Leichtathletik

Leichtathletik is the collective term for different run, jump and throw disciplines. To define is the Leichtathletik of the Schwerathletik, which covers kinds of sport such as rings and Gewichtheben, as well as the lawn force haven, with which pushing and centrifuges stand very different heavy weights in the center. ThatHammerwurf is a discipline also here. The Leichtathletik had its origins in the primeval times, as humans already very early began to throwing, to jumping and to running.

Table of contents

disciplines

olympic disciplines

run competitions
distance olympic match since
men Mrs.
100 m 1896 1928
200 m 1900 1948
400 m 1896 1964
800 m 1896 1928; afterwardsonly
again starting from 1960
1500 m 1896 1972
5000 m 1912 1996 (1984 to
1992: 3000 m)
10,000 m 1912 (1906 and 1908:
5 miles = 8047 meters)
of 1988
Marathon 1896 1984
110 m hurdles;
Women: 100 mHurdles
1896 1972
(1932 to 1968:
80 m hurdles)
400 m hurdles 1900 1984
3000 m obstacle 1920 (from 1900 to 1908
other route distances)
2008
4x100 m (relay run) 1912 1928
4x400 m (relay run) 1912 1972
Geherwettbewerbe
distance olympic match since
men women
20 km going 1956 (1908 to
1952: 10 km going)
2000 (1992 to
1996: 10 km going)
50 km going 1932 -
jump competitions
discipline olympic match since
men Mrs.
Hochsprung 1896 1928
Stabhochsprung 1896 2000
Weitsprung 1896 1948
three-jump 1896 1996
throw and impact competitions
discipline olympic match since
men Mrs.
Kugelstossen 1896 1948
Diskuswerfen 1896 1928
hammer throwing 1900 2000
javelin 1908 1932
multi-fight
discipline olympic match since
men Mrs.
Zehnkampf 1896 -
filter fight - 1984 (1964 to
1980: Five-fight)

With olympicSummer games in 24 easy-athletic disciplines altogether 46 decisions are delivered - 24 with the men and 22 with the women.

The 13 run disciplines are assigned, derived from the physical requirements, the generally following groups:

the marathon race and going become on road distancesdelivered and led to the goal intake in the stadium. All other disciplines are delivered consisting on a oval-similar 400-Meter-Bahn, of two 100 m long curves and two just as long straight lines. The distances 100 m, 100 m hurdles and 110 m hurdles are delivered only on a straight line,all other distances to 10,000 m including the curves.

Women were allowed to start for the first time with the olympic plays 1928 in first five athlete IC disciplines (100 m, 800 m, Hochsprung, Diskuswerfen, 4x100 m). The Laufstrecken were adapted gradually to those of the men to a large extent. With thatcoming olympic plays (2008) women deny all man disciplines with the following exceptions:

  • The 50-km-Gehen at the women not delivered
  • the multi-fight takes place as filter fight and non as with the men - as ten-fight.

In addition there are differences with the mass of the throw andImpact devices as well as with the height of the hurdles.

former one olympic disciplines

of men

Mrs.

non--olympic competitions

  • of run competitions
    • 1000-m-Lauf
    • 3000-m-Lauf
    • 10-km road run
    • Halbmarathon
    • 100-km-Lauf
    • Sweden relay (400-300-200-100m)
    • olympic relay (400-200-200-800m)
    • 3x1000-m-Staffel
    • 10.000-m course going
  • five-fight (Weitsprung, Speerwurf, 200-m-Lauf, Diskuswurf, 1500-m-Lauf) (only men)

in these competitions also a German good list becomesled. Besides competitions are possible over arbitrary distances with CROSS and/or road runs.

Within the pupil range competitions are delivered partially over deviating distances (for example 50-m and 75-m-Sprint, 60 - and 80-m-Hürdenlauf)

in the anglo-saxon area in addition competitions delivered over yard and mile distances.

Forms of the Leichtathletik for that Spreading haven are the Jogging and the Walking.

training

athlete IC training is very versatile and can be adapted the individual strengths of the individual athlete. One begins in the pupil classes usually with the multi-fight, thus with the training of many disciplines. Form thenin the Jugendalter clear strengths out, then more and more specific to a discipline is trained, otherwise the “king discipline” can, the ten-fight and/or. Filter fight the first choice its.


