Lebanon

الجمهوريةاللبنانية
aluminium-Jumhuriyah aluminium-Lubnaniyah
Lebanese Republic of
Flagge Libanons
Wappen Libanons
(detail) (detail)
office language Arab
capital Beirut
system of government parliamentary democracy
president Émile Lahoud

parliament president: Nabih Berri

head of the government Fouad Siniora
surface 10,452 km ²
number of inhabitants 3.820.000 (2005, estimated)
population density of 365 inhabitants perkm ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 4,928 US-$ (2004)
independence to 22. November 1943
currency Lebanese Pound (LBP)
time belt UTC +2h
national anthem Kulluna lil Watan lil Ula lil Alam
Kfz characteristic RL
Internet TLD .lb
preselection + 961
Lagekarte des Libanon
Karte des Libanon

the Lebanese republic (الجمهوريةاللبنانية) is a state in Anterior Asia andgenerally linguistic usage is called Lebanon. Lebanon borders on Syria, Israel and the Mediterranean and to the Maschrek - states is counted.

Table of contents

geography

there Lebanon in the last 50Years the majority of the population in cities exhibits, lives a very strong migration from the land, particularly in the capital Beirut. There more than half of the Lebaneses and still another larger part live work here.

Largest cities with numbers of inhabitants (estimated; since1932 did not give it an official census):

The country is divided into four landscape zones, which run parallel to the coast:

  1. 200 km be enough, narrow steep coastal strips, which itself only inThe north and the south expand.
  2. The strongly fissured Lebanon mountains, which are high up to 3.000 m.
  3. The fruitful Bekaa level, which lies in the rain shade of the Lebanon mountains, however due to artificial irrigation is very fruitful (cultivation of wine, hashish, whichhowever for years radical is pursued by the government).
  4. Dry anti-Lebanon - mountain course and the Hermon, which the border to Syria form.

climate

according to the differences in the landscape Lebanon, is also the climate muchdifferently. At the coast mediterranes climate prevails with dry, warm summers and damp, heavy-rainfall winters. In the mountains expressed mountain climate prevails, whereby the main precipitation falls also here in the winter and then mainly in the form of snow. At the borderto Syria prevails a dry steppe climate, which forms the transition for the desert climate of southern Syria and Jordan. In Beirut the temperatures lie on day with on the average 18° C in January and with 30° C in July and August. InDecember and January give on the average it to 11 rain days in Beirut, while August remains generally completely drying.

population

Lebanon has approx. 3,8 million inhabitant (conditions 2005, estimated). Of it about 95% are Arab and 4% Armenian descent, 1% of other descent. A part of the population, above all the Christians, calls itself also as aramäisch or refers to a phönizische descent, without there are for it sufficient ethnologische findings. In the country distributed Kurdish refugees live.In addition there are about 360,000 Palestinian refugees.

In the first years of the civil war more than humans the country left likewise half millions (estimation, official numbers are not available).

  • Birth rate 2005 (estimated): 1.8%
  • mortality rate 2005 (estimated): 0.6%
  • Child number of deaths 2005 (estimated): 0.2%
  • Alphabetisierungsgrad adult (> 15 years) 2003 (estimated): 87.4%

languages

Beirut Corniche
Beirut Place the d'Etoile

large majority of the Lebaneses speak Arab (Lebanese-Syrian and Palestinian dialects), minorities speak Armenian, Kurdish and Aramäisch, which is considered as the church language of the maronitischen church and Syrian churches. Beside Arab are v.a. French, in addition, English as traffic languages far spreads.

religion

This article or section requires a revision. Details are upthe discussion side indicated. Please to improve it and removes afterwards this marking helps.
  • Vouchers for the here following number data are missing, to S. Discussion side

it gives 17 recognized religious communities in Lebanon, under it:

see also: Konfessionelle parity

to history

Baalbek
Baalbek

major item see: History Lebanon

Lebanon became to 26. November 1941 he was independently, before French mandated territory. To 22. November 1943the re-instatement took place by Lebanese office-holders, this is at the same time also the official independence day. Because of economic stability and political neutrality (1949-1969) that became strongly western and/or. French coined/shaped Lebanon in the 1950er and 1960er years also as “Switzerland of theOrients “designates.

