Le Corbusier

Charles Edouard Jeanneret, “Le Corbusier”
Büste in Roquebrune Cap Martin

Le Corbusier (* 6. October 1887 in La Chaux de fund in Swiss canton new castle; † 27. August 1965 close Roquebrune cape Martin with Nice; actually Charles Edouard Jeanneret (- Gris)) a French-Swiss architect was, architectural theorist, Town planners, painters and sculptors.

Le Corbusier is one of the most important and most influential architects 20. Century, whose new ideas in addition, controversies released and are partly disputed until today. , He takes its alias Le Corbusier, the name of its grandfather at the beginningthe 1920er years in Paris - among other things following the name of its instructor L'Eplattenier - on. One of its brand names is its horn eyeglasses with the thick, round, black framework.

Table of contents

lives

1887 - come of

to 1917 Charles Jeanneret to an old-established and far branched out family, which their - however proven - origins up to the Albigensern leads back. The additive Gris differentiates its branch of family from the Jeanneret Grieurin and the Jeanneret Compas. Its fatherGeorges Edouard (* 1855; † 1926) are Emaillierer of clock cases with own workshop in La Chaux de fund, the center at that time of Swiss watch-and-clock-making industry. Its nut/mother Marie Charlotte Amelie (* 1860; † 1960; born Perret) is a musician.

In the year 1900 it begins teachings to the engraver and Ziseleur in the college of arts and crafts École d'Art in La Chaux de fund. Under the influence of its teacher Charles L'Eplattenier it turns to the painting and architecture, whereby it zuneigt first more the first. Artistically it is affected at this time strongly by the kind and force movement and kind nouveau.

In La Chaux de fund it implements 1905 its first architectural work: the mansion fall, a house for a teacher at the college of arts and crafts. To 1916 further buildings, those follow yet the handwriting typical for Le Corbusier do not carry and from it later also not inListing of its works to be taken up.

it undertakes 1907 together with the sculptor René Chapalaz its first study trip. On these journeys and draws he studies the architecture of the bereisten cities and regions. It visits the Kartause of Ema in Galluzzo in north Italy Milan, Florenz ,, Siena, Bologna, Padua and Venice, to it Budapest and Vienna. In Vienna follows six months a long stay with the architect and Wortführer of the Viennese Secession, Josef Hoffmann. There he becomes acquainted with also the theories of Adolf Loos .

In March 1908 it travels for the first time to Paris, visits the most important new architects of the city such as Frantz Jourdain, Charles Plumet, Henri sow-vague and Eugène grass set, works until the end of 1909 15 months in the office of Augusts Perret, the pioneerbuilding with reinforced concrete. A further influence at this time is an architect and town planner Tony Garnier, which it visits in Lyon.

On behalf its school École D' kind it travels 1910 to Germany, around the there arts and crafts movement (German work federation, German workshopsto study). It visits Heinrich Tessenow and the music paedagogue Emile Jaques Dalcroze in Hellerau and it comes to a five-month stay (1. November 1910 to 1. April 1911) in the studio by Peter Behrens in potsdam Neubabelsberg with Berlin. Probably he learns with this stay alsoarchitecture franc Lloyd WRIGHT know, that is published at this time straight in Europe.

it undertakes 1911 with the friendly art historian Augusts Klipstein a second study trip, it from Vienna Danube downward to Budapest and from there to Romania, into Turkey (among other things Konstantinopel), to Greece (among other thingsMountain Athos, Athens, where particularly the Akropolis impresses it) and far into the Italian cities Neapel, Pompeji, Rome and Florenz leads.

he teaches 1912/13 at one year before „the new one created of its teacher L' EplattenierDepartment of “the École D' kind architecture and interior arrangement, at the same time he is established as independent architect and Innenausstatter. In Paris in the context of the autumn salon some water colors with impressions of its journeys are issued. 1914 he becomes director/conductor of a department of the École D' kind. It receives a patenton the structural system developed together with engineer max you Bois „domino “for industriellen the quantity production parts prefabricated by houses in reinforced concrete - skeleton building method from.

Its last building in La Chaux de fund is the mansion Schwob (also mansion Turque), which it 1916 for the clock manufacturer AugustsSchwob establishes. This house is arranged with a klassizistischen front outwardly still conventional, which reinforced concrete construction has however already many characteristics of the principles formulated by it only into the 1920er years in the five points of a new architecture, with which it then coin/shape modern architecturebecomes.

