as Lingua Franca (ital. for “Frankish language”) one designates a certain Pidgin in the linguistics - language on Roman basis, those in the Middle Ages by the language contact between novels and speakers non-Roman languages, the Arab one in particular, developed and as Trade - and traffic language to in 19. Century predominantly at the south and east coast of the Mediterranean common was.
In the further meaning rather colloquial in the tendency one than Lingua Franca designates also every other language, those between the speakersdifferent language communities as traffic language one uses and due to their secondarylinguistic uses certain changes and simplifications, but not necessarily also to a Pidginisierung in the closer sense is subject.
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Roman ones based Lingua Franca
Italian “franco, franchi”, originally name for (north) Italians and Frenchmen, by the crusades and the Latin-Frankish realm in Byzanz in the meaning extended to “west European, Abendländer, Katholik (EN)” and inthis meaning of Arabs, Turks, Greeks, Persern, Slawen and Romanians taken over. The designation “lingua franca” seems to have been coined/shaped after the Arab one in Andalusien, where by the geographer Ibn Khurradadbih is occupied that Lingua Franca (aluminium lugha aluminium-lfrajiyya) one defined against Spanish (andalusiyya) and Greek (rumiyya). As alternative designation 19 is since that. Century the expression “(langue), probably developed under French influence in Algeria, sabir” spreads (Erstbeleg 1859, deviating already with Molière)as well as, more rarely, “mauresque” (Erstbeleg 1830) petit. With “lingua franca”, “parlare franco”, “sapere franco” and correspondences particularly in Greek sources is depending upon the demarcation context and in analogy for the general meaning development of “franco, franchi” also with deviating meanings like “French”,To count “Italian” or “western language”.
With the Lingua Franca in the closer sense it concerns not a mixing language or depravierte themselves single language or individually varying wheel breaking, but around a genuine Pidgin on Roman basis with Arab, Turkish, Persian, Greekand slawischen influences, which exhibits a remarkable consistency in its lexical basic existence and its grammatical structure despite its far spreading and century-long use. The statement spread in some literature that the basis a Provenzalisch spoken between Genova and Marseille beenis, is linguistically wrong and also for historical-geographical reasons not durable. The Lingua Franca remained thereby a secondary language, thus to a Kreolsprache taken over as native language did not develop themselves further. The conditions for the use were commercial contacts, military contacts, mixedSettlement and -- of not underestimating importance -- Piraterie and the operational readiness level of Roman slaves in Arab/Turkish and Greek language area. Whether or in whatever measure novels the Lingua Franca among themselves used as traffic language, is on basis of the receivedTo decide sources surely.
The Lingua Franca e.g. is in the sources by meta-language descriptions. in reports on a journey, by quotations and by specializedlinguistic terms e.g. in the nautical language testified, found also isolated for literary texts (the anonymous Contrasto dellaZerbitana of 1284/1305, Gigio kind million Giancarlis La Zigana, printed 1548, to smaller extent among other things also with Fazio degli Uberti, Goldoni, Molière, Calderón, Lope de Vega) use, was established however not as writing language. Accordinglythe conditions for the investigation of its more exact historical development and geographical differentiation are difficult. With the latter one knows at least ansatzweise basis in the western North Africa, Spanish with the vouchers for North Africa a dominance, and a dominance Italian basis in the easternNorth Africa tighten, which meet with Algiers. In connection with the conquest of Algeria by the Frenchmen the there Lingua Franca by the strengthened French language contact and by manuals like the Dictionnnaire de la langue franque ou petit mauresque (Marseille 1830)französisiert, however 19 remained as such up to the end. Century still in use.
Lingua Franca in the further meaning
- Hugo Schuchardt, the Lingua franca, in: Magazine for Roman philology 33 (1909), S.441-461
- Christian Foltys, the vouchers of the LinguaFranca, in: New Romania 1 (1984), S.1-37
- Christian Eggarter, Anglizismen in German: To the integration of the English word property into German. In: Education and instruction, 145 (1995), S.543-549
- Christian Pirker, as the Lingua became anglica the Lingua franca the science. In:Education-historical research and schulmuseale development of Austria I (retrospectives in things education, R. 5, No. 40), hrsg. of B. Geretschläger and. E. Lechner, complaint ford, 2002, S.48-51