Liechtenstein

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Liechtenstein (term clarifying).
Principality of Liechtenstein
Flagge Liechtensteins: Zwei horizontal verlaufende Blockstreifen, von oben: blau, rot. In der oberen, linken Ecke ist eine Krone abgebildet.
Wappen Liechtensteins
(detail) (detail)
office language German
capital Vaduz
system of government constitutional hereditary monarchy
prince and
head of state
prince Hans Adam II. of and to Liechtenstein
office-exercising
Deputy
hereditary prince Alois of and to Liechtenstein
head of the government Otmar Hasler (FBP)
surface 160.008 km ²
number of inhabitants 34 ' 600 (2005)
population density of 213 inhabitants per km ²
currency Swiss Franconia
time belt UTC +1
national anthem above on the young Rhine
national holiday 15. August
license number flat steel bar
Internet TLD .li
preselection +423
Lage von Liechtenstein in Europa
Karte Liechtensteins

the Principality of Liechtenstein is a sovereign state in the Central European alpine region. The country is between Austria and Switzerland because of the east bank of the Rhine.

Table of contents

geography

Liechtenstein is surrounded a Binnenstaat in Central Europe, by Swiss cantons pc. Gallen and Grey federations in the west as well as the Austrian Land of the Federal Republic Vorarlberg in the east. Together with Usbekistan it is one of the 2 Binnenstaaten of the earth, which are surrounded by Binnenstaaten even only. The entire western state border to Switzerland corresponds to the Rhine process. The eastern state borderis coined/shaped by the alpine high mountains, the Rätikon. The country borders on 41,1 km on Switzerland. 27.1 km of the border length are allotted to the canton pc. Gallen and 14.0 km on the canton grey federations. The border length with the republic Austria amounts to 34.9 km and is allotted completely to the Land of the Federal Republic Vorarlberg. The highest point of Liechtenstein is grey pointed with a height of 2599 M. The deepest point is the Ruggeller guessed/advised with a height of 430 M. The country24.56 km measure and to its broadest 12.36 km at its longest place.

climate

the climate of the country can be called despite the mountain situation relatively mild. It becomes strong by the effect of the foehn (more warmly, more drylyDrop wind) coined/shaped, whereby the vegetation time in spring and in the autumn is extended. The measurements of the annual amounts of precipitation result in on average approximately 900 to 1,200 millimeters on a square meter. In the direct alpine area against it the precipitation often lies with up to 1.900Millimeter. In the winter the thermometer sinks rarely under minus 15 degrees, while in the summer the middle temperatures vary between 20 and 28 degrees.

resident population

of about two thirds of the inhabitants are native Liechtensteiner (65.8%); the foreign resident population comeson the other hand to approximately a fifth (20.1%) mainly followed from the remaining German linguistic area (of it 10.8% from Switzerland, 5.9% from Austria and 3.4% from the Federal Republic of Germany), of in each case 3.3% from Italy andInhabitants earlier Yugoslavia, 2.6%are Turks and 4.8% come from other states.

language of the Liechtensteiner

the Liechtensteiner population speaks a alemannischen dialect of the high German, as it transnational also in the neighbouring pc. Galler Rhine Valley (Switzerland) and in the neighbouring Vorarlberger Rhine Valley (Austria)one speaks.

However those lifts itself höchstalemannisch - walserdeutsche dialect of Triesenberg, their carrier around the year 1300 n.Chr. in the course of the Walserwanderung from Swiss canton whale-read into the country came, until today clearly off from the hochalemannischenDialects of the old residents population, who in the course of the Middle Ages here - like generally speaking under RA tables area - which old rätoromanische national language had given up in favor of Alemanni. The alemannischen local dialects differ from municipality to municipality partly very strongly from each other. Writingand medium language is high German (Standardsprache).

Liechtenstein is exclusive the only state with German as (more recognition) office and national language. In the remaining (larger) states of the German linguistic area also not-German languages are recognized as minority languages.

religion and church

Liechtensteina like a Christian coined/shaped country is not, in an inquiry in June 2003 indicated to 75.7% in and foreign inhabitant its religion as Roman catholic , 7.0% was Evangelist, 4.2% belonged to an Islamic religious community and 10,9% gave data.