To training elements belong such as run training, co-ordination, general strengthening, technique training, perseverance training, Sprints and jump runs as well as specific force training. Kraft,Perseverance, speed, co-ordination and technology are for all disciplines importantly, however in different portions.

categorization

the international athlete IC federation

IAAF

leads matches [ work on ] the following age groups (IAAF rule 141):

  • Young persons (boy and girl): Sportsman, to 31. December of the match yearly 16 or 17Years old are
  • juniors (men and women): Sportsman, to 31. Decembers of the match yearly 18 or 19 years old are
  • seniors: Starting from that 40. Birthday
  • senior inside: Starting from that 35. Birthday

the German athlete IC federation DLV leads the following age groups:

  • Seniors (age groups starting from m30, w30)
  • active
  • juniors (20,21and 22)
  • Youth A (18 and 19, wJA/mJA)
  • youth B (16 and 17, wJB/mJB)
  • pupil A/A (w14, w15/m14, m15)
  • pupils b/B (w12, w13/m12, m13)
  • pupils C/C (w10, w11/m10, m11)
  • Pupils D/D (w8, w9/m8, m9)

age groups are continued to divide into 5-Jahresschritten. If the match is not particularly publicized, juniors and seniors the active ones are assigned. Younger fighters than 8-jährige are usually rated together with the older D-pupils. In the pupil classes becomeseach class separately rated, the organization into A-D finds however for crew competitions and relays as well as for the match organization application.

The Austrian athlete IC federation ÖLV leads since the 2005 following age groups [in clammy one the old designation]:

  • Seniors (age groups starting from M30, W30)
  • general class
  • U23 (20, 21, 22)
  • U20(18, 19) [ehem. Juniors]
  • U18 (16, 17) [ehem. Youth]
  • U16 (14, 15) [ehem. Pupil A]
  • U14 (12, 13) [ehem. Pupil B]

etc.

There are championships for U16, U18, U20, U23, AC, seniors. As in Germany U23 and seniors are ranked among the general class, it is because, they are stated particularly in the advertisement.

match places

citizen of Berlin olympia stadium

of athlete IC matches find in a stadium or in one resound instead of, Geherwettkämpfe and much are enough run competitions on roads. With a large playing field one calls summarized track and field facilities with round course stadium and/or. Match course. Differencesbecome the match courses or match plants type A, type B and type C.

Stages called a standardized oval 400-Meter-Laufbahn, also round course. With early olympic plays of it deviating tables were used: 1896 (Athens) - 333.33 meters; 1900 (Paris) - 500 meters; 1904 (pc. Louis) - 536,45Meter (a third mile; 1908 (London) - 536.45 meters; 1912 (Stockholm) - 383 meters; 1924 (Paris) - 500 meters. Since 1960 becomes records in the run disciplines recognition of the IAAF only, if they were set up on a 400-Meter-Bahn.

The round course has in thatRule six courses, in larger stages eight (match plant type A).

Münchner Olympiastadion
Residents of Munich olympia stadium

in Leichtathletikhallen are differently long the round courses from place to place, records only on 200-Meter-Bahnen are recognized. Usually four Einzelbahnen are present, in some resounding (for example Leipzig, Birmingham, Budapest)six.

Run competitions were nearly only delivered on plastic covers (Tartan), the center of the 1960er years were introduced. Same applies to the run-aways to Weitsprung, Stabhochsprung and Speerwurf as well as to the high jump approach surface. The impact sectors are mostly lawns.

The jump and throw competitions usually becomeon the segment surfaces, which are limited by the career (round course), delivered. The throw and impact disciplines as well as the Hochsprung are delivered on the segment surfaces within the round course, the Weitsprung mostly outside of the course beside the straight line (short distance).

In the goal-turned away segment is the water ditch for that3000-Meter-Hindernislauf.

Gottlieb Daimler stadium

track and field facilities for the sport disciplines going, running, jumping, throwing and pushing divided into

  • careers (round course, short-distance course, obstacle career with water ditch)
  • Sprunganlagen (Hochsprunganlage, staff high jump plant, far jump plant, three-jump plant)
  • ball impact plant with stosskreis and impact sector
  • throw plants (Diskuswurfanlage and hammer throw plant with throw circle, throw sector and protective net - lattices (frequently summarized), Speerwurfanlage)

in Germany the most important Leichtathletikstadien is used also for soccer games, so for instance in the citizen of Berlin olympia stadium, in Stuttgart Gottlieb Daimler stadiums as well as up to the opening of the alliance arena also in the resident of Munich olympia stadium. In addition to 1978 in Augsburger Rosenaustadion important athlete IC land fights took place.

Augsburger Rosenaustadion

the tendency goes toSpecialization on only one kind of sport, which leads to the renouncement of track and field facilities in most large again built stages. So the new (football) stages in Hamburg, Cologne, Duesseldorf, Gelsenkirchen and Frankfurt (all together venues of German championships in the last 20 years) have today no more career.