1917 - 1917

domicile and point of medium shift 1939 Charles Jeanneret finally to Paris. There he becomes acquainted with the painter Amédée Ozenfant, with which in the following years an artistic and journalistic co-operation results. At first it receives only few orders asArchitect, is occupied strengthened with contemporary painting, especially it comes to an intensive argument with the Kubismus. 1918 develops first oil pictures - above all quiet lives - and it issues together with Ozenfant. Both publish le Cubisme to their first exhibition with Après (After the Kubismus) their communist manifesto for a new art, the purism, whose principles flow also into Le Corbusiers architecture: The rational composition of the picture/building from elementary geometrical forms when avoidance purely decorative effects.

Around their ideas to painting and architecture to the publicto spread, they create 1920 together with the poet and journalist Paul Dermée the magazine L' ESPRIT Nouveau. In this booklet it begins, in order to mark its articles, which appear 1923 also under the title verse une Architecture as book, the alias Le Corbusier toouse. It is limited from now on its work not to sketching buildings, but striven for the spreading of its ideas by exhibitions, magazines, books and lectures. 1920 it develops the first plans for the Maison in such a way specified Citrohan. This type of house - itsDesignation itself consciously to the functionality of the automobile industry, against which Citroën leans label names - the quantity production with quaderförmigem solidium and basic side panels plans and already fulfills a large part of the five points of a new architecture (see below).

1922 create Le Corbusier with its cousin Pierre Jeanneret (* 1896; † 1967) an architect's office in the Rue d'Astorg 29; it furnishes additionally a studio in a course of a former Jesuitenklosters to 1924 in the Rue de Sèvres 35. Into the 1920er years predominantly houses are realized after „the domino “- system. As town plannersit steps 1922 with a concept for one „contemporary city for three million inhabitant " (Ville Contemporaine) in the autumn salon to the public.

On the international arts and crafts exhibition 1925 in Paris Le Corbusier/Jeanneret with the pavilion L' ESPRIT Nouveau an avant-garde show exposition international one kinds of the DécoratifsCounter project to the Mainstream of the exhibition, which is located in the indication kind of the Déco. This pavilion consists closed settlement of a zweigeschossigen mansion unit, which emerges as basic module in its architectural designs at that time repeated, either to the block of flats (immeuble villas) stacked or to one „in honeycomb form “grouped. The pavilionfurnished puristic and cubist painting is of Le Corbusier, remote and Légers, Jacques Lipchitz, Juan Gris and Ozenfant, before the building stands a sculpture of Lipchitz with modern, functional furniture, at the walls hangs. In an attached Diorama it shows its visions concerning town construction forParis (Ville contemporaine, plan Voisin). Soon after the exhibition the magazine L' ESPRIT Nouveau is adjusted, differences leads to the separation from Ozenfant.

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret participate 1927 in the competition for the people federation palace in Geneva. Its draft receives with 8 others(of 377) a first price awarded, combines on itself most jury voices. The further consideration is rejected however for a formal reason - the demanded drawings in india ink were not submitted -, although its plan is the only one, which keeps the cost framework. Its are built afterthe five points of sketched houses for the sample settlement „white yard “in Stuttgart, about which the first realization of a house of the type represents Citrohan.

1928 it travels to Moscow, where it after the profit of an international competition the order for the building of the building forthe central association of the consumer cooperatives of the USSR (center Soyuz) receives. In the Swiss La Sarraz it creates the Congrès international D ' Architecture modern trend (CIAM) with other architects. The establishment of this architect combination is also a reaction to those often as scandal of felt events with the competition overthe people federation palace.

it goes to 1929 on its first South America journey, holds there lectures on architecture. In the autumn salon place it, Pierre Jeanneret and the Designerin Charlotte Perriand (* 1903; † 1999) common furniture drafts out. These are manufactured as designer furniture until today and under the designation LC1 to LC7 drove out. The most salient and most well-known model of this row is probably the Chaise longue LC4.

In September 1930 Le Corbusier accepts the French nationality, in December marries it the mannequin Yvonne Gallis originating from Monaco (* 1892; † 1957).

it takes 1931 tointernational competition for the Soviet palace in Moscow part, the draft in the following year is rejected. In the February of the yearly first journey to Algiers, which further follow. For this city extensive town plannings and architectural drafts in the following years, which are however not converted, develop.

1933 it is responsible involved in the Verabschiedung of the Charter of Athens on IV. CIAM congress in Athens. 1935 it travels on invitation museum of the OF decaying kind for the first time to the USA, visits congresses and holds lectures, orders is however missing.Under the title La Ville Radieuse is compiled a further concept concerning town construction.

On its second Latin America journey it sketches 1936 among other things in Brazil together with the native architects Lucio Costa , OSCAR Niemeyer the Ministry of Health and educating for Rio de Janeiro. On the world exhibition 1937in Paris it is represented with the exhibition pavilion Temps nouveaux.

