Performance review (school)
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The performance review of pupils by teachers happens as evaluation of individual performances (verbal contributions, homework, written performance records, final examinations) as well as periodic summaryin certifications. The evaluation takes place usually numerically with national given Metrik (school note) however partly in special schools, exclusively in Rudolf Steiner Schools in form of verbal reports.
As every other performance review is the Benotung of pupil achievements a responsible activity, which unpredictable consequences havecan; it is subject therefore to detailed legal regulations and can be contested on the administrative law way. It is examined with the fact whether the note was given correctly. In Germany the school performance review is regarded partly than a “sovereign act”, what for the reason of the official status of the teachers in some Lands of the Federal Republicone consults.
Table of contents
in Germany falls the regulation of the performance review, as part of the school right, into the authority of the Lands of the Federal Republic. Thus is each Land of the Federal Republic authorizes its own guidelines, regulations and laws concerning thatTo meet achievement statement. Accordingly differently this was also regulated:
in Hessen contains § 73 the school law very general-calm basic conditions and authorizes the Secretary of cultural affairs, the criteria and procedures of the achievement statement and - evaluation by statutory order to regulate, what in §§ 19-29 of the regulationat the organization of the school relationship happened. According to these standards is the achievement statement and - evaluation
- the knowledge and abilities obtained in instruction to the measure to take;
- support themselves by
- observations in instruction and
- verbal, written and if necessary. practical efficiency controls;
- refer to the entire learning development of the pupil;
- both the technical abilities, knowledge and talents, as well as the readiness to perform and the behavior of the pupil represent;
- the process of the learning development consider;
- in the service of the individual achievement education stand; and
- an encouraging perspective for the further development to the pupil open.
This overloaded legislation reflectsthose educationally and socially multilayered functions of school notes again (see below).
For the evaluation of the work and social behavior see head notes.
While the teacher in the evaluation of verbal and practical achievements enjoys to a large extent educational liberty, written efficiency controls are subject to detailed legislation. See in addition written performance record at school.
At the beginning of one school year pupils and parents are to be informed, on the basis of which criteria the performance evaluation takes place. Before the conferences of certification the notes are to be justified by the subject teachers. Beyond that the pupils are to be informed at least once in the half-year about their verbal performance level.
in Bavaria the basic conditions are specified to evaluation for the criteria and procedures of the achievement statement and - in article 52 Bavarian of the law over the educating and schooling (BayEUG). A detailed definition does not take place however as in Hessen in form of a general regulationover school conditions, but over separate regulations for each school type (kind. 52 exp. 1 sentence 2). For example school regulations for High Schools in Bavaria (GSO)
the article 52 BayEUG plan the moreover one the following basic conditions:
- Performance records are in “appropriate distances” to accomplish (exp. 1, sentence1)
- depending upon kind of the subject are written to furnish verbal or practical achievements (exp. 1, sentence 1)
- the way of the achievement collection is the pupil before admits to give (exp. 1, sentence 3)
- the note stage is the pupil including a reason to communicate (exp.serve 1, sentence 3
- ) performance records the performance evaluation and as consulting basis (exp. are fixed to 1, sentence
- 4) the note stages 1 (very well) to 6 (insufficiently). School regulations can specify exceptions (exp. 2)
- “with consideration of the individual written, verbal and practical achievements is given certifications” (exp. 3,Sentence 1)
to function of notes
notes are a whole number of different educational and social functions to fulfill:
- Educational functions:
- Notes help the pupil to notice own weaknesses and strengths and to develop such a realistic self picture;
- Notes accustom the pupil to efficiency comparisons;
- Good one Notes motivate at best to hold or develop success;
- Bad notes are to motivate to adjust deficits;
- Disciplining (this kind of the Benotung is forbidden from ministerial side in all Lands of the Federal Republic):
- Head notes serve explicitly the evaluation of behavior;
- Other notes than instrument of disciplining to begin is educationalproblematic to avoid but not at all since discipline lacking brings usually also line fall-outs with itself;
- Communication with the parents' house:
- Certifications inform the educate-entitled, give cause for consultation with the school and for intensified support of learning.
- Disciplining (this kind of the Benotung is forbidden from ministerial side in all Lands of the Federal Republic):
- Social functions:
- Control function: Notes and certifications makethe adherence to the compulsory schooling as well as the effects of schoolpolitical, organizational and educational measures transparency.
- Authorization function: Notes document and legitimize opposite authorized third (z. B. the school supervision) educational acting of the teachers.
- Allokations or selection function: The assignment of (conclusion) notes permits it, training and jobs or access authorizationsin accordance with achievement too it assigns, on the assumption that notes illustrate Leistungsniveaus. Among the selection function it can be also ranked that bad notes lead to the repetition of class.
note versus appraisal certifications
whether performance review by notes reaching the educating goals of the school promotes, is disputed. That feedback thatSchool in any form to take place must, is accepted however far away. Contentious it is mostly only, whether in place of numeric notes freely formulated appraisals are to step, as in whale village or special schools.
the form of the performance review hangs closely with two other matters of principle of the educational systemtogether: with the possibility of the seat remaining and the organization quite young pupil into differently fastidious school forms. An arranged educational system, like in the German-language countries, is to be justified only if the decision in the further process of the school time, made at the age of ten years, correctableis. In fact however the change from the higher outweighs into the low school form. Because this change is a very hard interference, the Nichtversetzung is upstream as mild measure; this again hardly conceivable, alone already is without note certifications because of the requirement of the judicial examinableness.
as empirical argument against note certifications gladly to the Scandinavian countries one refers, which fare in school efficiency comparisons regularly very well and which do up to the respected class stage without notes and number certifications. Thus no relation between cause and effect is proven, probably however that comprehensive schools withoutNotes to be efficient can.
As empirical counter examples however some asiatic countries are called, which cut off with the comparisons particularly within the mathematical-scientific range above average well. Hardly surveyable it is however that many asiatic cultures a substantially higher value on the education and the training of their childrenput, whereby among other things a clearly larger readiness to perform in the younger pupils is present already. Some regard it however in negative sense as increased achievement pressure.
It is questionable in this connection whether note certifications play at all an important role with the results of these tests. Rather the better seemsPromotion of low-power ones among other things by smaller classes and better trained to be as well as more motivated teachers the crucial point.
some experimental schools provide empirical
situation in Germany in Germany like for example the laboratory school Bielefeld “reports to the learning process” in place of note certifications; accompanying studiesto a positive evaluation came.
The renouncement of notes is a quintessential point of the Pädagogik of some non-governmental schools, so for example the Rudolf Steiner Schools.
Into German primary schools appraisal certifications were inserted into the 1970er years (depending upon country in different measure); into the 1990er yearsin the upper Grundschule classes (depending upon country in different measure) again notes were introduced. There is a politico-educational connection with the question also here whether the recommendation for a large school, expressed by the primary school, should be binding (as in Bavaria) or of thatParents to be at will ignored may do.
organization of appraisal certifications
it gives PC programs, which convert a note certification into a text certification. That shows that transferred to appraisal certifications alone no educational progress guaranteed. The quality differences are educationally relevant, itself between certifications with censorshipnear statements(e.g. “Participation in instruction: satisfying " or “NN. took part not always regularly in instruction ") and more individual learning reports show. Such a more individual report would have to then point situative boundary conditions out, under which the participation of the pupil increased or decreased in instruction.
arguments for and approximatelyNotes
implications of the requirement for objectivity
notes suggest in by far stronger measure than individually formulated appraisals a quantitative comparability of the judged achievements (“why NN is better around a stage than I? ”) can lead and thereby to a reinforcement of achievement motivation or achievement pressure.
For notesit speaks that exactly this, which is quantitative evaluation of achievement, in our society a normal procedure, for which the school is to prepare and whose she may also avail herself for motivation.
Against notes it speaks that durably bad notes work rather achievement-restraining.
Critics in line with standard usage want notesin principle do not abolish, but limit to higher class stages; they aim mostly off to protect younger pupils against achievement pressure it accept thereby the missing feedback and achievement motivation.
reproductibility and standards of valuation
against school notes are stated that notes in practice theirdo not do justice to inherent requirement for objectivity. Frequently from the bad reproductibility by notes it was concluded that the note assignment was to a large extent from coincidence or arbitrariness steered and therefore unfair. For example the same German essay and Mathearbeit of different teachers became in a Germany-far study of 1999with notes between very good and unsatisfactorily judges. Participated over 1000 teachers of resuming schools. The organizer wrote each participant, in which it sozialien environment the accepted pupil would be thus for example whether the father is physician or immigrant. This study showed thus thatNotes subjectively, socially dependently and not comparable are.
From this problem notes do not however only suffer, but also appraisals, whose objective requirement in a comparable example became to undermine, because the two appraisals came despite in parts similar partial results to a perfectly different result. Questionable is also,whether straight in a subject “German” a perfectly objective evaluation is at all possible and thus this speciality takes a privileged position in the comparison to the mathematical-scientific fan canon, whereby also the subject mathematics, which always surrounds the veil of an objectivity, is not uniformly assessable and thoseNote giving is very strongly dependent on the teacher. Some mathematics teachers give for example points on a task, if the calculation method is correct, the result however wrongly, other again respected only on a correct result and give even points if the calculation wrongly and the correct solutiononly by a coincidence came. Also weights many teachers the written achievements and the so-called other achievements (among other things verbal cooperation) differently.
Such a comparison surveys naturally that evaluation at school always in connection with that instruction preceding, the respective expectation horizon of the teacherand stands for the Leistungsniveau of the class stage.
A further, more problematic cause for different standards of valuation is that the evaluation of pupil achievements implicitly always takes place as efficiency comparison within a grade: most teachers ajustieren their achievement expectations in such a way that in almost each class the same note supply is exhausted; oftenenough the “note mirror” is trimmed toward Gauss normal distribution curve, which divides pupils in few property, many average ones and few bad ones, without the strong acceptance, which are the basis this mathematical description, would be conscious. Such an adjustment can educationally as the compromise optimum under given conditionsbetween the motivating and the selecting effect of notes to be justified, it leads however to the fact that notes are only reduced expressive outside of the class comparison.
Whether notes should be outside of the class comparison, possibly country-wide, comparable, requires thus a consideration between educational and social function; Comparability becomes in particulardemanded if conclusion notes are used for the Allokation by life chances (see in addition also central Abitur).
For the relative reliability of school notes empirical investigations are stated, which show that even without centralized examinations graduation notes (middle ripe ones and Abitur) with the training or study success stronglyare correlated.
head notes contain a behavior evaluation. The kind of the head notes and whether and in which school years they are used it changed in the course of the time.
Among the head notes ranked for example:
- Total behavior
- school right
- school note
- equivalent statement of pupil achievements
- fishing calibration effect
- Krope, Peter: In eight steps to the modern report certification. Waxmann: Münster, New York, Munich, Berlin 2000 (ISBN 3-89325-903-1).
- Saldern, Matthias of: School achievement in discussion. Cutter, high close honours. 1999.
- Quality ininstruction practice - school development portal middle Franconia 2004, lecture by Helmut Heid