Leather

of these articles is concerned with gegerbter animal skin. Further meanings are under leather (term clarifying).
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Leather is a material, which is won from the skin by animals (cattle , calf , goat , pig , crocodile , horse etc.) by Gerben. In the Middle Ages also dogs became - and cat skin uses. Also in recent timearrived often unmarked leather from the Far East to Europe, which comes from dogs and cats.

By imitation leather, a Lederimitat, one understands the group about textilem fabric with a coating from plastic. Here it concerns natural fiber fabrics orArtificial fibers, which with soft PVC - layer are coated. These coatings can be implemented depending upon application compactly or foamed. In all rule the surfaces are still grained, so that they correspond to a leather structure. Sample applications for imitation leathers are shoes, bags orautomobiles of folded slab roofs.

Eine Lederjacke
A leather jacket


table of contents

processing

after slaughtering the raw skins are trimmed (cut). Here parts become, those not the leather productionsuitably are distant. Afterwards the skin must be conserved as fast as possible, in order to stop the organic purge and avoid qualitative damage. This happens mostly through salts. In regions, where the distances and the delivery chains permit it, the skins become alsoby cooling short time-conserved and thus without salt does. In some regions, in which salt is limited and it permits the climate, skins and skins are also still dried.

With the Gerbung the skin is first eingeweicht, around salt, dirt etc.to remove. One inserts the skin some weeks into the “ashtray” (in former times usually lime milk), until the “hair casualness” begins, then the skin is enthaart (scars). If the subcutaneous connective tissue were not already removed before the ashtray, then those becomesSkin in its whole surface of this laminates now released. For soft leathers the bare ones must be still pickled (in former times with vergorenem dog excrement, today with z. T. synthetic enzymes). Subsequently, the skins are treated with animal, mineral or vegetable Gerbstoffenand thus durable made and in its technical characteristics changes. Thick leather is split. For most applications it requires still various surface treatments, like e.g. Paint, a coining/shaping, a perforating.

The scars marks the original skin surface, the smooth side, thosethe kind-typical surfaces structure shows. In addition, the artificial apply a texture as scars one designates.

Colored leather is surface-colored either or. Durchgefärbtes leather one calls colored leather also aniline. Anilin dyes were the first synthetically manufactured, water-soluble coloring materials.These became in 19. Century with aniline from coal tar synthesizes for the first time. Completely aniline colored leather has on the upper and the lower surface the the same color, scratch or wear is noticeable thereby less. Semi aniline colored leather became with color on anilineBasis sprays, which something penetrates into the surface. Surface-colored leather (or leather also pigmented) is painted with a coloring material.

fundamental leather types

depending upon design one differentiates between different leather types:

  • Like that Nappaleder is the smooth, upper side of the gap leather, the so-called “Vachette”. This can as pure aniline without surface protection, when Semi aniline are acted with weak surface treatment or as covered leather with protective varnish.
  • Of Nubukleder one speaks, if the surface is ground, so that a fine, aufgeraute structure develops.
  • Common in the clothe range the Veloursleder, which one receives or by „upturns anti-clockwise from the thinner, lower layers after splitting the skin “from thinner smooth leathers, is far. Veloursleder can be from heavier, very good quality, which however rarely thatCase is. Often falsely of game leather one speaks. That therefore agitates that Velours exhibits a similar surface as leathers of deer or similar game animals.

use

of leather shoes

useleather finds particularly in shoe production and clothe industry/mode (as jackets, coats, trousers, shoes, belts, (hand) bags and motorcycle - or protective clothing), in the furniture industry as (purchase of furniture, Sofas ö.a.), in the sport to the coat of balls (football) or sport devices. Products from leather are called leather goods or portfolios. Beyond that leather has meaning and use in the Fetischszene.

There are numerous different leather-processing skilled tradeslike the Feintäschner, Gerber, Kürschner, Riemer, upholsterers or the shoemaker.

An increasing range of application is the technology or vehicle industry. Leather for transmission belt o became already early. A. used. Today the use takes as interior or steering wheel liningas well as for leather seats too (see in addition also:Fahrzeugtuning).

for images

during leathers for shoes for a long time as the usual material, is leather for other kinds of the everyday life clothing (jackets, trousers) applies only in the past three decades societyablebecome. For a long time leather jackets became and - trousers predominantly with different kinds of function clothes uses (e.g.Flier jackets, motorcycle clothes, etc.). Leather adhered therefore a breath of adventure desire and hard maleness. Different youth cultures 20. These availed themselves of century in the everyday lifeunetablierten clothes around their Aufmüpfigkeit and their protest to articulate. Also in the Fetischszene are beside the Materialfetischismus these images of importance. The Fetisch association lends an additionally easily anrüchiges image to leather. The fashion ties for more than three decadesthese different images on, so that e.g. Leather jackets the mittlerweise status of aufmüpfiger youth clothing lost and among the firmly established spectrum of the everyday life clothes to rank, partially. even as prestige object apply.

kinds of leather

Aalleder, aniline leather, Cordovan, chicken leather, To Juchtenleder, crocodile leather, Nappaleder, Nubukleder, Saffian, Vacheleder, Vachetteleder, Veloursleder, white leather

see also

Kirn, Pergament, Chagrin, Bandalier, Lineapelle, German leather museum (in open brook at the Main)

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)