Food additive

of these articles treats additives in food and their marking with E-numbers. For the test characters used in the automotive sector see E-test characters.

Food additives are materials, which are intentionally added to food, around their characteristics (z. B. Durability, workability, taste or appearance) the desires of the consumers andTo adapt food manufacturer.

The German food right defines additives as „materials, those usually neither even as food verzehrt nor as characteristic added…. are used and…. for technological reasons of…. are added. “(LFGB § 2 exp. 3). Among them one understands essentially

  • technologicalCharacteristics such as baking ability, brushableness or machine fitness
  • chemical characteristics such as oxidation ability
  • behavior added individually to each other
  • benefit and appearance of the food
  • nourish-physiological characteristics

for food additives exist the exclusion principle - that means, all materials, which are not expressly permitted (see positive list below), are automatically forbidden. In Germany regulatesthe “additive permission regulation - ZZulV " their application. Most additives are permissible only for certain food and only in limited quantity. If no maximum quantities are prescribed, the rules the property manufacture practice ( “Good Manufacturing Practice” apply, GMP): „As much as necessary, as few as possible “(„quantity satis “, „QA “). In addition, then the additive of these materials is permitted only if they

  1. are technologically necessary (z. B. for the prevention of the decay, improvement of the appearance, taste etc.)
  2. do not deceive the consumer
  3. are health harmless

around the different additives in the European unionto arrange, the E-numbers were introduced, which apply in all countries of the European union. (E stands here for „European union “in addition, for „edible “= English. for edible.) with their assistance it is possible to identify the used additives languageindependently. Materials receive a E-number, as soon asthe interested companies at the European authority for food security around a permission inquire and scientific documents submit, which confirm the safety. If these documents prove the fact that these materials the health cannot be endangered and classified as safe receives them a permission. Altogether givesit to time in the European Union of 305 certified additives.

Food additives must be indicated for the consumer in the effort list (consumer protection) - either as their scientific and/or. Trivial name or with the E-number.

In contrast to it so-called Nichtzusatzstoffe (in accordance with German food right) stands, with the production process andwith the use play a role and also possibly remain in the food, but not declaration requiring are.

For this z count. B. Rieselhilfen with the common salt. There is this calcium and magnesium carbonate, which occur in nature. Cheaper cook salts become for this purpose also sodium andKaliumhexacyanoferrat buried, which however again define requiring are (E-numbers 535 and 536). Both are prussic acid connections, which are considered however as harmless, since they do not split up in the body.

Table of contents

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grouping [to work on



  • E 200 - Sorbinsäure; E 201 - Natriumsorbat; E 202 - Kaliumsorbat; E 203 - Calciumsorbat;
  • E 210 - Benzoic acid; E 211 - Natriumbenzoat; E 212 - Kaliumbenzoat; E 213 - Calciumbenzoat; E 214 - PHB ester; E 215 - PHB Ethylester sodium salt; E 216 - PHB Propylester; E 217 - PHB Propylester sodium salt; E 218 - PHB Methylester; E 219 - PHB Methylester sodium salt;
  • E 220 - Sulfur dioxide; E 221 - Natriumsulfit; E 222 - Sodium bisulphite; E 223 - Natriumdisulfit; E 224 - Potassium sulfite; E 225 E 226 - calcium sulfite; E 227 - Calcium hydraulic gene sulfite; E 228 - Calcium hydraulic gene sulfite;
  • E 230 - Biphenyl; E 231 - Orthophenylphenol; E 232 - Natriumorthophenylphenol; E 233 - Thiabendazol; E 234 - Nisin; E 235 - Natamycin; E 239 - Hexamethylentetramin;
  • E 242 - Dimethyldicarbonat; E 249 - Kaliumnitrit;
  • E 250 - Natriumnitrit; E 251 - Natriumnitrat; E 252 - Kaliumnitrat;
  • E 260 - Acetic acid; E 261 - Potassium acetate; E 262a - Natriumacetat; E 262b - Sodium hydraulic gene acetate; E 263 - Calcium acetate;
  • E 270 - Lactic acid;
  • E 280 - Propionsäure; E 281 - Natriumpropionat; E 282 - Calciumpropionat; E 283 - Kaliumpropionat; E 284 - Boric acid; E 285 - Borax;
  • E 290 - Carbon dioxide;


  • E 220 - Sulfur dioxide
  • E 300 - ascorbic acid; E 301 - Natriumascorbat; E 302 - Calciumascorbat; E 304a - Ascorbylpalmitat; E 304b - Ascorbylstearat; E 306 - Tocopherol; E 307 - Alpha Tocopherol; E 308 - Gamma Tocopherol; E 309 - Delta Tocopherol
  • E 310 - Propylgallat; E 311 - Octylgallat; E 312 - Dodecylgallat; E 315 - ISO ascorbic acid; E 316 - Natriumisoascorbat
  • E 320 - Butylhydroxyanisol; E 321 - Butylhydroxytoluol; E 322 - Lecithin; E 324 - Ethoxyquin

acidifying means, acid modulators

compounds, thickeners and damp retaining means

emulsifying agents, foam means

  • E 322
  • E 430 E 431 E 432 E 433 E 434 E 435 E 436 E 437 E 438 E 439
  • E 440 E 441 E 442 E 443 E 444 E 445 E 446 E 447 E 448 E 449
  • E 450 E 451 E 452 E 453 E 454 E 455 E 456 E 457 E 458 E 459
  • E 460 E 461 E 462 E 463 E 464 E 465 E 466 E 467 E 468 E 469
  • E 470a E 470b E 471 E 472a E 472b E 472c E 472d E 472e E 472f E 473 E 474 E 475 E 476 E 477 E 478 E 479
  • E 480 E 481 E 482 E 483 E 484 E 485 E 486 E 487 E 488 E 489
  • E 490 E 491 E 492 E 493 E 494 E 495 E 496 E 497 E 498 E of 499

different additives

(Baking rubbing means, thickener, acid modulators, taste amplifier, foam guardian, coat means, propulsion gases, flour treatment means)

süssstoffe, sugar substitutes

foam means

modified strengths and thickener

carrier materials


of enzymes are usually no additives, but processing auxiliary materials (processing AIDS) and must not be defined, if they have no more effect in the final product orto be removed before. If enzymes are still in the final product present and have a technological effect, then they are also additive.


of additives are used in many food. These food has therefore partly the call to be health-endangering because of the use of additives.The additives are partially disputed. After the strict German food right really dangerous additives are however not certified. Further bordering and tolerance values of the authority to additives, which depend also on the Acceptable DAILY Intake , apply.

Lists with E-numbers dip again and again up,is unclear to those, who wrote it. Sometimes to the Villejuifer hospital research center is referred in France or the child cancer hospital Duesseldorf, but to have both institutions already from these lists dissociates itself. With such overviews therefore caution is required. Frequently the data are wrong or incomplete. (Magazine Ökotest on request of a reader of 01.05.1997).

Parathion or E 605

Parathion, an insecticide and Akarizid, which are called also „E 605 “, is a poisonous plant protection agent and carried this designation for a long time, before there was the European Union list for food additives. Itnothing has to do with food. Here the “E” stands for development number, which was introduced to chemistry for reasons of the languageindependent classification.

see also

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