1940 - 1965

with beginning of the Second World War are stopped building activity almost. An order for the planning of a ammunition factory cannot be implemented because of the fast defeat of France 1940 no more. LeCorbusier and Pierre Jeanneret close the common architect's office, it flee with woman and son into the Pyreneeses. it pulls and attaches 1941 after Vichy contacts to the Petain government, from which it receives and implements also orders. [Le Corbusiers political attitude in this time is not completely clearly: it means, it showed into the late 1930er years sympathies for the political rights, what also led to it that coworkers dissociated themselves from him, and has during occupation with the Vichy government at least sympathized; other sources bring it at least inthe time after 1942 with the Resistance in connection] 1942 it begins proportion teachings mentioned, which become fundamental from now on for all its following architectural drafts with the elaboration of its Modulor. It is based the Assemblée de Constructeurs pour Rénovation architecturale (ASCORAL), with plans of reconstruction forthe time after the war employs.1943 it publishes the Charter of Athens.

After the release of France 1944 it chairmen of the town construction commission of the French architect federation front national the architectes and open in August again into the Rue de Sèvres an office. He works1945/46 at plans of reconstruction for Saint Dié and La Rochelle - Pallice, which are realized however evenly as few as its town plannings for the extension of Saint Gaudens. At the end of of 1945 it embarks itself to its second journey into the USA, where an itinerant exhibition admits its work makes. Itvisits Albert Einstein in Princeton.

1947 it becomes member of the architect commission, that was used for the planning UN - of headquarters in New York. From it the basic concept and the plans for the UN multistoried building (secretariat) come, implementing architect however become Wallace Harrison. At the beginningthe 1940er employs it also with the sculpture, together with the bretonischen carpenter and Holzschnitzer Joseph Savina completes yourselves it 1948 first wood sculptures, draws collecting mains for Gobelins.

The government of the Indian Federal State Punjab appoints it 1951 as an advisor for planning thatnew capital Chandigarh, after the town planner Albert Mayer assigned first cannot implement the order after the deadly airplane misfortune of the architect Matthew Nowicki consulted to the project. It can convert its conceptions concerning town construction for the first time here into the reality: until 1952 it finishes the space planning,afterwards it sketches still some government buildings, by those the Law Courts, the secretariat and to parliament building to be built and until 1961 finished placed. It implements further projects on the Indian Subkontinent into the 1950er years also in Ahmedabad .

1952 become in Marseille after six yearsPlanning and building the first Unité d'habitation posed. In the following years four further remarks at different places are established by this type of house.

Two

representative Sakralbauten develop for emergency RH lady you skin: the pilgrimage church emergency RH lady you skin with Ronchamp, famous because of their stylistic idiom , becomes 1955, the monastery Sainte Marie de la Tourette with Éveux sur l'Arbresle 1960 posed. For the company Philips it sketches together with Iannis Xenakis a pavilion for the world exhibition in Brussels of 1958, to that with its parabolically and hyperbolically swung surfaces the expressive stylistic idiom of the church of Ronchamp resumes and for its interiorin co-operation with the composer Edgar Varèse the Poème électronique, a kind multimedia synthesis of the arts from picture (dia. demonstration), music and architecture develops. With the national museum for modern trend western art it is represented starting from 1959 also in Tokyo, in the Ueno park. The order for the buildingthe Carpenter center for Visual kind at the Harvard university makes possible to accomplish it between 1959 and 1962 also its first and only project in the USA - differently than with the UN building, where it the responsibility did not become to transfer - under own name.

With 78 yearsLe Corbusier in Cap Martin dies, when he suffers with bathing in the sea close of its holidays little house La Cabanon a heart impact and drowns. At the 1. September honours culture Minister André Malraux the dead one with an official funeral service in the Carrée yard of the Louvre. It is on the cemetery ofCap Martin bestattet.

honors and honours

Le Corbusier the honour doctor for the use of mathematical order principles of the University of Zurich is lent to 1934, further honour doctor titles receives he 1955 from the ETH Zurich, 1959 of the University of Cambridge, 1961 of the university of Colombia and 1963 of the University of Geneva. 1937 he becomes knight, 1952 commander and 1963 large officer of the French Ehrenlegion.

works

Unité d'habitation, Berlin, (1956-1959)
mansion Savoye (1928)

architecture

(years indicate the period of beginning of planning to completion; Mansion = country house, Maison = urban house)

Charles Edouard Jeanneret (realized projects until 1916)

