Le Havre [ləˈɑːvʀ] is a city in the northwest of France in the region striking normandy in the Département Seine-maritime (76). Been because of the right bank of the Seine Le Havre has the second largest port of France (to Marseille). Le Havre has also one Airport.
One calls the inhabitants in the French Havrais.
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Le Havre is at the south point of the Pays de Caux, directly at the delta of the Seine, which has here width of over 5 km. With the city Honfleur on (link) the south bank of the river is Le Havreby the Pont de Normandie connected.
Le Havre is a relatively young city, there it only in the year 1517 on suggestion of the admiralBonnivet as war harbor was built - the official establishment document of the king Franz I. for the Franciscopolis at that time comes from 8. October 1518. The later name Le Havre de Grâce was godfather for the place of same name in Maryland, the USA. Existed in the Middle Ages here only small Fischerand farmer villages, while the main port of the region lay in the Hanfleur. The new port Le Havre should become fair the increasing overseas trade, but serve by its attachment also the military safety device of the Seine delta. The conditions in the settlement surrounded by sumps were however everything else asoptimally, particularly since the young city became 1525 victims of a heavy storm tide, which cost approximately hundreds that at that time 600 inhabitants the life. The city flowered nevertheless soon up, to which not least the 1524 built threw contributed. Also as home port of a Fischereiflotte the city at meaning won,besides it was starting point of several research and discovery journeys. With the building of the cathedral 1536 were begun, since 1541 received the city after the plans of the Italian giro Lama Bellarmato with rectangle sketch and modern bastions the face of a earlymodern plan city. The Huguenots found in the city after1560 many trailers, which provoked a military reaction of the catholics (see:Huguenot wars), however received the Protestanten Le Havres also to support by England, which sent 6,000 men under the command of the count von Warwick, who let the away Warwick build here, without itself however for a long timehold to be able. After driving the Englishmen out king Karl IX. left. the away sharpen. Cardinal Richelieu left then in 17. Jh. four new bastions put on, in addition Le Havre received an arsenal. 1650 was arrested in the new citadel of the city prominent representatives of the Fronde.Meanwhile the French India company in Le Havre furnished its seat, which profited not least from the slave trade. Also the bombardment by the English navy 1694 could hardly disturb this upswing, even if thereby 300 houses were destroyed. The attendance of the madame Pompadour cost the citythen 1749 again enormous sums. 1759 came it during the seven-year-old of war again to an attack of the Englishmen. The city grows nevertheless, in which soon also a Tabakmanufaktur was. Ludwig XVI. approved 1786 a development of the city, which its surface vierfachte, the number of inhabitants1789 amounted to about 20,000, in this time also the theatre of the city were built. The independence of the United States from America carried the trade additionally, so that Le Havre, after Nantes, ascended to the second largest port of France.
The continental barrier brought then however a crisis of many years with itself,only by the restoration the 1815 an end found. Hygenic conditions held however with replacing growth did not walk, particularly since the industrialization beginning favoured the emergence of larger arm quarters, in which Cholera and typhoid fever epidemic diseases at the agenda were. The rich middle class could itself against it, in the first half 19 carries the building out of representative city palaces. Jhs. became Le Havre also seat of a stock exchange. The mechanism of a gas supply (1836) and drains (1844) improved then the situation also for far parts of the population. 1841 are LeHavre already home port of 32 steam ships, 1847 receives the city a rail connection, at the beginning 20. Jhs. Le Havre Europe of largest coffee ports of entry is, also cotton in ever larger quantities from the new world is delivered, while an increased emigration is to be observed at the same time into the USA.Despite the industrialization Le Havre was used however increasingly also as cure and Erholungsort, to which above all the generous plant of boulevards barks during Epoque contributed. However also the political agitation of the workers increased itself at the same time, in strikes and in the ascent thatsocialist parties showed.
The First World War cost 6,000 inhabitants of the city the life, even if the city were far distant for enough from the front, in order to suffer damage. It served particularly as supply port for the Englishmen, whereby German submarines sank several ships here. 1922 and 1936 came it then again to substantial strikes, whereby the economic situation worsened by the crisis after 1929, that also the building of oil refineries changed few. 1940 drew then, during the Second World War the German troops into Le Havre, whereit a garrison of 40.000 men stationed and the port in the context of the Atlantic barrier to a heavy fortress removals. In particular the Jewish population, under it the mayor, was exposed to heavy Repressionen, however here also the Résistance became, actively in particular after the landing of the allied ones in thatNormandy. The city was altogether exposed to 132 bomb attacks, whereby the most substantial to 5. and 6. September 1944 took place; it cost the life to 5,000 humans and destroyed 12,500 buildings. After the war Le Havre was again developed after the plans of the architect's office Augusts Perret. The city halland the church pc. Josef were built after its own plans.
By the change of the industry, in particular also by the oil crisis of the 70's, the city took part in some economic difficulties, whereby the population decreased/went back since 1975 around 12%.
In July 2005 becamethe city taken up to the list of the UNESCO cultural heritage.
of sons and daughters of the city
- Eugène Boudin, painter
- Louis Bachelier, founder of mathematics of finance (1870-1946)
- André Caplet, composer
- Jean Dubuffet, Maler, sculptor, philosopher
- Raoul Dufy (painter, 1877-1953)
- Paul Frère, Rennfahrer, Journalist and Buchautor
- Arthur Honegger, Komponist, Dirigent
- Frédérick Lemaître, French actor
- Georges Limbour, surrealistischer writer, art critic
- Claude Monet, Maler (starting from the fifth Lebensjahr).
- Raymond Queneau, writer
- Arman Salacrou, writer
- Jacques Henri Bernardinde Saint Pierre, French writer
- Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Heuvelmans, founder of the Kryptozoologie
Web on the left of
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coordinates: 49°29 ′ 59 ″ N 0°7 ′ 12 ″ O