|of these articles is concerned with the German large city Leipzig, other meanings under Leipzig (term clarifying).|
|Coat of arms||map|
|Leipzig comes! (1992-2002)|
|Leipziger liberty (since 2003)|
|Land of the Federal Republic:||Saxonia|
|surface:||297,60 km ²|
|inhabitants:||503.200 (1. March 2006)|
|Population density:||1,682 inhabitants for each km ²|
|unemployment ratio:||20.2% (31. January 2006)|
|Height:||113 m and. NN|
|geographical location:|| |
Coordinates: 51° 20 ' N, 12° 23 ' O 51° 20 'N, 12° 23 ' O
|postal zip codes:||04003-04357 (old: 70xx)|
|municipality key:||14 3 65 000|
|city arrangement:|| 10 urban districts|
with 63 local parts
of the city administration:
| New city hall|
March in Luther ring 4-6
|mayor:||Burkhard young (SPD)|
? / License is the most densely populated and surface-moderately second largest city in Saxonia as well as one of the six upper centers of this Land of the Federal Republic. Together with forms Leipzig resoundsthe population centre Leipzig-resounds. Leipzig is a component „of the Metropolregion Saxonia triangle “.
The name of the city leads itself from the slawischen Lipsk (lime tree place) - in such a way until today in Sorbi usual designation - off. Poetically one speaks since Goetheof „small Paris “or also „polarizing eating Athens “(after the river Pleisse).
In the year 1165 Mark count Otto lent realms of Meissen Leipzig the municipal law and the market privilege to that. Today Leipzig has the status of a circle-free city and is seat onethe three governmental districts of the Free State Saxonia. In the proximity lying large cities are resound (about 30 km northwest), Chemnitz (about 70 km south), Dresden (about 100 km southeast), Erfurt (about 100 km southwest), Magdeburg (about 100 km northwest) and Berlin (about145 km north). The number of inhabitants of Leipzig exceeded about 1870 the border of 100.000, whereby it received officially the status of a large city. Today Leipzig has one half million inhabitant.
Table of contents
Leipzig low land bay, is appropriate for a part of the north German lowlandses and nearly in the emphasis that in the center of the Leipzigerthree neighbouring state capitals Dresden, Magdeburg and Erfurt.
By the city the white Elster flows, into which the Pleisse and the Parthe flow here. From the white Elster a second river course rises in the city with the ball. WithLeipzig is brought however above all the Pleisse in connection, since it by-flows directly at the city centre.
nature and environment
along the rivers draws itself an expanded Auwaldgebiet in the middle by the city. It is considered as the largest forest area in the city and coherent of this kind in Europe. There itself under Leipzig andits surrounding countryside important brown coal stores find, already into the 1930er years with the industriellen dismantling of this raw material in open mining way one began. By the mining industry, which itself during the GDR - time continued to spread always (brown coal was the main source of energy), became south ofLeipzig parts of the Auwalds destroys. Numerous flood protection measures, among other things the building of the Elsterbeckens and the shifting of natural river courses as well as with the coal dismantling connected sinkings of the ground-water level led to disturbances of the high-specialized ecological system that originally as natural flooding area served.
Into thatyears were roared to 1950er the Mühlpleisse and a part of the Elstermühlgrabens - in the Middle Ages for the enterprise of mills partly branches artificially put on of the two rivers - because of the contamination due to industrial waste waters from the brown coal processing south of Leipzig and partlyalso filled up, so that Leipzig partly lost its character as river city. For the 1990er years both river courses are gradually again opened.
Apart from the water pollution the brown coal beaconing of outdated industrial plants and power stations, which corresponded partly still to Vorkriegsstandard, as well as domestic Ofenheizungen broughta very strong air pollution with itself. After the turn the quiet putting of the old industry and the modernization of power stations and domestic heating systems led very fast to clean air conditions and a visible reorganization of the animal and plant world. Leipzig counts over today, alsonumerous again created park plants in the populated areas and by the traditional Schrebergartenvereine, with a green area portion of approximately 50 per cent and a forest portion from approximately sieved per cent to the greenest cities of Germany.
Beginning of the 1990er years was stopped the brown coal dismantlingand begun with the recultivation of the residual pits from open-cast mining and the Renaturierung of the surrounding field. In the meantime from the flooded day building several seas with good water quality developed. Further one day-builds still is in the flow. The Cospudener lake is appropriate for the Leipziger city centre toand serves next already as very well opened local recreation area. In such a way developing wide recreation region is also routistic marketed as „Leipziger new sea-country “.
city arrangement and neighbour municipalities
Leipzig consist of ten urban districts with 63 local parts, see list of the local parts of Leipzig for the political arrangement and list of the quarters of Leipzig for the structure grown historically.
- in the hollow talc rice (MTL): Boron village, City Brandis and city Naunhof
- in the district Leipziger country (L): Grosspösna, city Mark clover mountain, city Zwenkau, Kitzen and city Markranstädt
- in the district Delitzsch (DZ): City Schkeuditz, rack joke, Krostitz, Jesewitz and city Taucha
major item: History of Leipzig
about 900 n. Chr. on both banks of the Parthe a slawische settlement was set, like excavations by harsh ore Küas in the area of the today's Matthäikirchhofsconfirmed. For the first time Leipzig was mentioned 1015, when Thietmar of Merseburg of one urbs reported Libzi (Chronikon VII, 25). As a year of the foundation the year 1165 is considered to the city, in the Mark count Otto to that realms of Meissen the place at the crossing that Via Regia with the via Imperii the municipal law and the market privilege gave.
In the year 1409 „the Alma mould Lipsiensis was created “, the University of Leipzig as the secondaryoldest Universiät on the area of the today's Federal Republic of Germany. 1519 met Martin Luther and Johannes hit a corner, a main opponent of the reformation in the polarizing eating castle to the Leipziger Disputation. 1539 were finally introduced the reformation by Luther and Justus Jonas into Leipzig.
Leipzig acquired itself the pointed name „small Paris “, as the progress-conscious fair city inYear 1701 was equipped with a road lighting and from now on with the mondänen Seine metropolis to compare itself could.
In the year 1813 the famous people battle took place at Leipzig , at in the course of the wars of liberation in such a way specified the armies that allied against Napoleon Austrians, Prussia, Russian and other France and its allied one, under it the Kingdom of Saxonia, one of the most crucial defeats taught.
1839 were opened the Leipzig Dresdens railway as first Germans far from railroad line. Leipzig developed gradually to the most important traffic junction in Central Germany, which expressed itself also in the fact that the head station of Europe from 1902 to 1915 in Leipzig, then largest to Milan, developed.
To 18. Units of the 3 released April 1945. US army the city. Due to of the1. Londoner of zone minutes of 1944 and the resolutions of the conference of Jalta took over to 2. July 1945 the Red Army Leipzig and the city became part of the Soviet zone of occupation. The Soviet military administration educated „the advice of the city “and the town council, whose composition with establishment of the GDR of the SED was dictated.
After the Second World War the economic meaning of Leipzig in consequence of the affiliation to the Soviet zone of occupation left and/or. to the GDR strongly after, which itself also ina continuous decrease of the number of inhabitants expressed. During the GDR time Leipzig capital of the district Leipzig and the second largest city of the German Democratic Republic was population moderate.
To 12. April 1996 were opened with a ceremony the new fairground, which was established as the most modern exhibition and congress center of Europe in scarcely three-year construction period. Today Leipzig is still as fair -, media - and university town well-known, although the meaning smalleris as before the Second World War.
for a detailed history of the religions see: History of Leipzig
the population of the city Leipzig belonged at first to the diocese Merseburg. The city was already starting from 968 seat of the Archidiakonats of the Domdechanten of the high pin Merseburg. In 13. Four monasteries developed for century: Pc. Paul (Dominikaner), pc. Thomas (Augustiner Chorherren), to the holy spirit (Franziskaner) and pc. George (Cistercian inside and/or. Benediktinerinnen).
First lutherische lectures were already held 1522.At present all church municipalities of the city belong to the church district Leipzig, which belongs to the region Leipzig of the Evangelical-Lutheran regional church of Saxonia. The church district covers also municipalities outside of the city. Within the regional church there is also a nationalchurch community.
Since 1697 it gave inLeipzig again catholic services. 1980 were created the diocese Dresden Meissen, which belongs today to the church province Berlin (ore diocese Berlin). Leipzig became within the diocese Meissen already 1921 seat of a Dekanats, to that today also Pfarrgemeinden outside of Leipzigbelong. Catholic main church of the city is the Propsteikirche pc. Trinitatis.
The first mention of Jewish life in Leipzig originates from a document Heinrich of the Erlauchten from 1248. In 14. Century came it to Pogromen against Jews and it passed for the first time severalCenturies, in which it was forbidden Jews to settle in Leipzig. Only 1710 were again permitted it Jews to become established in Leipzig. After 1800 formed for the first time a Jewish municipality, which consisted particularly of Eastern European Jews. Around 1900the number of members on over 6.000 had increased. Up to the national socialism Jewish citizens should along-coin/shape the city as entrepreneurs, scientists, artists and founders substantially. 1929 had Leipzig also over 14.000 members the largest Jewish municipality of Saxonia and one of largest Germany.At 1933 began the systematic extinction of Jewish life in the city, which with the Deportation and murder nearly all Leipziger Jew their terminator point found. After the war the Jewish municipality counted only 24 members. The number of members stagnated to beginningthe 1990er years on extremely low level. 2004 ranked „the Israeli tables religion municipality among Leipzig “, in particular by the immigration of Russian Jews, again over 1.000 members. In the place of the largest Leipziger synagog in the today's Gottschedstrasse, which destroy in the Reichspogromnachtbecame, in the same year a memorial place was inaugurated against driving out and murder at the Leipziger Jew.
to inhabitant development
for detailed numbers of inhabitants see major items: Inhabitant development of Leipzig
Leipzig ranks up-to-date after extensive incorporations end of the 1990er years among the surface-largestCities of Germany. It, in contrast to it, was before one of the most compact large cities. The today's total population had already reached Leipzig before 1914; before beginning of the Second World War it was even the fifth-largest city also over 700.000 inhabitants. After war-conditioned decreaseLeipzig had to register a substantial population decrease particularly since end of the 1980er years. The Tiefststand was reached in the middle of the 1990er years with somewhat more than 470,000 inhabitants. By extensive incorporations in the year 1999 - several large industrial municipalities camein addition - the surface of the city in doubled itself. By the incorporations, rising birth rates and a positive balance with and way courses the number of inhabitants of Leipzig grows slowly again, so that 2005 the half million-inhabitant border was again exceeded (503,200 inhabitantsat the 1. March 2006).
|year||7. - 9. Jh.||1015||1165||1220||1232||1402||1459||1494||1507|
| changed name in|
the course of years
After the reunification of Germany that was again freely selected first as „town council “, now as an town councillor designated committee. First chairmen was first the city president Friedrich Magirius (non-party) in the years 1990 to 1994. Since 1994 is the mayor of chairmen of theTown councillor. The town councillor selected at the beginning of also the mayor, since 1994 he however directly by the people is selected.
The acting mayor of the city is for March 2006 Burkhard young (SPD). It replaced Wolfgang depth lake, that the city branches of 1998until 2005 led, the office however because of its appointment to the Federal Minister of Transport to 22. November 2005 laid down.
(List of all Leipziger mayors since 1778 in the major item: Mayor of the city Leipzig)
in the last years became the Leipziger local government policy of oneinformal coalition of the large parties CDU and SPD coined/shaped, into which as required also the Party of Democratic Socialism was included (Leipziger so mentioned model). Thus the control function of the selected town councillor was expenditure-levered to a large extent. It came therefore to the surprising bankruptcy of urban enterprises and differentCases of corruption, which led 2004 to giving time off the city treasurer and 2005 to giving time off the assigned to order mayor.
result of the municipal election of 13. June 2004
|A party||voice portion of 2004||voice portion of 1999||profits/losses||of seats in the town councillor|
|Party of Democratic Socialism||26.1||25.5||0.6||19|
the election turnout sankof 42,3 to 38,6 per cent.
5 found result
of the mayor choice the last mayor elections to. February (first ballot) and to 26. February 2006 (second ballot) instead of. There no candidate in the first ballot the absolute majority of the voices upto unite, required could do it the second ballot, in which the simple majority is already sufficient. In the first ballot Burkard young (SPD) stood as a candidate, to Uwe Albrecht (CDU), Dietmar Pellmann (left wing party), Michael soft ore (B90/Grüne), Bernd Ruediger core (DSU), Benedict deer leg (non-party) and Karsten Werner(BüSo). In the second ballot Burkhard young with 51,6 per cent of the voices was selected to the mayor.
|Applicant||a party||first ballot||second ballot|
|Dietmar Pellmann||Party of Democratic Socialism||15,5||no more not begun|
|Michael soft ore||the Green||6,1||no more not begun|
|Bernd Ruediger core||DSU||0,9||no more not begun|
|Benedict deer leg||single applicant||2,4||3,0|
the election turnout 31.7 per cent (34.9 per cent) amounted to opposite 43,9 per cent in the year 2005.
coats of arms
the coat of arms of the city Leipzig show in split sign, in front in gold a red gezungten and reinforced black lion; in the back in gold of two blue stakes. The lion of the Mark counts to Meissen and the so-called “Landsberger of stakes” of theCounts von Landsberg are old wettinische coat of arms pictures, which refer to the integration of the city Leipzig in medieval course axles. To proofs the today's coat of arms leaves itself for the first time 1468 as seal, on those before (over 1287) only one castle and/or. a castle alsothe lion of the Mark counts to see was.