  • mansion fall. 1, Chemin de Pouillerel in La Chaux de fund, 1906/7
  • mansion Stotzer. 6, Chemin de Pouillerel in La Chaux de fund, 1908
  • mansion Jacquemet. 8, Cheminde Pouillerel in La Chaux de fund, 1908
  • mansion Jeanneret Perret. 12, Chemin de Pouillerel in La Chaux de fund, 1912 (house for parents)
  • mansion Favre. 6, Côte de Billodes in Le Locle, 1912
  • cinema La Scala. 52, Rue de la Serre in La Chaux de fund,1916
  • mansion Schwob (also mansion Turque). 167, Rue you Doubs in La Chaux de fund, 1916

Le Corbusier (realized projects after 1916)

  • Maison Ozenfant. House and studio, Avenue Reille in Paris, 1922
  • mansion Besnos. Boulevard de la République in Vaucresson, 1922
  • Maisons La Roche Jeanneret. (Doppelhaus) Square you Docteur Blanche in Paris, 1923
  • studios Lipchitz Miestchaninoff. Studio houses, Allée of the pin/Rue kinds in Boulogne Billancourt, 1924
  • mansion “Le Lac”. Route de Lavaux in Corseaux close Vevey, 1923-1925 (second house for parents)
  • pavilion L'Esprit nouveau for the international arts and crafts exhibition in Paris, 1925 (broken off after exhibition end)
  • accomodation modern Frugès. Housing development, Rue Le Corbusier/Rue Henri Frugès/Rue of the Arcades in Pessac, 1924-1926
  • Maison Guiette. Populierenlaan 32 in Antwerp, 1926
  • Maisons Ternisien. House with artist studios, Allée of thePin/Rue Denfert in the Boulogne sur Seine, 1926 (briefly torn off after completion again)
  • Maison Cook. Rue Denfert Rochereau in the Boulogne sur Seine, 1926
  • Maison Planeix. Boulevard Masséna in Paris, 1927
  • two houses for the “settlement at the white yard”, bridging man way 2 and Rathenaustrasse 1-3 in Stuttgart, 1927
  • Mansion stone. Rue you Professeur Victor Pauchet in Vaucresson, 1926-1928
  • change/extension of the mansion Church. in Ville d'Avray, 1927 (destroyed in the Second World War)
  • mansion Baizeau. Saint Monique/Karthago in Tunesien, 1928/29
  • mansion Savoye. Rue de Villiers in Poissy, 1929-1931
  • mansionde Mandrot. Route de l'Artaude Toulon close with Le Pradet, 1930/31
  • apartment Beistegui. Roof dwelling, Avenue of the Champs Élysée in Paris, 1930/31
  • dwelling house Clarté. Rue Saint Laurent 2-4 in Geneva, 1930-1932
  • homeless shelter (Cité de refuge) of the welfare army, Rue Cantagelin Paris, 1929-1933
  • pavilion de la Suisse, Cité universitaire. Swiss student hostels, boulevard Jourdan in Paris, 1931-1933
  • dwelling house at the havens Molitor. 24, rue Nungesser et Coli in Paris, 1933
    • Le Corbusier used from 1933 to its death the 7. and 8. Floorthis house as dwelling and studio
  • mansion Le sextant. Holiday house, Avenue de l'ocean La Rochelle, 1935 weekend house in La Celle Saint Cloud
  • with Paris, close in Les Mathes, 1935
  • office building center Soyuz. Uliza Mjasnitzkaja in Moscow, 1928-1936
  • pavilion Temps nouveaux for the world exhibition inParis, 1937
  • Brazilian Ministry of Health and educating in Rio de Janeiro, 1938-1943 (with Lucio Costa, OSCAR Niemeyer among other things)
  • Casa (and/or. Maison) Dr. Pedro Domingo Curutchet. La Plata, Argentina, 1948/49
  • Unité de habitation. Boulevard Michelet in Marseille, 1946-1952
  • factory Duval.Avenue de Robache in Saint Dié the Vosges, 1946-1952
  • Le Cabanon. Blockhouse, Le Corbusiers holidays domicile, promenade Le Corbusier in Roquebrune Cap Martin, 1952
Cabanon in Roquebrune Cap Martin
  • Kapitol (area of government administration) in Chandigarh, India 1952-1961
    • Law Courts. 1951- 1955
    • secretariat (Ministries). 1951-1958
    • parliament building. 1951-1962
  • seat of the textile manufacturers association in Ahmedabad,1954
  • pilgrimage church emergency RH lady you skin. in Ronchamp, 1951-1955
  • Maisons Jaoul. Rue de Longchamp in the Neuilly sur Seine, 1951-1955
  • Unité d'habitation. Rue Théodore Brosseaud in Nantes - Rezé, 1953-1955
  • mansion Sarabhai. Ahmedabad, 1951-1956
  • mansion Shodhan. Ahmedabad, 1951-1956
  • museum in Ahmedabad, 1956/57
  • Unité d'habitation. Flatowallee16 in Berlin, 1958 (yields substantially of Le Corbusiers original plans off)
  • Philips - pavilion for the world exhibition Brussels 1958 (diminished after the world exhibition)
  • Dominikanerkloster Sainte Marie de La Tourette. Éveux sur l'Arbresle, 1953-1960
  • pavilion you Brésil, Cité Universitaire. Brazil house, Avenue de la havens de Gentilly in Paris, 1957-1959
  • national museumfor western art. Tokyo, 1959
  • Carpenter centers for Visual kind Harvard University. Quincy Street in Cambridge (Massachusetts), 1959-1962
  • Unité d'habitation. Rue you Docteur Giry in Briey EN Forêt, 1956-1959
  • Maison de la Culture. House of the culture in Firminy, 1961-1965
  • Unité d'habitation. Firminy, 1964-1967 (postume execution: André Wogenscky)
  • Centre Le Corbusier. Exhibition pavilion, Höschgasse 8 in Zurich, draft 1963, completion postum 1967
  • church “Saint Pierre” in Firminy - between 1978 and 2004 the church begun already remained to completion in the carcass (without roof),postum 2006

