a leaning word (material borrowing) is i.e. a form of the borrowing, a word, which is taken to another language. In contrast to the foreign word, to which the fremdsprachige origin is to be still marked, the leaning word is in posting, reading and stressso far adapted to the linguistic usage of the target language that it is not than strangely noticed or hardly more.
of leaning words, before the 2. Sound shift to the German language , to have these, just as the hereditary words are, gone through and therefore hereditary words Pfalz so ähnlich geworden, dass man sie strukturell nicht mehr unterscheiden kann. (Beispiel: Palatin >) were taken up. In the German language it is added that its way of writing was many later specified only and one it therefore also not more ona deviating way of writing to differentiate can. A distinction is mainly by knowledge of their Etymologie or possible by language comparison. In principle leaning words are subject to the same linguistic changes as hereditary words (for example meaning change and sound shifts).
At the kind of the Lautstruktur of a leaning word one can the period of the borrowing determine. Some words were taken several times and to differentiate itself today with respect to meaning and discussion, for example a party (since the Middle Ages) vs. Portion (since that 17. Century) vs. Party (since that 20. Century).
Sometimes a leaning word keeps thoseoriginal form, while it changes in the source language or even disappears there.
When allocating a leaning word to the Ursprungsprache (see following list) it does not depend on from which language the word actually originally comes, but only, from whichLanguage was transferred out it to the target language.
Apart from the leaning words there are also to leaning meanings, leaning formations, illusory borrowings and wrong friends.
- With the leaning word the foreign word is adapted in sound and typeface to the own language, for example windows from latin fenestra or border from the Polish one (granica).
- During a leaning meaning the meaning of a strange word is taken over and transferred to a native word. The gothical daupjan with the primary meaning submerge got under the influence of thegriechischenbaptizein die Bedeutung jemanden durch Untertauchen zum Christen machen (taufen), und das deutsche Wort schneiden erhielt vom englischen Ausdruck to cut a person die Zusatzbedeutung jemanden absichtlich nicht kennen; s. Term assumption.
- During the leaning formation givesit three variants:
- the leaning translation, where a usually built up foreign word member for member is translated: Examples are grandfather of French grand père or floodlight of the English flood light.
- the leaning transmission, where the strange components are partly translated, e.g. Wolkenkratzer from English more skyscraper (literally sky scratches) or telephones of telephone (remote sound).
- the leaning creation, where independently of the strange word an appropriate German word new formation takes place around the foreign word to replace, e.g. Motor vehicle instead of automobile or aquaplaning instead of aquaplaning.
- Illusory borrowings are words,sound in such a way, as if they would come from a foreign language, in this language however do not exist, e.g. Hairdresser (French coiffeur), mobile phone (English mobile phone), tuxedo (English more dinner jacket).
A Xenismus (v. griech.: xenos) is strange inWord or a word formation, which in-carries a new meaning from a foreign language into the own language, or which to term of the own language replaces or displaces. E.G. meant “realize” in the German language always “carry out”; under the influence of the English“ton realise” is used it however ever more than synonym for “to notice”.
As the German language at each time by stranger of terms, finds likewise Germanisms in other languages admission was changed.
leaning words after source languages
Aba - admiral - algebra - alcohol - Beduine - chemistry - Emir - Gibraltar - Harem - coffee - potash/potassium/alkalinely - Kalif - sound - matte - Mufti - sheikh - tariff - number - mattress - Marzipan - syrup - mask - apricot - sounds
from the Chinese language (Sinismus)
from the German language (Germanism)
from the English language (Anglizismus)
the English [
from the Finnish language (Fennizismus)
from that French language (Gallizismus)
from the Greek language (Gräzismus)
note: Many of the following expressions are only indirect leaning words from the Greek one, because
- this concerns words, which originally originate from the Greek one, then however into another language changed and only from there out in German were evidently taken
- this concerns in the modern times into modern languages outGreek word material compound education, which never existed in the Greek one in this form - even if they were back-taken over partly today to the again-Greek language.
- Would list German words from the Greek one
from the Hebrew language (Hebraismus)
Amen - betucht - Chuzpe - Ganove - good slide - neck and leg break - Kassiber - gap - Kohl - Maloche - pig - meschugge - Messiah - bad - mix-pounds - Failure - lubricant - schofel - Stuss - Sabbat - Schickse - mess - lubricant - Tacheles - Tinnef - Tohuwabohu - Zoff
from the Indian languages
from the Iranian languages (z. B. Persian)
Absinth - algorithm - canopy - balcony - bazaar - Kapern - caravan - caviar - Khaki - kiosk - magic - Magier - orange - Paradies - Pistazie - pajamas - castling - chess - scarf - Tambour - cup - satellite - tulip - jasmine
from the Italian language (Italyism)
antenna - bank - bankruptcy - balance - Fango - Fumarole - Ghetto - Gorgonzola - Graffiti - cannon - capital - potato - cash - passage - credit - account - lava - Makkaroni - Marzipan - melon - mole - Mortadella - Mozzarella - Muskat - net - Parmesan - Peperoni - Pistazie - Pizza - postage - power of attorney - remainder - risk - salami - Salto - Solfatare - Spaghetti - lemon - Zucchini as well as a multiplicity of words from the music: Old - bass - Dur - Forte - Intermezzo - Melanzane (Austriazismus) - Mezzosopran - Moll - Piano - Ribisel (Austriazismus) - Sopran - Spagat (Austriazismus) - tenor
from latin language (Latinismus)
It applies in a general manner the same restriction as above with the Gräzismen: