Leo III. (Byzanz)
Leo III. (Leon; Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος; * around 680; † 18. June 741), mentioned „ the Isaurier “, was Byzantine emperor from 717 to 741. Leo justified those Syrian dynasty, which often however falsely Isauri dynasty is called.
Table of contents
Leo was born around 680 in the Syrian province comma genes. It buildup with military training, served among emperors Justinian II.and II. became under Anastasios. Commander of the eastern army in the topic Anatolikon. it revolted to 717 against transition emperors Theodosios III. and with the march over Konstantinopel instead of its to the emperor one selected. Theodosios resigned and Leon succeeded unblutig to power.
The first year thatRule Leos III. was by the second attack on Konstantinopel of the Arabs, who brought 80,000 men into the Byzantine realm weakened by confusions to the Bosphorus. By embittered resistance and shining tactics, with which the new ruler fatigued the intruders, the Arabs pulled themselvesafter twelve months back. An important advantage of the Byzantiner was the use of the Greek fire. After the invaders were struck back, Leo structured the management level through, which down-lay after the years of the anarchy completely. It secured the borders, by it slawische settlers into population-poor areasquartered and the efficiency of the army restored. When the Muslims 726 and 739 tried again to devastate the country they were crucially struck. Social reforms like the abolition that in advance to paying taxes were brought by it on the way. The body characteristic became at the same timebroken open and converted into a class of the free leaning men. The antiquated Roman family and maritime law were reformed. Despite the klerikalen and noble resistance new legal texts 740 were created.
The largest legislative reform in the reign Leos III. treated the religious picture storm (so-called. Ikonoklasmus - „picture destruction “).After an apparently successful attempt to baptize all Jews and Montanisten of the realm 722 it issued several edicts against the admiration of fig. (726-729). 726 it let a Christ icon before the palace destroy. The assistant of the emperor kill thereupon immediately of the people. (Thatfirst picture storm of history). This prohibition of a custom spread so far was carried by a klerikalen minority, the topic aristocracy and the municipalities of the Paulikianer. The reasons for it are probably to be looked for in Leons of Syrian origin. In the east of the realm the picture admiration was far less common; oneit generally regarded Götzendienst as a kind. Possible are also influences from the Islamic range, where the picture admiration was generally rejected.
The majority of the theologians and the monk however opposed against it so that the western parts of the realm refused itself carrying out for the edict consequence. Onemainly for religious reasons broken off revolt in Greece was struck down by the imperial fleet (727). Later Leo III. set two years. and the local opposition of the capital suppressed the Patriarchen from Konstantinopel. Into Italy it came to a heavy argument between LeoIII. on and the Popes a Gregor II. and Gregor III. Gregor II. a council in Rome called in, in order to banish the Bilderstürmer („Ikonoklasten “) and exkommunizieren (730, 732); Leo III. rächte itself, by it southern Italy and Greece from thatpapal Diözese of those of the Patriarchen of Konstantinopel slammed shut. The fight was accompanied by an armed rebellion in the Exarchat of Ravenna (727), whereby Leo III. itself finally endeavored to master these problems with a large fleet. Its forces were weakened by a storm and its projectdefeated. The province Ravenna separated thereby from the realm.
in the modern research doubts arise, whether the picture storm really had these catastrophic consequences relating to domestic affairs, like it of (picture-friendly) the historiography of those days are however appreciably suggested (Lit.: see. Lily, Byzanz, S. 122f.). It succeeded to Leon III. altogether anyhow to stabilize the realm with regard to foreign policy and justify a dynasty, which should prevail over 80 years.
- Ralph Johannes lily: Byzanz - second Rome, Berlin 2003, S. 116ff.
- Paul Speck: Emperor Leon III., the historical works of the Nikephoros and the Theophanes and the dear Pontificalis. A pour-critical investigation (Poikila byzantina, 19 and 20), 2 Bde., Bonn 2002 and 2003.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Leo III. - Pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- entry (inclusiveLiterature data) in the biographic-bibliographic church encyclopedia (BBKL)
- specializedscientific Kurzbiografie (English) from De Imperatoribus Rome anise (inclusive Literature data)
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Leo of the Isaurier|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Byzantine emperors|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 680|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DYING DATE||18. June 741|