The difference to the Dresden coat of arms exists only in the Tingierung of the Landsberger stakes, that to the Chemnitzer and Delitz coats of arms in the arrangement that sign - with the coat of arms of the Leipziger of country became the LeipzigerCoat of arms still another river added.
The city colors are accordingly blue yellow the coat of arms.
a partnership between cities maintains partnerships between cities Leipzig with 13 cities:
to Leipzig Saskatchewan there
are designated localities in the Canadian province a town named Leipzig.
In addition several are to Leipzig designated localities in the USA. Thus two places carry, in Delaware (203Inhabitant; Conditions: 2000) and in Ohio (2,236 inhabitants; Conditions: 2000), that the English discussion adapted name Leipsic. In addition Russian-Germans created a new Leipzig, which counts today 326 inhabitants in the year 1901 in North Dakota.
before the Second World War was Leipzig apart from its meaning as commercial centre (Leipziger fair) also an important economic situation. Traditionally here publishing trade and polygrafische industry , foundries , were mechanical engineering, fur industry, textile industry (Leipziger cotton spinning mill, multicolored yarn works Leipzig) and building of pianos (Blüthner, mould) resident.
In the GDR time Leipzig remained an important economic situation. The district Leipzig contributed 1972 to 9.3% of the GDR industrial production. Apart from the industries already mentioned became in particular the brown coal dismantling, energy production and thosechemical industry south of Leipzig strongly developed. With the formation of collective combines Leipzig became seat of the collective combines for construction machines, complete plants and earthmoving plants (Baukema), building of foundry plants and products of casting (Gisag), polygraphischen mechanical engineering, broadcast and television engineering (RFT), technical building equipment (TGA), open mining equipment, crane and conveyor plants (TAKRAF) and construction of chemical plants (construction of chemical plants Leipzig Grimma, CLG).
The fruitful soils of the Leipziger low land bay in the Leipziger area were intensively agriculturally used .
The industrial site is part of the industrial area resounds - to Leipzig
with the turn broke down, as in almost all regions the former GDR, almost the entire industrial production. Only few enterprises remained after the privatisation (Blüthner, brothers Brehmer, Kirow Leipzig AG).
Today are in Leipzig again some large industrial settlements, among them Siemens, Porsche and BMW. With the settlement of the two latters it succeeded to the city to be established as new automobile location. Turnover-strongest East German the enterprise (conditions 2003: 3.3 billionEuro), the power supplier data link gas AG, has here likewise its seat carrier. Also enterprises of communication and information technologies like the PC commodity AG are resident in Leipzig. In the medium range one of the largest German film enterprises, the cinema world GmbH, is in Leipzigresident. Beside Frankfurt/Main, Munich and Stuttgart Leipzig is considered as supraregional important bank location. In addition in the city with the European Energy Exchange (EEX) is operated the determining German energy stock exchange. The Leipziger of transporting enterprises builds since 2005 inLeoliner, which will not be only used in Leipzig, developed self-direction.
Starting from 2008 the international air spider of the post office freight daughter DHL goes into enterprise, which was resident so far in Brussels. Thus 3,500 jobs are to originate in to 7.000 directly at the airport and roughlyin the closer environment.
the city Leipzig is well-known beyond the borders of Germany particularly by the Leipziger fair. It ranks among the oldest fairs of the world. 1895took place the conversion from a being to world-wide first the sample fair. During the time of the existence of the GDR the spring and autumn fairs were an important meeting place of the trade between east and west. With the reunification the two seasonal universal fairs became throughTrade fairs replaced. Among the most important fairs of the yearly today the Leipziger book fair, the automobile international, ranks the Games Convention and the tourism fair.
Leipzig is head office of the Central German broadcast (MDR).The Media town center, a Studiokomplex for television and film productions, in which the MDR is involved, is in direct proximity. The private stations radio PSR, Energy Saxonia, R.SA and Leipzig 91,3, of Germany first licensed university University of Mephisto 97.6 and the free radio radio blue produce here their program. With Leipzig television sends a local television station its program. The Leipziger people newspaper appears produced and printed as only regional daily paper, of the Leipziger publishing house and printering company. The most important LeipzigerCity magazine is the cruiser. In addition REGJO, the regional journal for the marketing area Leipzig appears quarterly/resounds.
Leipzig is traditional seat of many publishing houses, under it the Evangelist publishing house or the Teubner publishing house. Further are here addresses of the Auer of publishing house, the R. Of Brockhaus publishing house GmbH & Co.KG, the island publishing house and the Tologo publishing house. Is once world-wide famous nevertheless from the former book city, as Leipzig, after the turn 1990 only little had remained. Many publishing houses had to close or were shifted. A newer example for this is the Reclam publishing house, which was created 1828 in Leipzig, but in the spring 2006 completely into the Stuttgart Reclam Verlagshaus integratesbecomes. Only the renowned book series Reclam Leipzig remain as mark.
the Federal Administrative Court became to 26. August 2002 of Berlinto Leipzig shifted and has his seat in the realm law courts. Also the 5. Criminal senate of the Federal High Court is settled in Leipzig. The federal net agency for electricity, gas, telecommunications, post office and railways maintains a branch office in Leipzig. The head office of the German Federal Bank forthe Free States Saxonia and Thuringia is likewise in Leipzig resident.
The Saxonian Academy of Sciences was created as scientific organization 1846 in Leipzig and has here until today at the location of the Saxonian national university their seat carrier.
The Saxonian Landesbank and those Savings bank Leipzig, which is responsible for the city Leipzig and the districts Delitzsch, Leipziger country and Torgau Oschatz, are the most important public mechanisms on the financial sector.
Leipzig had still far parts of the Vorkriegsbebauung, which developed on the one hand between 1919 and 1945, on the other hand from the period of promoterism and the time of the turn of the century originate. These compact old building quarters, tooa substantial part from the period of promoterism originate, became GDR - times neglects and purged. Instead one set between 1960 and 1980 on large housing estates, as for example for Leipzig Grünau and Leipzig Paunsdorf, those approx. 40 per cent of the dwellings developed after 1945 in Leipzigrepresented. After the turn the period of promoterism accomodation was to a large extent aufwändig restored and should be saved so, by a conversion of the housing policy of the city Leipzig. In the housingpolitical concept of the yearly 1994 this was embodied as principle „of the urban redevelopment in the existence “. Leipzig stood1990 before the problem that 196,000 was reorganization needy of the 257,000 dwellings. In the period of promoterism quarters by it 103,000 dwellings were affected. <ref name= " Städtbaubericht_Leipzig_k1 ">Town development plan housebuilding and urban redevelopment; Chapter 1< /ref>
Altogether the urban redevelopment within the range of the period of promoterism land development concentrateson 13 areas with 464 hectars and 29,000 dwellings. <ref name= " Städtbaubericht_Leipzig_k1 "> [http://www.leipzig.de/imperia/md/content/61_Stadtplanungsamt/1.pdf town development plan housebuilding and urban redevelopment; Chapter 1]< /ref> An example of it is convenient the forest route quarter, between the city center and the Rosenthal. It is today one of the few completely received period of promoterism populated areasin Germany. On a surface of over 100 hectares are proven of the 845 buildings 626 as single monument. For its strategy for the receipt of this ensemble the city received gold medal with the federal competition from the Federal Ministry for area planning, building industry and town construction 1994.
Also a majority of the remaining old building stock was reorganized, which led to a large overhang at dwelling. The Leipziger housing market is strongly satisfied by suburbanization and the supraregional drift in the 90's, why investments are missing into remaining unsanierte objects. Upthe other side are very high rents in good housing situations of reorganized areas. However these urban spaces offer hardly still to possibilities of the investment, since they already possess a high reorganization portion. The preference of these quarters in relation to unattractive areas is however after howforwards recognizably. <ref name= " Städtbaubericht_Leipzig_k5 ">Town development plan housebuilding and urban redevelopment; Chapter 5< /ref> From this resultiernd one is heterogeneously development between attractive locations and such areas recognizable since 1997, which stayed in its development and renewal. <ref name= " Städtbaubericht_Leipzig_k1 "> [http://www.leipzig.de/imperia/md/content/61_Stadtplanungsamt/1.pdf town development plan housebuilding and urban redevelopment;Chapter 1]< /ref> Stand from the founder-temporal dwellings, which were reorganized, about 23% empty, then remain uninhabited by the unsanierten dwellings 71%. <ref name= " Städtbaubericht_Leipzig_k2 ">Town development plan housebuilding and urban redevelopment; Chapter 2< /ref>
Due to its higher structural and architectural quality and, the reorganized old building locations the now likewise to a large extent reorganized large housing estates are preferred to the often good situation. This leads to a depopulation beginning of the new building quarters in slab method. There one tries a reorganization of the real estate structure with the partial retreating longwall system and surrounding field revaluing, into reach the city.
education and research
University of Leipzig
the 1409 created University of Leipzig (Alma mould lipsiensis) is the secondaryoldest university in the area of the today's Federal Republic of Germany. 1953 became it in Karl Marx - university renamed, received however again its old name to 1991. Beginning of the 1990er years was created after the completion of the German university for physical culture (DHfK) as replacement a sport faculty and the former educational university was attached „Clara Zetkin “. The university hastoday 14 faculties and some attached institutes like the institute for stove he and German Literaturinstitut.
At the Leipziger university some innovative research achievements were obtained. Here among other things the Nobelpreisträger Werner Heisenberg, Gustav Hertz, Nathan Söderblom informed and Wilhelm Ostwald sowie der Begründer der experimentellen Psychologie Wilhelm Wundt。 In the subjects sociology and psychology the Leipziger in such a way specified school was justified here.
Prominent students to the Universiät were among other things Georgius Agricola, Tycho Brahe, JohannGod-dear spruce, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Ulrich von Hutten, Erich Kästner, Gottfried William Leibniz, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Karl dear farmhand, Thomas Müntzer, Friedrich Nietz, new fact-read, Robert Schumann, Johann Gottfried Seume, George Philipp Telemann, EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Grieg, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner and Ferdinand de Saussure.
the university for diagram and book art Leipzig 1764 were already created as an academy for marks, drawing and architecture. One of their most famous students was Johann Wolfgang Goethe. 1901 were renamed the academy into royal academy for graphic arts and book trades. 1947 received it their current development. Itranks among the most renowned academies of art of Germany.
The university for music and theatre „Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy “ developed in the year 1843 as Leipziger conservatoire and was the first higher musical education place in Germany. One of their joint founders was Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. 1992by the integration of the theatre university „Hans's Otto “ the training profile was extended.
Leipzig carries and
developed professional schools and institutes the university for technology, economics and culture Leipzig (HTWK) since 1992 its current names from the technical university.The latter was formed 1977 by the pool of the university for building industry Leipzig, for the engineer university Leipzig, the technical school for librarians and booksellers, the technical school for scientific library nature as well as Institut for Museologie.
The Handelshochschule Leipzig (HHL) became to25. April 1898 based and is the oldest restaurant university of Germany. The German Telekom professional school Leipzig is a professional school in private working group the German Telekom AG and 1991 as „professional school of the Federal Post Office TELEKOM “by the Free State Saxonia was nationally recognized.
Leipzig accommodates three institutes for Max-Planck (for evolutionary anthropology, cognition and neuro sciences and mathematics in the natural sciences), the institute for Fraunhofer for cell therapy and Immunologie, the Leibniz institute for troposphere research as well as the UFZ Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-resounds to the helmet getting time community.
Further higher educational facilities are those AKAD professional school Leipzig, the university for Kreativitätspädagogik (HfK) and the study academy Leipzig, a branch of the vocational academy Saxonia.
the German library was created 1912 in Leipzig. Since 1990 it is partthe national library „the German library “(DDB), to which also the 1947 created German library in Frankfurt/Main and created German music archives belongs to 1970 in Berlin. The three locations fulfill together the legally specified tasks for collecting,Open and the bibliografischen registering of the German and German-language literature starting from 1913. A branch office of German music archives was established in the German library, since 1990 ago above all notes were here already collected.
Leipzig was throughthe situation at the crossing of the freeways via Regia and via Imperii already promptly an important traffic junction. The first German long distance railway line led from Leipzig to Dresden. In particular by the means for the modernization, invested after the political turnand Leipzig can show the development of the freeway, rail and air traffic binding today a outstanding traffic infrastructure.
