Levée EN mass
After the battle with Valmy to 20. September 1792 conquered the French revolution army under general Dumouriez Belgium. Besides Savoyen was annektiert by the French republic. To the turn it came 1793, as Great Britain in the February of the coalition joined and since March 1793 led, Prussian - Austrian Gegenoffensive the revolution army to behind the borders of France back-pushed. Only the numerous through Vauban established border fortresses slowed down the advance of the coalition troops. Apart from the outside threat internal unrests stepped the French republic, as for instance the royalistische rebellion of the Vendée.
Before this background Lazare Carnot brought in the request in the Wohlfahrtsausschuss for the introduction of the Levée EN mass. InAugust 1793 was adopted the arrangement of the Levée by national convention and Wohlfahrtsausschuss. The Levée EN mass obligated all unmarried men at the age from 18 to 25 years to the war service. Thus the French army could within short time during a total population of 25 million on oneStrength by 1 million soldier to be increased, which contributed considerably to the victory of France in the first coalition war. The people liable for military service adjusted their lack of combat experience by its patriotically caused motivation. War losses and defecting let the French army together-shrink until 1796 on a strength of 400.000 men,which approximately the size of the standing army under Ludwig XIV. corresponds.
The French military service was modified 1798 by the Jourdan law. All young men were obligated to let be registered. The French government specified annually the ratio for the summoning of recruits. Thus becamethe condition for the enormous armies of the napoleonischen wars production, which made Napoleon the conquest possible of large parts of west and Central Europe. However served from 1806 to 1814 2 million Frenchmen under Napoleon, of whom more than 400,000 was killed. Thus was the death rate among French soldiersin the napoleonischen wars more highly than in the First World War.
The Levée EN mass served other European states than model for the introduction of the military service. Dies geschah unter anderem in Preußen mit der Heeresreform von 1814.
See also: French revolution
Hague Land Warfare Convention
According to kind. 2 that Hague Land Warfare Convention is beside the regular troops of a war party also civilians Kombattanten, if the population of an not occupied area seizes with approaching the enemy from own drives to the weapons, in order to fight the penetrating troops, without time had toohave to organize itself like regular troops. This mass collection (in the French contract text: “Levée EN mass”) is regarded as war-prominently, if she leads the weapons openly and the laws and considers customs of the war.
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