (starting from 1859 with new castle). To 2. April 1861 became the distance section Lausanne- Villeneuve of the railway line of Lausanne in whale-read open. Approximately one and a half years later, to 4. September 1862, was taken also the line Lausanne Berne in enterprise. To 5. November 1873 followed finally the inauguration of the section from Lausanne to Cheseaux sur Lausanne the narrow-gauge railway Chemin de fer Lausanne Echallens Bercher, which opens the northern suburbs of the city.
The ÖPNV is completed in Lausanne by transport publics the de la région Lausannoise. This society operates numerous trolley buses - and motorbus lines on the city andin the dye. In addition still the Funiculaire Lausanne Ouchy and a metropolitan railway of Lausanne comes via Ecublens (development of the university in Dorigny and the EPFL) to Renens. The rack railway is extended to time to Epalinges and converted into an underground line; thoseOpening of the Métro Lausanne is to take place in December 2007.
Furthermore Lausanne is by the transportation network of the person navigation on the Geneva lake connected with numerous Seeanstössergemeinden, among them also with the Evian les Bains lying opposite in France.
On the high surface of Blécherette upthe city centre is since 1911 the airfield La Blécherette for civil aircraft.
the city of Lausanne was already in 4. Millenium before Christ settles. The Romans established in the place of a celtic settlement within the rangethe today's Vidy a military camp, which they called Lousanna. Since that 1. Century after Christ developed here at the place of transshipment of the trading vessels on the Geneva lake on horse carts a Roman Vicus. This reached probably a size of 1.2 kmLength and 250 m broad and was the largest Vicus of Switzerland. In the course of the 3. Century this Roman settlement was pressed by ideas of the Alamannen and probably destroyed around 260.
Already in the 3. Century developed on the hill, wheretoday the cathedral is, a small craftsman settlement or a Refugium. The name of the Roman settlement was transferred to this place. In 6. Century was established on this hill the first church, which was geweiht the holy Thyrsus. Bishop Marius shiftedits seat in the second half 6. Century from Avenches to Lausanne and thereby the diocese justified Lausanne. He was buried 594 in the church at that time.
The first still relatively small place belonged in the time of 888 until 1032 to the Kingdom of Hochburgund. During the 11. Century developed Lausanne to a political, economical and religious center. The city became the center of the lay rule of the bishops. In the following time, in particular in 12. and 13. Centuryexperienced Lausanne its own bloom time.
The citizenry of Lausanne, which had fought for 1234 their first political rights, received support in the following centuries always again from the counts von Savoyen against the rule of the bishops. 1476 became the cityoccupied by burgundischen troops under Karl the bold one and after the battle of Grandson of the oath comrades geplündert. To 6. The Cité and the lower part of town united July 1481, which developed before independently. The city closed 1525with Berne and Freiburg castle right contracts.
a new chapter in the history of the city Lausanne begins 1536, when the Bernese conquered the Waadtland. The inhabitants of the city welcomed the introduction of the reformation, and the bishop at that timeSebastian of Montfaucon had to flee after Savoyen. Thus Lausanne lost its status as bishop seat (the diocese Lausanne, Geneva and Freiburg has its seat since 1613 in Freiburg). That the Bernese the population from Lausanne to their subjects made andLausanne to a provincial town degradierten, by the inhabitants with aversions were understandably received. There were therefore several collections against Bernese the supremacy, under it 1588 the conspiracy of Isbrand Daux, which wanted to play the Waadtland into the hands of Savoyen,and the resistance under Jean Daniel Abraham Davel in the year 1723.
The Bernese furnished the Vogtei Lausanne, which a substantially larger extent than the today's district Lausanne had to 1536. It extended of the Venoge along the Geneva lakeshoreeastward to before the city Vevey, covered the high surface of the Jorat in the north and was enough in the northeast into the catchment area of the Broye.
After the collapse of the Ancien régime Lausanne as a result of the Waadtländer revolution became 1798Afterwards principal place CAN clay/tone you of the Léman, which had existence during the Helvetik until 1803, and with the coming into force of the Mediationsverfassung in the canton Waadt came up. Thus Lausanne became the capital of the again-created canton. As important administrative seat the city in the run experienced19. Century in the course of the industrialization a rapid economic upswing. By active building activity the Lausanne already grew by 1900 to to its city boundaries. Projects of an incorporation of the neighboring places Renens, Prilly and Epalinges failed in the first half20. Century all together at the refusal by the population of the suburbs. In the lock of Ouchy became to 24. July 1923 the contract of Lausanne closed. From June to July 1932 the negotiations found over in the conference of LausanneOf Germany reparations instead of.
buildings worth seeing possesses objects of interest lock Saint Maire Lausanne. Outstanding building of the city is the cathedral Notre-Dame. In the accomodation de la Cité on the hill with the cathedral is further important medievalBuildings receive. The lock Saint Maire is a solid cubic building flanked by four Ecktürmen, whose highest projectile brickwork shows. It became at the beginning 15. Century in the place of the Priorats Saint Maire established, served as bishop seat and was during thatBernese time seat of the Landvogts. The old bischöfliche lock to the Place de la Cathédrale originates in its core from that 11. Century, in the course of the time however several newer Gebäudeflügel were cultivated; the Jacquemard tower (1360 - 80) was part of the original city attachment. Close with the house Gaudard of 1670 stands. The former academy, a rectangular building with stair tower, was built from 1579 to 1587. Of 1803 - 06 the klassizistische Bâtiment you comes Grand Conseil. Withthe quarters Cité is connected for the accomodation de la Palud bordering west by covered Treppenläufe.