Since 2003 the town center tunnel from the main station is built to the Bavarian station (intended costs: 571 million euro). With the building a constant North-South axis is manufactured for the first time, which does not exist by the head station aligned northward so far. The binding onthe south area of Leipzig thereby strongly one improves. Thus substantial saving of time for the train service direction south Saxonia and Bavaria are connected, since the courses do not have to drive over completely detours to Leipzig more.
The Leipziger rapid-transit railway net consists of four lines, ofLeipziger main station go out and to these with Leipzig Grünau, spices, resound (Saale) („rapid-transit railway Leipzig-resounds “) and Borna connect. No uniform clock is driven, the cycle times varies from 20 to 60 minutes.
For the goods traffic there are goods stationsin the quarters protection and angel village. In addition in the proximity of the Schkeuditzer of cross for the movement of goods between road and course a large goods traffic center was furnished.
since that the 1. January 1917 existing Leipziger of transporting enterprises (LVB) maintain inthe city momentarily altogether 14 streetcar and over 30 Buslinien. In the last years some fewer strongly frequented streetcar was replaced by Buslinien; last in January 2006 the strassenbahnlinie 18. The railway system of the LVB is with altogether 324.4 kilometersLength to Berlin the second largest of Germany. Of it however only 149.9 kilometers are driven on. The longest line in the Leipziger net is the line 11, those on 22 kilometers of Schkeuditz with Mark clover mountain - east connects and as only Leipziger strassenbahnlinie inthree Tarifzonen of the Central German traffic group drives. At the central stops „main station “and/or. „“And „Goerdelerring “the strassenbahnlinien operate main station, west side on Mondays to on Fridays in daily traffic in the minutes pulse.
The LVB modernizes its vehicle park for years. Mainly on the lines the 7 and15 operating courses of the type „Classic XXL “belong with 45.09 m to the longest streetcar motor coaches of Germany. Beside the twelve already existing „Classic XXL “still twelve further streetcars of this type are purchased.
motorways and federal highways
at Leipziglead past several motorways : in the north A 14 (Dresden - Magdeburg), in the west A 9 (Munich - Berlin) and in the south A 38 (in the building) (Leipzig - Goettingen) (Central German loop). In addition toward the south is partial A 72 (Leipzig - Chemnitz) in the building and/or in planning.
in the catchment area from Leipzig are 2 airports. On the one hand the airport Leipzig/resounds northwest to the city at the Schkeuditzer cross, that over a direct railway and motorway bindingordered. In addition about one autohour is appropriate south for the city the airport Altenburg Nobitz (Thuringia). Here and lands to time starts once daily a machine of the cheap flier Ryanair.
in the first half 20. Century becamethe building of the Elster Saale channel, which should connect white Elster and Saale, begun, in order to attach Leipzig to the wasserstrassennetz. The outbreak of the Second World War stopped the work. The Lindenauer port was finished nearly, but not yet at Elster Saale andKarl Heine channel attached. The Leipziger of rivers (white Elster, ball, Pleisse) has to a large extent artificial Flussbette in the urban space and by some channels (Karl Heine channel) is supplemented. These water routes are suitable only for sport boat traffic.
By the plantand reorganization of existing ditches and running waters in the south of the city and the connection of flooded residual pits from open-cast mining are to develop a waters group. In the meantime more finally punctures between Karl Heine channel and the harbor basin, as well as the completion of the Elster Saale channel also always was planned, lastduring the olympia application. Such a step would make it for sport boats possible to arrive from Leipzig to the Elbe. The plans were again rejected however due to the not justifiable cost use relation.
culture and objects of interest
inLeipzig is predominantly osterländisch spoken . This dialect belonged to the Thuringian-upper-Saxonian group of dialects and represented the outrider for the later high German before some hundred years, as language Martin Luther .
The opera Leipzig looks on a three hundred-year old tradition. The today's building was finished 1960 at the Augustusplatz. The musical comedy (MuKo) in the house three-lime trees in Leipzig Lindenau that today to the opera Leipzig belongs, has one on the year 1713decreasing/going back history. Here Operette and musical are maintained.
The play Leipzig has several play places. Beside the large Schauspielhaus still smaller play places belong like the theatre term iron one and the new scene to the local theatrical enterprise. Beyond that it gives inLeipzig an alive off theatre scene with many smaller play places, which united with artists of other categories in the community of interests free scene Leipzig. The child and youth theatre have a long tradition in Leipzig. Keel is the theatre of the boys world,beyond that there are some pupating and puppet theatres.
orchestra and choirs
the number of hochklassiger orchestras and choirs is a result of the century-long music tradition of Leipzig.
the garb house orchestra Leipzig is renowned an internationallyOrchestra. As an oldest civil concert orchestra of Germany it was created 1781. Main play place is the garb house. Principal conductors were among other things Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, William Furtwängler, Václav Neumann, briefly Masur and harsh ore Blomstedt, today have Riccardo Chailly thatOffice of the Gewandhauskapellmeisters. The new Bachi Collegium Musicum to Leipzig (NBCM) was created 1979 from the garb house. As „a historical brook orchestra “it combines modern instruments and „historical “play way. Since 2003 the NBCM von Albrecht is led winters.
That MDR Sinfonieorchester was created 1924 as Leipziger Sinfonieorchester. It began thereby the follow-up of the orchestra of the concert association existing since 1915. 1925 were taken over it by the Central German broadcast at that time AG and as a broadcast symphony orchestra Leipzig admit far away. Principal conductor was underother harsh ore cone, today Fabio Luisi leads the orchestra. After establishment of the MDR into the 1990er years received it to its current names.
The Capella Fidicinia at the museum of musical instruments of the University of Leipzig based of Hans greet 1957. The chamber orchestra playsWorks of old masters on original instruments. That academic orchestra Leipzig was created 1954 by refuge Förster at the University of Leipzig, which it leads until today. There are annually 6 „academic concerts “generally speaking hall of the garb house. The Leipziger university orchestra developed 2003 as Leipziger student orchestra. And gives a large Sinfoniekonzert per terms as well as chamber music evening is student occupied.
The Pauliner chamber orchestra was created 1992 and stood until 2004 under the direction of Wolfgang Unger. It stands for the university choir alsomodern instruments for the order. The Pauliner baroque ensemble was created out 1994 from the Pauliner chamber orchestra and made music exclusive on historical equipment.
The Leipziger caper quartet was created 1988 by students at that time of the Leipziger college of music and later members of the garb house orchestra. It is today an internationally recognized component of the chamber music scene.
