loam construction marks the production of buildings or building parts from loam.
In addition loam construction marks also a building, which consists to the predominant part of building loam.
Loam is one of the oldest building materials of mankind. It is easily available andto process relatively simply. Therefore loam is also today still the building material of the choice in many countries. In Europe in the last years increased one tried to build with loam.
The climate in loam houses is pleasantly, there the loam inhigh heat storage capacity exhibits and with it temperature equalizing-ends works. Also the air humidity is stabilized, since loam stores humidity, and slowly takes up or delivers.
Table of contents
loam as building material
If the loam contains too much sand (it is too lean), becomes it break into-lies; too much clay/tone (it is too fat) causes that it gets tears.
In many areas the loam straw becomesadded; this is not necessarily necessarily, effectuation however a smaller density of the developing material and thus improves heat damming characteristics. In addition the straw works against as reinforcing the cracking.
Also cow dung or horse muck is partly added. The zweitere contains - becausethe horse no Wiederkäuer is, the cellulose is not thus decomposed - a high portion of unverottbaren fibrous materials. In addition the organic portions of the dung with the mineral loam components complex connections are received, which improve the technical characteristics clearly. OneAddition of lime works here as disinfectant, neutralizes the acids to salts - this increases the water reservoir capacity - and unlocks the surface of the Zellulosen, so that they embody themselves better in the loam.
Today one can of one Renaissance of theLoam construction speak. Often the loam could be won directly at the building site from the soil. In most villages is still old Lehmkuhlen from those in former times the loam was diminished. Companies, which are dependent on economic working, take uptoday available finished products back. The loam is supplied finely here drying and husbands in bags and can be processed with a free-fall mixer such as cement.
Modern building loams contain various other fibrous materials, memory and source materials, those the deformation by the material humiditycontrol, as well as, as thermal loam, warm-damming and - storing materials.
very positive characteristics has positive characteristics opposite cement it for ecological building to make interesting (Lenze 2004, Minke 1994):
- Loam is pollutant-free and strike friendly
- for dressingand processing very little primary energy needs
- loam works humidity adjusting and is diffusionable
- dry loam works antibacterially and rejecting against parasits
- loam conserves wood
- loam is completely recycelbar
- loam stores warmth
- loam binds pollutants
creates loam in such a way forhumans pleasant and healthy room climate. In the summer if it outside is very hot is pleasantly cool the areas in a loam house. In the winter the loam humidity works adjusting and protects against to dry room air.
loam construction technology
In most half timbered houses loam is bricked in the form of bricks or as Gefach with gehäckseltem straw o.a.mixed, and then on a pasture network or a Holztstaken applied. Besides existed also the ramming loam - building method (a earthdamp loam mixture in a formwork is consolidated) (example: the chapel of the reconciliation in Berlin).
The walls are generally put on by loam buildings substantial.
Loam construction can be accomplished both with air-dried bricks and in the ramming loam construction. For bricking with bricks as mortar and for cleaning the same material as for is used the production of the bricks. With the ramming loam construction a usually wooden framework is necessary.
Sometimestimber beams are built into the loam walls, in order to receive door or window windshield frame sections to make or in order inside attachments. Loam houses mostly outside with wood be switched, in order to protect it from humidity. Zementhaltige finery have another expansion behavior with changes of temperature than loamand are unsuitable therefore as front outer skin. External plasters for Gefache of loam walls contain Ziegelmehl, lime and only small quantities of cement.
Recently industrially manufactured loam construction stones, different formats, loam wall slabs, are partially in Europe. with groove and feather/spring, and loam plasters for thatInterior fittings available.
due to ihrere substantial building method are loam walls excellent warmth buffer. In warm areas a wall should be so thickly put on that it does not warm up in the course of a daily constantly, so that it inBuilding inside remains cool.
constructional humidity protection
by wetness is damaged a loam construction fast, superficial humidity against it arranges no damageon. Therefore it is necessary in wet Klimaten to protect the external walls by suitable formwork from wood or appropriate roof projections and for drainage of the surrounding area ensure. Loam walls should always possess a Steinschicht above the soil with resting upon separation situation,in order to be able to draw not wetness from the soil.
In dry areas loam buildings are very durable. They are traditional in the middle east, in North Africa, in Spain (Mudejar - architecture), with the Pueblo - building Indians of North America and in the Anden in use.
acquaintance of loam constructions
The largest loam building of the world was the citadel of the Iranian city Bam, those in an earthquake to 26. December 2003 was destroyed to a large extent. Numerous loam buildings are also in the city Djenné of the State of Mali. The city ranks just like the large mosque of Djenné among the world cultural heritage.
Admits is also loam architecture in the southwest to thatArab peninsula.Sanaa as jemenitsche capital has wide quarters in loam architecture.
Of the UNESCO to the world cultural heritage gekürte Schibam on a rock island in the Wadi Hadramaut in the south Yemen becomes because of its partly neunstöckigen multistoried buildings as “Chicago that Wild one “designates. The old city covers a surface of 400 X.500 m and is famous for their mehrstöckigen houses from loam bricks. Many of the buildings are up to 30 m high and have an age of up to 500Years. More exactly: the internal retaining structures from woods are partly so old; the loam houses are protected in the upper floors with a painting of lime from (rare) the rainfalls, them must however because of the natural decay of the bricks in the distance of tenor from freshly formed loam bricks in old form to be again established fifteen years in each case.
The largest (ramming) loam building in Germany is a 6-geschossiges house in because castle, a current example of this civil engineering is the 1999 established chapel of the reconciliationin Berlin as the first public ramming loam construction for 150 years.
- Adobe (brick), to loam plaster
- building of straw balls
- portal: Architecture and building industry
- Professor. Dr. - engineer Gernot Minke: Loam construction manual., ökobuch publishing house, 1. Aufl. 1994, ISBN 3-922964-56-7
- Dipl. - engineer Wolfgang Lenze: Half timbered houses, restore - reorganize - modernize, Frauenhofer IRB publishing house, 3. Aufl. 2004, ISBN 3-8167-6431-2
- Bernhard Kolb: Examples bio house, Blok publishing house, 2. Aufl. 1984, ISBN 3-924466-01-7