That Ore diocese Vaduz became to 2. December 1997 by Pope Johannes Paul II.established. Since this happened without preceding consultation or information of the Liechtensteiner government, this led to critical expressions in the country. As consequence its created engaged catholics to at the beginning of of 1998the association for an open church.

See also: Catholic church in Liechtenstein

history

major item: History of Liechtenstein

the principality is come out from the acquisition of the rule clip mountain (1699) and the county Vaduz (1712) throughthe princes of Liechtenstein. The family Liechtenstein leaves itself in 12. Prove century, resided they in Lower Austria; their name is derived from the castle Liechtenstein with Mödling before Vienna. Only 1938 became lock Vaduz constant residence.Karl of Liechtenstein was raised 1608 into the erbländischen prince conditions and thus the first prince of Liechtenstein. It acquired and received extensive areas in Böhmen and Mähren. Emperor Karl VI. the holy Roman realm of German nation raised the counties to23. January 1719 to the realm-direct principality in the possession and with names of the princes of Liechtenstein.

Castle good mountain in Liechtenstein

during the coalition war 1799 was only occupied Liechtenstein by the Frenchmen, then by the Austrians. After the end of the medieval GermanRich 1806 were taken up the Principality of Liechtenstein as sovereign state to the Rhine federation and were starting from 1815 member in the German federation. After its dissolution 1866 it remained an independent, neutral state. prince Johann II. signed 1862.as consequence thatRevolution confusions a constitutional monarchische condition. The first federal state parliament was selected. 1868 were dissolved the military. Up to the 1. World war was Liechtenstein connected by a purpose alliance strongly with the Kaisertum Austria Hungary. After its dissolution and allocation into several member states Liechtenstein allied itselfwith Switzerland, Franconia took over Swiss as currency and was received 1923 a customs union . The diplomatic and consular agency takes place since the year 1924 via the oath comrades. With the condition from the year 1921 the principality becameLiechtenstein a constitutional monarchy with democratic-parliamentary system of government. The princes lived predominantly in Vienna. Only prince Franz Josef II. was starting from 1938 with his family mainly in Vaduz. Of the Second World War the principality remained - like Switzerland -due to his political neutrality spares. Liechtenstein experienced thereafter - favours by the customs treaty with Switzerland, low taxes and the policy of neutrality - an economic upswing. The woman Mrs. was introduced only 1984. 1990 stepped the small state as full member of the UN .

To 28. October 1992 hardly it to „the state crisis so mentioned “. The prince Hans Adam II. the tuning wanted to accomplish EWR before Switzerland over the European marketing area, in order to secure a positive exit. Government and federal state parliament were against it due to thatconfine connections with Switzerland. Hans Adam II. the government threatened to dissolve to dismiss and govern with emergency right the federal state parliament. Under the pressure the head of state gave way to the road and the date behind those Switzerland was put. The state crisisformed the background for over one decade the led condition discussion.

Since that 1. May 1995 is Liechtenstein also member of the European marketing area (EWR). This membership is seen as very importantly for the development of the of Liechtenstein Finanzplatzes.

2003 stepped after violentNew condition confirmed controversies one of the people into force, with which in opinion of the political opponents of this constitutional amendment the balance of power was shifted still more clearly to favour of the monarchy. After a long, bitterly led and dividing tuning campaign the majority was correct of thePeople the changes too, with which important institutional rights of the courts, the parliament as well as the government were given up.

To 15. August 2004 has prince Hans Adam II. his son and hereditary prince Alois appointed from Liechtenstein to its deputy and itwith the practice the prince being entitled sovereignty rights entrusts. The prince title will however only turn into after the death of Hans Adam on its son.

See also: List of the princes of Liechtenstein

politics

see also: Of Liechtenstein federal state parliament

Liechtenstein is oneconstitutional hereditary monarchy on democratic-parliamentary basis. The current regent of Liechtenstein is since 1989 prince Hans Adam II. of and to Liechtenstein. Affairs of state are incumbent on the hereditary prince Alois of and to Liechtenstein since August 2004.

Lock of Vaduz

the legislationlies with the national prince and the of Liechtenstein federal state parliament, consisting of 25 delegates, who are selected after the elections on the basis of proportional representation right for four years by the people. In the legislation the following parties are represented: Patriotic union (VU), a progressive citizen party in Liechtenstein (FBP) andthe free list (flat steel bar). Each law must be sanctioned by the national prince. If the sanction does not take place within 6 months, it is considered as refused (article 65 of the of Liechtenstein condition).

The executive form the head of the government - momentary Otmar Hasler (department presidency,Finances, building industry) - and four government advice. On suggestion of the federal state parliament they are appointed by the national prince. Since the disputed constitutional amendment of 16. March 2003 can dismiss the national prince the government or individual government advice at any time and without indication of reasons (article 80the of Liechtenstein condition) - thus it (after the Pope) is one (relating to domestic affairs) of the most powerful monarchs of Europe. But the people has the possibility of abolishing by means of a condition initiative the monarchy (article 13 of the of Liechtenstein condition), whereby the abolishment of the monarchy of the agreementthe monarch requires. The individual municipalities of Liechtenstein know besides with majority within the municipality the state abandoned (article 4 of the of Liechtenstein condition). The new condition of 2003 strengthened already before the very strong position of the prince substantial, byabove all its rights were developed. At least in fact it dominates now all three state organs. It can dissolve the parliament, dismiss the government without reasons and has a right of veto with each judge order, i.e. against its will nobody can become judges.Furthermore the responsible high court of state in questions of the interpretation of the condition was switched off with differences between government, parliament and prince. The alleged stabilizations of the people rights in form of the monarchy abolishment and the motion of no confidence against the individual prince are in practicewithout meaning. The prince has the crucial influence on the political everyday life business.

In crisis periods the prince can do to an emergency right destined (article 10 of the of Liechtenstein condition), this was itself however already due to the previous condition possible.

Government advice are at presentHead of the government deputy Dr.Klaus Tschüt (department economics, law, sport), Rita Kieber Beck (departments exterior, culture, family and equal chances), Hugo Quaderer (departments training system, social as well as environmental, area, land and wood culture) and Dr. Martin Meyer (department inside, health, traffic and communication).

The Judikative formsa highest Court of Justice occupied with five judges; the judges are ordered of a committee with the prince as presidency (article 95 FF.).

The interests with regard to foreign policy of Liechtenstein are noticed mostly by Switzerland; of Liechtenstein messages exist in Berne, Berlin, Brussels, Strasbourg,Washington, New York (UN) and Vienna.

The principality does not have an own army since the abolishment of the military 1868 more, however the compulsory military service is embodied in the condition.

educational system

in its fundamentals resembles the of Liechtenstein educational system thatSwitzerland.

See: Educational system of Liechtenstein

administrative arrangement

11 municipalities

Liechtenstein is divided into eleven municipalities, which are distributed on the two constituencies Unterland and upper country.

See: Administrative arrangement of Liechtenstein

infrastructure

the well developed road system covers 140Kilometer. It does not exist a motorway. The traffic rules like also the sign-posting correspond - apart from some exceptions - Swiss to standard. The exceptions concern among other things the alcohol limit value to tax of 0,8 parts per thousand (in Switzerland of 0.5 parts per thousand) like alsothe explicit indication of the maximum speed of except place (board “80 km/h” instead of as in Switzerland “end 50 km/h generally”).

The railway, which crosses Liechtenstein on 9,5 km von Buchs after Feldkirch, is cared for by the Austrian federal courses. Liechtenstein bus(LBA), a dependent public institute and a daughter Swiss of the post office car, connect the Liechtensteiner municipalities among themselves. The bus company starts also Swiss municipalities coffin to, book, Sevelen as well as the Austrian Feldkirch .

The principality is postal alsoSwitzerland interlaced, however and has for some years its own telephone preselection (+423 ) publishes own stamps. (see also post office history and stamps of Liechtenstein)

in Liechtenstein it gives over 19.000 telephone connections, approx. 12,000 mobile telephones and approx. 20,000 Internet users.

ThoseAuto+controldescribe are held from the type faces and the arrangement in Swiss Design. Like Swiss military characteristics lead the Liechtensteiner describe white indications on black reason. Instead of M and Swiss cross they lead flat steel bar and Landeswappen followed from up to5 numbers.

At the 1. January 2001 was introduced the duty obligation for LKWs (achievement-dependent heavy traffic delivery LSVA) on all roads of the country. It is to thus serve for to the financing of expenditures for traffic and decrease of the traffic and environmental protection.

Economics

the largest part of the of Liechtenstein gross domestic product is gained in the industry, which concentrates in particular on the production of high-quality special products. Principal trade partners are followed the USA of the European Union and Switzerland. The moreover is the financial sector of importance. Withindustrial development was established in Liechtenstein also a strong bank nature, which stands however with the judicial authorities of the high expensive countries of the European union in the call to serve primarily the money laundering.

The largest banks are the of Liechtenstein Landesbank, those Administrative and private bank and the LGT bank. Since 1992 has also further institutes permissions receives, among them also addresses of foreign banks beside the three large banks. Today the five largest banks of Liechtenstein employ approximately 1,400 employees and point together oneBalance sheet total of over 30 billion Franconia up. As in Switzerland, the banking secrecy applies also in Liechtenstein.

In the industrial sector the most well-known enterprises are the Hilti AG (Bohrtechnik, building equipment), Ivoclar Vivadent AG (Zahntechnik), ThyssenKrupp Presta AG (automobile supplier), Hoval AG (heating and ventilation devices), the Ospelt group (food) and the Hilcona AG (food) and Neutrik AG (electro-technology) in Schaan as well as the Unaxis in Balzers (electronics range).

Swiss Franconia is the official of Liechtenstein currency. Occasionally Liechtenstein coins/shapes also own coins(excluding for special purposes).

The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT amounted to 2001 4.2 billion Franconia. Those are per head 120,000 Franconias (80,000 euro).

culture

for a so small country has the principality an amazing number at artistic and cultural activitiesand combinations, besides over a flowering youth culture (for example a row high-quality and also supraregional quite well-known skirt - and Popbands). Numerous associations form themselves as carriers of local culture events. In Liechtenstein there is a reconditioned, extended beside different cultural mechanismsand again conceived federal state museum (November 2003 opens), art museum, ski museum, post office museum, several modern local museums and in the place Schaan the theatre at the church square. Since October 2003 there is the small theatre in Vaduz Schlösslekeller. In the range screen end art are among other things toomention the sculptor Georg Malin, the painter Bruno buyer, the painter Martin pious ELT from Schaan as well as the Vaduzer artist Regina Marxer.

sport

the Liechtensteiner of soccer associations participate in the play enterprise Swiss of the football federation . The Cuphowever the Liechtensteiner under own direction leads, so that each year a of Liechtenstein crew can participate in the UEFA Cup. This honour keeps mostly the Cup Seriensieger fiber plastic Vaduz, to that belonged in second highest Swiss league to the best teams and alsoalready Barrage - plays denied.

Largest success in the of Liechtenstein association football was 1996, as the amateurs of the fiber plastic Vaduz, at that time still in the 1. League of the SFV (third-highest league), the lettischen opponent fiber plastic Universitate Riga (1: 1, 4:2) in the cup thatCup winners defeated. They failed however afterwards against the lucrative opponent Paris pc. Germain (0: 4, 0:3).

The national soccer team of Liechtenstein participates in WM - and EM - qualifications. Largest success was 4:0 against Luxembourg at the WM-qualification 2006 to 13. October 2004; only four days before Liechtenstein a sensational 2:2 against the present vice-European champion Portugal had reached. Most well-known player of the national team is Mario Frick (Ternana Calcio), which debütierte as first Liechtensteiner in the Italian series A(26. August 2001), in which it sieve gates for Hellas Verona realized. Surprisingly he was not even selected however with the choice to the century soccer player in Liechtenstein into the first three places.

Fiber plastics Vaduz and national team deny their Heimspielein the Rhine park stadium in Vaduz, to that 1998 opened national stadium of the principality.

See also: Football in Liechtenstein

in the winter is operated in the mountain region around Malbun winter sports. In the ski alpine one has to show Liechtenstein some successes. The high point was - apart fromvarious Weltcup victories -, when the Liechtensteinerin Hanni Wenzel won two gold medals with the olympic plays in the winter 1980. At present Marco Büchel is the most well-known and most successful ski driver of the country.

The most successful long runner of Liechtenstein is Markus Hasler.

See also: List of the olympic medal winners from Liechtenstein

holidays

the national holiday is the 15. August.

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Liechtenstein - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikinews: Portal: Liechtenstein - current message


coordinates: 47° 8 ′ 42 " N, 9° 33 ′ 14 " O

 

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