The youth info. never orchestra of the school of music Johann Sebastian brook Leipzig was brought 1985 by Iwan Iwanow at the national school of music at that time „Johann Sebastian brook “into being. Present leader is Ron Dirk Entleutner.
The garb house choir Leipzig became 1869 the premiere of the German Requiems of Johannes Brahms based and 1920 in the 1875 created brook association integrates. Since that time it carries its current names.
The MDR broadcast choir Leipzig developed 1946 as a successor of the Leipziger of broadcast choir. The MDR child choir was created 1948 by Hans Sandig and ranks among the most well-knownChild choirs of Germany. It is today the only child choir of the pool of broadcasting corporations and by Gunter Berger is led.
The Leipziger university choir came out 1926 from the Madrigalkreis Leipziger student . Its leader is a university music University of David Timm. Under the line in the meantimethe choir received the deceased Wolfgang Unger in the year 2001 the echo classical period price assigned by the German Phono academy. The Friedenskantorei Leipzig is the choir the Michaelis peace municipality Leipzig, its leader is Veit Stephan Budig.
As old university and fair city with a wealthy middle class Leipzig has a large number of important collections. The 1837 by the Leipziger art association created museum of the forming arts possess one of the impression-fullest picture collections of Germany, those about 58,500 exhibits from the late Middle Ages toto the modern trend points. This offer with changing exhibitions of modern art supplements the 1990 created gallery for contemporary art.
Brook archives Leipzig maintain a brook museum at the Thomaskirchhof in honours of one of the most important personalities of the city: Johann Sebastian brook. The GermanBook and writing museum of the German library Leipzig is the world-wide oldest specialized museum to the book, writing and paper culture. The museum for pressure art reminds of the large Leipziger tradition as book city.
The University of Leipzig possesses a number of important collections. Some, like that Egyptian museum, the antique museum and the museum of musical instruments, are permanently accessible to the public. On the occasion of the museum night of the city Leipzig the university presents also its training collections to a broad public. The HTWK maintains a mechanism museum.
The city-historical museum is resident in the old city hall. Beyond that possesses it branches with oldest coffee house to Arab Coffe tree, which Schillerhaus, in which Friedrich Schiller spent the summer 1785, that 1977 created sport museum Leipzig and that People battle monument. The living and house of the deceased of the composer Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy are accessible as Mendelssohn house of the public. In the Schumann house Robert and Clara Schumann lived their first four marriage years. The time-historical forum in the city center is subordinate to the Office of the Federal Chancellor as federal mechanism.It represents the history of Germany from the Second World War to the present. The memorial place museum in „the rounds corner “ in the former seat of the district administration of the MfS regenerates the mechanisms of the repression apparatus in the former GDR.
In the complex of the Grassimuseumsare beside the museum of musical instruments also the museum for arts and crafts and the museum for people customer to Leipzig. The natural history museum Leipzig possesses a large collection at Dermoplastiken and supplements this offer by changing special exhibitions to nature topics. The German small gardner museum findsitself in the association house 1864 created, world-wide first Schrebergartenvereins.
stock exchange to Leipzig Nikolaikirche of multicolored yarn works the city center Leipzig. In the heart of the city dominates old person the city hall, Building of Renaissances from the years 1556/57. A large part of the city center is dominated through formerly of the Leipziger fair used commercial yards, splendourful merchants' houses and by characteristic passages. The oldest still received commercial yard is bacon yard, further meanwhile affectionately restored is Barthels yard or Stenzlers yard. They served mainly for the adjustment of commercial fairs. The urban department store was the first sample fair house of the city. Other trading firms like the Auerbachs yard became already at the beginning 20. Century into shopping streets converted, as itself thatRetreat of the Leipziger fair from the city center with the building of the fairground drew. On the area of Auerbachs yard today probably is the splendour-fullest passage Leipigs, those after mailändischem model Mädlerpassage established from 1912 to 1914. Here findsitself world-famous the Auerbachs cellar become by Goethe's fist. Directly behind the old person city hall, at the Naschmarkt, is the old person stock exchange established in the baroque style, which served Kaufmannschaft once as meeting building of the Leipziger. City center houses worth seeing are the Fregehaus and the Romanushaus. West the city center is the Mendelssohn house.
In the city center are two internationally well-known churches: The Thomas church as effect place Johann Sebastian of brook and the Thomanerchores as well as the Nikolaikirche as the most important place of the peace prayers starting pointon Mondays demonstrations, which contributed considerably to the reunification of Germany. Directly beside the Nikolaikirche is the old person Nikolaischule.
At the Augustusplatz - the southeast border of the city center - are the new garb house, the opera house, the Mendebrunnen andOf Leipzig first multistoried building, the creeping multistoried building. Nearby of it the town center multistoried building Leipzig towers above the city center as former main building of the university far away.
That New city hall is at the southern end of the city center. It is world-wide with its 114m high main tower one of the largest city hall buildings and serves since 1905 the seat of the Leipziger city administration. Not far of it, in the south suburb, are the realm law courts,as well as that today seat of the Federal Administrative Court is the university library Albertina.
In the south the Bavarian station, the oldest received head station of Germany, the German library, the Leipziger supermarket resounding, is appropriate for the city jokeful „kohlrabi circus “mentioned (now an ice skating arena and a one accommodateDiscotheque), the Russian memory church and the people battle monument as one of the landmarks of the city. The two latters are memorials to the people battle 1813.
In the quarter Leipzig Gohlis, which follows north the city center, are the congress house at the zoo, which locates Gohliser Schlös and the Schillerhaus. The 1878 created zoo-logical garden Leipzig is 22.5 hectars a large, park-like arranged plant in Gohlis. In the course more extensivelyReorganization and modernization work developed among other things the 2001 for open Pongoland, the largest Primatenanlage of the world. The game park Leipzig is a nature park in the south of the city and shows native animal species.
Leipzig has a very alive cinema scene.International meaning has since 1955 annually the taking place festival for dokumentar and animated film. After increasing influence of the Festivalprogramms by the national organs of the GDR in the years starting from 1968 it has itself after the reunification with modernized adjustment againto a public magnet develops.