did not realize projects

among other things:

  • People federation palace in Geneva, 1927
  • governor palace in Chandigarh, 1951
    • 1960 was replaced to these in planning by the likewise not built center for electronic decisions

screen end art

  • more than 400 paintingson canvas or as Wandmalerei
  • 44 sculptures
  • 27 Gobelinentwürfe
  • Lithografien, designs

publications (selection)

  • verse une architecture. Crès, Paris 1923 (German: View on an architecture. Ullstein, Berlin Frankfurt at Main vienna 1963)
  • Urbanisme. Crès, Paris 1925 (German: Town construction. German publishing house,Berlin Leipzig 1929)
  • L'Art décoratif d'aujurd'hui. Crès, Paris 1925
  • Précision sur un état présent de'l architecture et de l'urbanisme. Crès, Paris 1930 (German: Statements to architecture and town construction. Ullstein, Berlin Frankfurt at Main vienna 1964)
  • La Ville radieuse. Edition de l'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, the Bologne sur Seine 1935
  • Quand of les cathédrales étaient blanches: Voyage outer pays the timides. Plon, Paris 1937
  • Le lyrisme temps nouveaux et urbanisme. Le POINT, Colmar 1939
  • Sur of les quatre routes. N.R.F., Paris 1941
  • Urbanisme de CIAM, Charte of d'Athènes. (With a Vorrede of Jean Giraudoux) Plon, Paris 1943
  • Les trois établissements humains. Denoël, of Paris of 1946
  • pro pos d'Urbanisme. Bourrelier & Cie, Paris 1946 (German: Basic questions of the town construction. Hatje, Stuttgart)
  • Le Modulor. Edition de l'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, the Bologne sur Seine 1948 (German: The Modulor. J.G. Cotta' bookshop,Stuttgart 1953)
  • Une petite maison. Girsberger, Zurich 1954
  • Le Modulor 2-1955 (La slogan est aux usagers). Edition de l'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, the Bologne sur Seine 1955 (German: Modulor 2: (The users have the word). German publishing house, Stuttgart 1958)
  • L'urbanisme trois établissements humains. Editionde Minuit, of Paris 1959

furniture

Chaise longue

sketched in co-operation of Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret and its woman employee Charlotte Perriand

  • chair Basculant LC1 (steel tube framework + leather)
  • armchair LC2 (cubic arm armchair, steel tube framework + leather)
  • sofa LC3 (3-sitzig, steel tube framework + leather)
  • Chaise longue LC4(adjustable couch, steel tube framework + leather)
  • sofa LC5 (simple sofa, differently than LC3 without arm rests, steel tube frameworks + leather)
  • Esstisch LC6
  • rotation UHL LC7 (steel tube framework + leathers)

literature Maurice

Besset haven-guesses/advises resuming information on
Swiss 10-Franconia note

[

  • work on]: Le Corbusier. Edition d'ArtAlbert Skira S.A., Geneva 1987 ISBN 2605000982
  • Jean Louis Cohen: Le Corbusier. Bags, Cologne 2004 ISBN 3822835323
  • Le Corbusier: Oevre Cemplète. Complete work in eight volumes. Zurich 1965 - to 1970, 1995

see also

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Le Corbusier - quotations
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Le Corbusier in the catalog of the DDB

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