Are plannedMatch courses and school sports sites usually of according to specialized landscape architects considering the rules of the technology (among other things DIN of 18035 sports fields), the international match rules of the DLV and the information assistance Bundesinstitut for sport science.

international matches

traditional dominate US-American sportsmen on the Sprintstrecken, the central and long-distance are dominated by African runners. With the throw and jump disciplines the winner lists are less homogeneous. The altogether most successful nations with international matches are the USA, Russia (and/or USSR) and Germany (and/or GDR).

olympic plays

Some disciplines of the Leichtathletik were already exercised with the olympic plays of the antique ones. Since beginning of the plays of the modern times 1896 in Athens is the Leichtathletik apart from swimming a central component of the olympic match program and therefore also as olympic core kind of sport is designated. 1983 agothe plays were even the only opportunity, at which Leichtathleten from different continents could fight in the olympic disciplines for titles.

world championships

since 1983 athlete IC world championships with the complete olympic match program take place. Before there were already 1976 in Malmö and 1980 in seat pool of broadcasting corporations /NL world championships. With these championships becamebut only matches in individual disciplines (1976: 50 km going the men; 1980: 3,000 m and 400 m hurdles of the women) accomplished. The IAAF organizes both for certain age groups and for not olympic groups of disciplines further title fights. The most important meetings are

  • the junior world championships (since 1986,every 2 years, age under 20 years),
  • youth world championships (since 1999, every 2 years, age under 18 years),
  • senior world championships (since 1975, every 2 years, age starting from 40 years),
  • senior road world championships (since 1992, every 2 years, age starting from 40 years)
  • resounding world championship (1987-2003, and since 2004 in each case all 2Years)
  • CROSS world championship (since 1973, annually)
  • Halbmarathon world championships (since 1992, annually)
  • mountain run European championship (since 1995, annually)

European championships

the athlete IC European championships gives it already substantially longer than the world championships. They were always aligned from 1934 to 1966 with a war interruption for the “half time” of an Olympiad. After deviations (1969, 1971) again this four years old rhythm became generally accepted starting from 1974.

In additionthere are Pedants in form of further European championships to nearly all special world championships specified before. They take place in the years, in which the appropriate only every 2 years organized world championship does not take place. The resound EM (since 1970) possesses also only a 2-jährigen rhythm, whereby her 2004failed and 2005 in Madrid took place. The CROSS EM (since 1994) takes place annually.

2010 [work on

] world and

Europacup the title matches of the national teams become, with those the crew achievementwhen sum of the individual performances of all discipline matches is distinguished, mentioned. Contrary to other kinds of sport they are however no series separate single meetings. The Worldcup took place from 1977 to 1989 and since 1992 every four years. A characteristic of the Worldcup as result of its temporal rationalisation(Duration: 2 days) and the associated restriction on 8 participants per discipline is nominating of continent crews beside few national teams. Also in the crew sport the continental variant is older than their global correspondence. There is already the Europacup since 1965. He found until 1993 nearlyalways (1970 instead of 1969 and 1971) every two years and afterwards annually instead of. Not all olympic disciplines can be considered in the world and Europacup. In the groups of disciplines coined/shaped by longer match duration multi-fight, marathon race and going and in further olympic disciplines are not accomplished own one shank valuations.In detail this is

  • the resound Europacup (since 2003)
  • Mehrkampf Europacup (since 1973, the same years as the Europacup)
  • going he Worldcup (1961 - 1967, 1973 - 1999 and since 2002 in each case every 2 years, in addition 1970)
  • Geher Europacup (1996 - 2000 and since 2001 in each case every 2 years)
  • mountain runWorld Trophy (since 1985, annually)
  • 100km-Weltcup (since 1988, starting from 1990 annually)

golden League

the IAAF golden League is a series from six prestigious Leichtathletik Meetings. If an athlete wins the match in its discipline with all six Meetings, then it can itself at the Jackpot of1 million dollar in gold take part.

world records

the international athlete IC federation IAAF leads 186 world records, which distribute themselves as follows:

  • Olympic disciplines
    of 24 man world records
    of 23 woman Mrs
  • Nichtolympi disciplines
    of 23 man world records
    of 21 woman Mrs.
  • juniors
    of 26 man world records
    of 26 woman world records
  • of resounding world records
    of 22 man world records
    of 22 woman Mrs.

listcurrent world records: See athlete IC world records

to Doping

Doping is a topic particularly in perseverance kinds of sport and force. The more technology and concentration part of success are the less, can be affected success by achievement-increasing means. In the Leichtathletik are therefore above allBall pushing and running susceptibly to Doping.