Beside the larger cinemas, like the CineStar and the film palace Leipzig in Grünau and the looking castle in troubling joke there is the passage cinema in the center , the Regina film palace in Reudnitz, numerous smaller program cinemas, thosefastidious films for smaller target groups present. Different cinemas like the UT Connewitz and the cinema in NATO are used also for music meetings. Once a year French the film days take place since 1995 in several cinemas in the region resounding Leipzig.
the everyday cultural life takes place particularly in the city center, in the Gottschedstrasse, the south suburb („south mile “) and along the Karl dear farmhand road („Karli “) up to the quarter Connewitz. The city has a remarkable and active night life. The developmentthe versatile tavern landscape thereby by the renouncement of the city administration of a closing hour one favoured. Completely particularly in the evening and night hours of the summer months one can experience flair in Barfussgäs and into the Gottschedstrasse, if the free seats are filled, Italian. Oncein the year beyond that of Germany offers largest Honky Tonk festival live-music in numerous taverns.
By the purge of the built volumes during the GDR time many former cultural centers in the quarters disappeared, so that Leipzig only a limited number of larger halls forMusic meetings possesses. In the north this is the anchor and the house Auensee, in the west suburb the house Leipzig, in the south suburb NATO and in Connewitz the work II and the Conne Iceland. Recently opened alsomeeting-resounds, the also larger concerts permitted, which were reserved so far the sport multipurpose hall arena Leipzig to the people palace a new. In Connewitz and parts of the south suburb a vivante alternative scene developed after the turn. From a former cinema developed with that UT Connewitz a mechanism used for all culture forms. With the Distillery has also East Germany of serve-oldest Technoclub in Leipzig its domicile.
With the resolutions of the 3. Numerous student clubs developed for university reform of the GDR 1968, from those most today still in Leipzigto exist and by students not be only used. The oldest student club is the TV-club Leipzig, the largest end of the 1970er years from a medieval fortification developed Moritzbastei, of Europe largest student club. The student clubs have themselves with that Rounds table Leipziger of independent student clubs (RuTiLuSt) at the beginning of the 1990er years a common platform created.
the brook celebration Leipzig is a music festival, which took place for the first time 1908. Since 1999 it annually aligned and dedicatesitself completely the care of the works of Johann Sebastian brook. The international chamber music festival Leipzig is accomplished in co-operation with the garb house since 1996 in November. The Classic open Leipzig is one since 1995 of Peter Degner and the city Leipzigorganized concert row with free air concerts and video transmissions of concerts in the Leipziger city center in August. A-cappella - festival for Vocalmusik is since 1997 a taking place festival for vowel music in Leipzig, with which at the end of of April renowned internationally, in addition, new generation artist of thisCategory arise.
Over Whitsuntide Leipzig is annual venue of the Gothic largest with annually 20,000 visitors - meeting, the four-day Wave gothic meeting. It took place for the first time 1992. The Leipziger jazz days is aligned since 1976 in October. They dedicate themselves to the contemporary jazzand become of the jazz club Leipzig registered association. aligned. Leipzig Pop UP is an alternative fair to the Popkultur, to which also panels and a music festival belong in Leipziger club.
The festival euro scene Leipzig takes place since 1991 annually in November. Itdedicates itself to the experimental theatre and the modern dance. The laughter fair is a European humor and satire festival, which take place annually since 1991 in October in Leipzig. She assigns the small art price Leipziger dandelion endowed with 3.500 euro. During the summer monthstake place further free air meetings like the radio play summer, the Leipziger summer theatre and the summer cinema.
Annually the city aligns the Leipziger city celebration. The Leipziger small fair is a three times annually stattfindes people celebration, which originated in to 1907 as a folder of the Leipziger fair. That Leipziger Weihnachtsmarkt is one the largest in the new Lands of the Federal Republic and since 1767 is aligned.
Courage is since 1998 to 30 shows. April taking place skirt concert before the Leipziger people battle monument, that as answer to the neo-Nazi marching-up at the 1. May developed.The language evening is a weekly meeting in the Soziokulturellen center „the MANSION “, which serves the intercultural contact.
The Karneval plays a subordinated role in Protestant Leipzig only. Starting from the 1950er years student carnival a completely own kind of play developed with the Leipziger.1992 were based the promotion committee Leipziger Karnval registered association. and annually Leila aligns a rose Sundays removal under the slogan helau .
Leipzig has several local specialities to offer, among them the Leipziger all kinds of things, the Leipziger lark and the Leipziger Gose. The Leipziger all kinds of things is a mixed vegetable, which was arranged in the original version also with river cancers , cancer butter and Semmelklös. The Leipziger larks became in 18. and 19. Century indeed made of singing birds.These were handed for example as filled pies. After 1876 a catch prohibition for the singing birds were imposed, findige bakers developed a fine pastry, which usually consists today of Mürbeteig with Marzipanfüllung, and in the form of pies at that time reminds.The Gose is a obergäriges beer, which originally originates from Goslar.
Leipzig possesses a long and large sport tradition. It was establishment place of the DFB. The VfB Leipzig was the first German football master and could this triumph twice (1906, 1913) repeat. After the Second World War it was dissolved by Soviet crew power and existed from 1966 to 1991 as 1. Fiber plastic locomotive Leipzig, its name the unofficial follow-up association of the VfB liquidated due to an insolvencyLeipzig since 2004 again carries. Locomotive Leipzig was four times GDR Cup winner, threefold GDR vice-master and created it 1987 into the final of the European Cup of the Cup winners. The second steeped in tradition football club fiber plastic Saxonia Leipzig (until 1990 BSG chemistry Leipzig) was twice GDR master and twice FDGB cup winner. Both crews play up-to-date only in the upper league and/or. District class.
the central stadium was opened 1956 and was with 100.000 places the largest stadium of Germany. 2002 became within the old stadium barrier a new football stadiumwith 44.345 places integrated, today Leipzig and the fairground belong to the Leipziger sport forum with the arena. Here 5 plays of the football WM take place 2006. The Bruno Plache stadium in Probstheida was during its inauguration 1922 the largest association-own stadium of Germany(40,000 places) and is today play place of the 1. Fiber plastic locomotive Leipzig. The Alfred Kunze Sportpark in Leutzsch is the home stadium of the fiber plastic Saxonia Leipzig.
The DHfK was in the GDR a sport university renowned internationally, from which numerous top-class sportsmen and - coaches came out. SomeBelonging one were complicated however also into the Doping operated systematically in the GDR. This was one of the reasons, why this university was completed 1990. In its tradition the 1993 created sport-scientific faculty of the University of Leipzig stands. The abbreviation „DHfK “carries still the HSG DHfK and the sports club DHfK in the name.