By center of the 1970er years until 1990 the country of a civil war was afflicted (see in addition: Lebanese civil war). ( The agreement of Taif created only 1989 the basis for the completion of the civil war.)

1976 marched Syrian soldiersin Lebanon.

1982 occupied Israel the south of the country with its troops. The Lebanon campaign should terminate the operational readiness level and the activity of the PLO in Lebanon. 1985 furnished a protected zone in the apron of the Israeli border to Israel. The Israeli armypulled itself only to 24. May 2000 completely from Lebanon back.

After an autobomb attack to 14. February 2005 on the former Lebanese head of the government of many years Rafiq Hariri attained full growth in the recent past the pressure on Syria, its troopsto withdraw Lebanon. In particular the USA and the Lebanese opposition make Syria indirectly responsible for the assassination attempt. Also France demands from Syria to return to Lebanon the full sovereignty. Also parts of the Lebanese population demonstrated against the Syrian troops in Lebanon.The per-Syrian government under Prime Minister Karami stepped thereupon to 28. February 2005 back.

At the end of April to 2005 left the last Syrian soldiers Lebanon.

politics

alpine glowing in the Lebanon mountains
Blick vom Libanongebirge zum Mittelmeer
view from the Lebanon mountains to the Mediterranean

Lebanon are since 1926 a republic. The condition of 1926 was changed last 1999. Parliament (national assembly) with 128 members (ever to the half of Christians and Muslims), choice every 4 years.

The three highest public offices are reserved members of certain religious groups:

  • The head of state must more maronitischerChristian its,
  • the head of the government must be Sunni Muslim,
  • the parliament president must Shiite Muslim be,
  • the commander in chief of the army must Christian be.

The choice of the head of state takes place every 6 years via the parliament (no direct re-election). The right to vote exists starting from 21Years.

Administration: 5 provinces

head of state: Émile Lahoud, since 1998

head of the government: Fouad El Sanioura, since 2005

parliament president: Nabih Berri since 1999

parties: FPM, Free Patriotic Movement: A movement, which protests since 1990 against the Syrian occupation of the countryhad and still up to the departure of the Syrian army forbidden was, approx. The movement had to accept 16000 arrests by Syrian occupation and the police.

Amal movement: per-Syrian movement, has also against the occupation of the country by Israelfought.


politics and elections taken up since

Tatort von Rafiq Al-Harriri, aufgenommen 8 Monate nach dem Anschlag.
2000 scene of Rafiq aluminium-Harriri, 8 months after the notice.

Choice to 27. August / 3. September 2000:

elections from the spring 2005:

128 seats in parlament distribute themselves up:

This allocation of the parliamentarians to individual groups does not correspond to their party membership. Up-to-datemore than one dozen of parties are represented in the Lebanese parliament. The accurate election result is in the CIA Factbook (S. Web on the left of down).


To 14. February 2005 is killed the former Prime Minister Rafiq aluminium-Hariri by a notice, with that several humans aroundLives come. The Syria-friendly president Lahoud could let at the end of extend 2004 its mandate run off of the parliament by constitutional amendment around three years. This led rapidly to the resignation aluminium-Hariris, after itself these in addition also with its demand for a departure of the SyrianTroops not to intersperse knew.

Death aluminium-Hariris became the starting point of a dangerous escalation relating to domestic affairs. A broad oppositional movement demands the vehement retreat of the Syrian troops. In addition, this movement is based particularly upon the Christians , glands and Sunniten, becomeof considerable parts of the Shiite population carried. Also the USA and France make February since at the end of ever more pressure on Syria. One threatens with military actions, on the contrary a such threat stands since the Iraq war in the area. To 28.February withdraws the Syria-friendly Lebanese government.Syria informed itself to 7. To withdraw March with Lebanon its troops as the first step up to the end of the monthly into the eastern Bekaa valley. At the end of April were then already all 14,000 Syrian soldiers intheir homeland returned.