In the high-performance sport in the Leichtathletik again and again also world champions and gold medal winners of the Dopings are transferred, for example of Ben Johnson or Torri Edward. In the times of the cold war in the Eastern Bloc was systematically doped, in particular in the GDR sport, where thatWere partly given to sportsmen without its own knowledge Dopingmittel. Of it also the Leichtathletik was concerned. To medialer attention it brought the GDR Doping victim process in such a way specified, during which 160 sportsmen and Sportlerinnen from the former GDR complained against the NOC and the enterprise Jenapharm. A judgementand/or. an agreement out of court is still pending.

In the USA became 2003 admits the fact that the Bay AREA Laboratory CO-operational intensively acted coaches there with Dopingmitteln and and supplied athletes.

most successful Leichtathleten of all times

all Leichtathleten with four and more gold medals with olympic ones Plays (including the olympic intermediate plays 1906):

  1. Raymond Clarence Ewry: 10 times gold; Condition far jump, - Hochsprung, three-jump; 1900 to 1908 (including 1906)
  2. Paavo Nurmi: 9 times gold, 3 time silver; Medium range run, long-distance run, area run; 1920 to 1928
  3. Carl Lewis: 9 times gold, 1 timeSilver; Weitsprung, Sprint;1984 to 1996
  4. Martin Sheridan: 5 times gold, 3 time silver, 1 time bronze; Ball-push, Diskuswerfen, stone throwing, condition far jump, condition high jump; 1904 to 1908 (including 1906)
  5. Ville Ritola: 5 times gold, 3 time silver; Long-distance run, obstacle run, CROSS run; 1924 and 1928
  6. Michael Johnson: 5 times gold; Sprint;1996 and 2000
  7. Eric Lemming: 4 times gold, 3 time bronze; Javelin, multi-fight; 1900 to 1912 (including 1906)
  8. Jim Lightbody: 4 times gold, 1 time silver, 2 times bronze; Sprint, medium range run, obstacle run; 1904 to 1908 (including 1906)
  9. Evelyn Ashford: 4 times gold, 1 time silver; Sprint; 1984 to 1992
  10. Hannes Kolehmainen: 4 times gold, 1 time silver; Long-distance run, CROSS run; 1912 and 1920
  11. Meyer Prinstein: 4 times gold, 1 time silver; Weitsprung, three-jump, Sprint; 1900 to 1906
  12. Melvin Sheppard:4 times gold, 1 time silver; Sprint, medium range run;1908 to 1912
  13. Emil Zátopek: 4 times gold, 1 time silver; Long-distance run, Marathon; 1948 and 1952
  14. Fanny Blankers Koen: 4 times gold; Sprint, hurdle run; 1948
  15. Betty Cuthbert: 4 times gold; Sprint; 1956 and 1960
  16. Robert Korzeniowski: 4 times gold; Go; 1996 to 2004
  17. Alvin Kraenzlein: 4 times gold; Sprint, hurdle run, Weitsprung; 1900
  18. aluminium Oerter: 4 times gold; Diskus; 1956 to 1968
  19. Jesse Owens: 4 times gold; Sprint, Weitsprung; 1936
  20. leave viruses: 4 times gold;Long-distance run;1972 and 1976
  21. Bärbel Wöckel: 4 times gold; Sprint; 1976 and 1980


see also: Organization Leichtathletik of driving

associations in Germany

to that

1949 created German athlete IC federation (DLV) belongs to list of the Leichtathleten [work on]. The appropriate federations in Austria and in Switzerlandare the Austrian athlete IC federation and the Swiss athlete IC federation. International roof federation is international those Association OF Athletics Federations (IAAF), which was created 1912 and which 210 national federations as members to belong at present. European roof federation is the European Athletic Association (EAA).

Sponsoringand advertisement

like hardly another kind of sport motives from the Leichtathletik due to their versatility and clarity for the employment in the advertisement are suitable. Most different qualities can be expressed also without the employment of star, how the following selection shows:

  • Relay run: smooth co-operation, Teamwork
  • Stabhochsprung: Dynamics,Maximum output (high requirements, goals), adventure, liberty
  • hurdle run: Determination, overcoming obstacles
  • ball pushing, hammer throwing: (clenched) Kraft
  • javelin, Diskuswerfen: (controlled) Kraft
  • Sprint: Speed (faster, first, best one)
  • long-distance run: Perseverance, longevity, will and employment

Web on the left of

athlete IC federations

statistics

current athlete IC message

dates

Reading material

match rules

 

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