The accomodation de la Palud developed in a formerly swampy area hollow and served as market accomodation of Lausanne. Here is the Hôtel de Ville(City hall), the 1672 - 75 in the place of a building of predecessors establishes and in 18. and 19. Century was increased. It shows a zweigeschossige Renaissance front over arcades and possesses a bell tower. In the further the Maison de Seigneux (today police posts) is ina style in the transition from the baroque to the early classicism (1732), the house Crousaz from that 18. Century and the justice well (16. Century; the original rules in the museum) to call itself. To the Place de la Riponne standthe palaces de Rumine (1898 - 1906) in the new Renaissance style, that was originally for the admission of the university, the library and a museum intended the former Musée Arlaud, as well as (1836 - 39).
In the accomodation you Bourg is the reformed church Saint François, former church 1258 created Franziskanerklosters. The einschiffige building with Kreuzrippengewölbe comes from 1270, had again to be provided however 1368 after a fire. The bell tower became in 15. Century establishes.
At the entrance to the accomodation Saint Laurentthe route de l'Ale, a round tower from that stands for 13. and 14. Century, which is still received as one of the few medieval fortress buildings. The reformed church Saint Laurent became 1716 - 19 in the place of a church from that 11. Century delighted and 1761 - 63 with a baroque front provide. The Maison de l'Elysée is a manor-house, which was provided 1780 - to 83.
In the external accomodation are numerous locks and gentleman seat as well as other buildings of splendour. In addition count the lockBeaulieu (1763 - 66), the lock Béthusy from that 18. Century, the klassizistische house Villamont (1791 - 93), the Maison de Mon Repos (1819 - 27), in whom in former times the Musée Olympique was accommodated,as well as the impressive neoklassizistischen buildings of the Federal court (tribunal Fédéral; 1922 - 27), the cantonal bank (1903) and the post office building (1896 - 1900).
In Ouchy, the traditional port of Lausanne, several buildings of hotels from that stand for 19. Century, for example the Hôtel you Château d'Ouchy (1889 - 93) in the again-gothical style, the Hôtel d'Angleterre (1775 - 79) and the Hôtel Beau Rivage (1858 - 61). Along the Geneva lake gives it expanded park plantsSculptures as well as at the Quai a again-gothical tower ruin of 1830.
personalities with purchase to Lausanne
- Aloïse Corbaz, artist
- David Bennent, actor
- Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, Orientreisender
- Stéphane Chapuisat, Soccer player
- Jean Daniel Abraham Davel, officer and rebel
- Jean Pascal Delamuraz, Upper House of Parliament
- Alexandre Denéréaz, composer
- Oswald army, paleontologist
- Franziska Rochat Moser, light athlete
- Fabienne Pakleppa, authoress
- Augusts Piccard, scientist
- Bertrand Piccard, scientist
- Félix Vallotton, Painters and commercial artists
- Pierre Viret, Reformator of Lausanne
- Oswald Zappelli, Fechter
- Ludovic Magnin, football player (momentary VfB Stuttgart)
- Umberto Agnelli, Italian entrepreneur
- Jean Anouilh, French writer
- Victoria of battery mountain,Queen of Spain
- Alejo Carpentier, Cuban-French writer
- Pierre de Coubertin, French baron and IOC founder
- Carl Peter Fabergé, Goldschmied and Juwelier
- Fausia, Persian empress
- Philipp von Ferrary, Philatelist
- Guillaume franc, French composer
- Egon von Fürstenberg, GermanItalian mode designer
- José Giovanni, writer and film producer
- Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, Ukrainian bacteriologist
- Robin Kenyatta, American saxophonist
- Carl Gustaf man home, Finnish officer and statesman
- James Mason, English Filmschauspieler
- Adam Mickiewicz, Polish poet
- Vladimir Nabokov, Russian writer
- Hugo Pratt, Italian Comic author
- Ubol Ratana, Thai princess
- Georges Simenon, French writer
- Karol Szymanowski, Polish composer
- Roger Verey, Polish Ruderer
- Eugène Viollet le Duc, French architect
Web on the left of
|Commons: Lausanne -Pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- official Website of the city Lausanne
- information for tourist
- extensive archives of aerial photos of the city
- the locks of Lausanne
- University of Lausanne
- Eidg. Technical university Lausanne
- olympic museum
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Coordinates: 46° 31 ' N, 6° 38 ' O