Since the murder aluminium-Hariris gives it almost daily to demonstrations. Nearly everything is organized by oppositional groups. With these demonstrations ten thousands came. To 8. March called the Syria-friendly Hisbollah to a demonstration, over against the UN-resolution 1559(the one disarmament of this group demands) to protest. Many participants in the demo thanked in addition, the Syrians and turned against enemies from the outside (the USA, Israel).

At this 8. March came approx. 500,000 humans - of it a considerable numberof Syrians and Palestinian refugees. This gave to the per-Syrian parliamentary group enough Kraft, around few days before the withdrawn Prime Minister Karame to 10. To assign March recently the formation of a government. To 14. March met with a further demo of the opposition800,000 humans in the center of Beirut.

After Karame failed in the long run nevertheless, Najib Mikati becomes to 15. April Prime Minister of an interim government. In June parliamentary elections took place . They were won by Saad aluminium-Hariri “future movement” (detailed result S. above). Saad aluminium-Hariri is the sonthe murdered Rafiq aluminium-Hariri.

July agreed one at the end of on a government. You belong for the first time to Minister of the Hisbollah. Michel Aouns movement FPM (Free Patriotic Movement), which since 1990 against Syrian occupation peacefully fought and demonstrated, placeshowever no Ministers. This is surprising a little, since the future movement wanted to educate a government of the national unit. More detailed information: s. Web on the left of

administrative arrangement

Lebanon is divided into six provinces, which consist of altogether 25 districts:

  1. Beirut
  2. Lebanon mountain (Jbeil, Kesrouan, El Metn, Baabda, Aley, Chouf)
  3. north Lebanon (districts: Akkar, Tripoli, Zgharta, Minnieh Dinnieh, Koura, Bscharre, Batroun)
  4. Bekaa (Hermel, Baalbek, pays, west Bekaa, Rashaya)
  5. Nabatiye (Nabatiye, Hasbaya, Marjayoun, Bent Jbeil)
  6. south Lebanon (Jezzine, Saida (Sidon), Sour (Tyros))

See also: List thatCities in Lebanon


economics

currency

1 Lebanese Pound, contraction or LBP (ISO code) = 100 Piaster; 1 US-$ = 1,503 L£ (firm rate of exchange); 1 € = 1,809 L£
everywhere US Dollar (USD becomes), which is in the country secondary currency, accepted. It occurs that one pays in dollar and in Pound out-gotten and in reverse.

import

18.2% nourishing goods, 21.8% machines and electrical equipment, 8.9% means of transport, 12.0% chem. Products,17.6% mineral raw materials, 6.1% metals and metal products, 5.7% textiles, 6.8% noble and half jewels

export

18.8% nourishing goods, 17.8% decoration goods, 14.9% chem. Products, 10.5% machines and electrical appliances, 8.8% metals andMetal products, 7.4% paper and - products.

The strict banking secrecy Lebanon brings in for it also the surname “Switzerland of the east”.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

to culture

see: Lebanese kitchen

of holidays

  • national holiday: 22. , Tag of the independence from France ( 1943) due to

the konfessionellen variety in Lebanon, both Muslim and Christian holidays apply for Novemberfor the whole population. So Lebanese pupils have both at the victim celebration, as well as at Easter train-free.

other

conditions of entry

for the entry into Lebanon one needs a visa, before the journey oron the day of the entry at the Beiruter airport to be requested must. The passport must be valid with the departure still at least 6 months.

Travelers, who were before in Israel, become, if this is shown in the travel document (entry stamp o.A.), regularly at the border rejected, even if a visa were already given. GermanLebanese Doppelstaater and Doppelstaater of other Arab origin risk additionally an arrest, since for this circle of acquaintances an Israel stay represents a criminal offence existence. A direct border crossing from Israel to Lebanonor did not turn around possible, since the border between Israel and Lebanon is closed. (Foreign Office, 5. October 2004, more)

with entry from Syria or by airplane is given tourist visa of one month and a free at the border. (Conditions, February 2006)

literature

H. Ostry: The art of the distribution of power - Lebanon after the elections. in: KAS foreign information, Amman (2005), S. 93

Web on the left of



coordinates: 33° 50 ' N, 35° 46 ' O

 

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