The hand ball club Leipzig (HCL) is one the best Mrs. hand ball club of Germany. He was four times European Cup winner, three times German master and 13 times GDR master. VV Leipzig plays in the Volleyball federal league. As a sports club Leipzig it was 1964 European Cup winners of the national masters and much times GDR masters (1962-1976, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1989). The basketball association Leipzig (BBVL) plays in the basketball federal league of the ladies. Unihockey lion Leipzig in the Unihockeybundesliga. The Leichtathletikzentrum Leipzig took overthe formerly very successful Leichtathletiksektion of the DHfK. The 1992 created American football club Leipzig Lions is the first Saxonian association in this kind of sport. It engages itself in co-operation with the Rotary club also in a multiplicity of social projects.
One delivers regular
Sportveranstaltungen of the Leipzig Marathon since 1977 and takes place in April. The first German Marathon at all found to 5. September 1897 likewise in Leipzig instead of. Leipzig town center one is an international Triathlon and becomes since 1984at the Kulkwitzer lake delivered.
The hand ball of Masters , as of the European hand ball federation (EHF) organized European championship for club teams in the woman Volleyball are accomplished, since 2004 in Leipzig. The savings bank Leipzig sponsort a set of Weltcupwettkämpfen, so a single Worldcup in Florettfechten of the ladies and in the tennis of the ladies.
In the context of the German Beach Cups annually a match in the Beach Volleyball in Leipzig takes place. The Saxonia internationally Balloon Fiesta is also over 100 balloons from all world one the largest balloon driver meetingsEurope and takes place at the silver lake in Lössnig . On the gallopp course disk wood several horse running are delivered annually.
sons and daughters, for example the philosophers and scientists Gottfried William Leibniz, the composer has personalities Leibniz monument Leipzig Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner or the socialist Karl dear farmhand. Numerous not less famous personalities spent and worked at least parts of their life in Leipzig, like the composers Johann Sebastian brook and Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, the Physiknobelpreisträger Werner Heisenberg or thatAutomobile farmer August Horch (see also the articles of sons and daughters of the city Leipzig and prominent inhabitants of the city Leipzig).
The city Leipzig lent the honour citizen right since 1832 82 personalities. Four persons (Adolf Hitler, Hans franc, William Frick and walter Ulbricht) was again denied the honour citizen right (see also list of the honour citizens of Leipzig).
- „my Leipzig lob' I me! It is small a Paris and educates its people. “ - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in fist I
- „oh as I always envy Leipzig around its music! “ - Clara Schumann, exchange of letters
- „I comes to Leipzig, to the place, where one can see the whole world in the small one. “ - Gotthold EphraimLessing
- Tobias Gohlis: DuMont Reisetaschenbuch „LEIPZIG “. DuMont travel publishing house Cologne, 2004
- Janka lion, Bettina Meissner: DUMONT directly „Leipzig “. DuMont travel publishing house, Cologne the 2005
- Gabriele walter: Merian „Leipzig “. 4. Aufl., Gräfe & Unzer,Munich 2005
- Maren Goltz: „Music city leader Leipzig “. Kamprad publishing house, old person castle 2004
- Stefan Sachs: Go Vista TOWN CENTER GUIDE „Leipzig “. Vista POINT publishing house, Cologne 2005
- Toma Babovic, Edgar S. Hate: Leipzig. In English, German and French language. Publishing house Ellert & judgeHamburg 2005, ISBN 3-8319-0024-8
- Evelyn TerVehn: Marco Polo „Leipzig “with town center Atlas. 2. aktual. Aufl., Mairs geographical publishing house, Ostfildern 2003
- D. Mundus: Leipziger land portions. 15 daily trips for curious ones. 3. over work. Aufl., edition Neureuter, Leipzig 2002
- Thomas Nabert (talk.): Across Leipzig with the wheel. PER LEIPZIG, Leipzig 2001, ISBN of 3-9807201-5-2
- Cornelius Gurlitt (treatment): Describing representation of the older building and art monuments of the Kingdom of Saxonia, number 16: Office captain shank Leipzig. Meinhold, Dresden 1894 (numerous concernstoday quarters) Cornelius
- Gurlitt (treatment) eingemeindete: Describing representation of the older building and art monuments of the Kingdom of Saxonia, number 17-18: City Leipzig. Meinhold, Dresden 1895-1896
- Heinrich Magirius and. A. (Treatment): The building and art monuments of Saxonia. City Leipzig. The Sakralbauten: withan overview of the development concerning town construction from the beginnings to 1989. 2 Bde., German fine-art publishing house, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-422-00568-4
- Christoph bold, Brunhilde Rothbauer (treatment): Thinking marks in Saxonia. City Leipzig, Bd. 1: Southern urban extension. Publishing house for building industry, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-345-00628-6
barking trichloroethylene TIC
- Martin Jankowski: Rabet or disappearing a direction. Via Verbis publishing house, Scheidegg 1999, ISBN 3-933902-03-7
- Erich solves: People battle monument. 4. Aufl., German paperback publishing house, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-423-12533-0
- Erich solves: Nikolaikirche. 8.Aufl., German paperback publishing house, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-423-12448-2
- Erich solves: Realm court. Lime tree publishing house, Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-86152-003-6
- Dieter room: Für'n groschen shower. 26. Aufl., Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2003, ISBN 3-404-10183-9
- Dieter room: The wedding photo. Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1994, ISBN of 3-404-12211-9
- Erich Keyser (Hrsg.): German city book. Manual of urban history. On behalf the conference of the nationalhistorical commissions of Germany with the support German municipality daily, Stuttgart 1941 (volume 2 Central Germany)
- Niels Gormsen, Armin bold one: Leipzig. ThatChange show. 3. Aufl., edition Leipzig, Leipzig 2000 ISBN 3-361-00509-4
- Birgit horn: The night, when fire death of the sky fell - Leipzig, 4. December 1943. Waiting mountain publishing house, Gudensberg same one 2003, ISBN 3-8313-1340-7
- briefly field man, Andreas Glowienka, pure hard W. Heinemann and.A.:Town center tunnel Leipzig. Chronicle of a railway connection of 19. up to 21. Century. River & river, Leipzig 2004, ISBN 3-9807618-4-3
- refuge Riedel: Chronicle of the city Leipzig. 2500 events in word and picture. Waiting mountain publishing house, Gudensberg same one 2001, ISBN 3-8313-1111-0
- refuge Riedel: City encyclopedia Leipzig von A- Z, PRO LEIPZIG, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-936508-03-8
- Thomas Nabert (talk.): A dwelling for all. History of local housebuilding in Leipzig 1900-2000. PER LEIPZIG, Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-9807201-1-X
- Joachim Tesch (Hrsg.): BUILD IN LEIPZIG 1945- 1990. Participants and time witnesses on personal traces of the Leipziger building history. Luxembourg donationdonation Luxembourg donation Saxonia, 2003, ISBN 3-89819-159-1
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