|coat of arms||flag|
|inhabitant:||517.802 (conditions: 2005)|
|Height ü.d.M.:||between 0 and 226 m and. NN|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 38° 43 ' N, 9° 10 ' W 38°43 ' N, 9° 10 ' W
|address of the city administration:|| Câmara Municipal de Lisboa|
Paços DO Concelho - Praça DO Município
|Governmental district Lisbon|
|surface:||2,802 km ².|
|Inhabitant:||2.661.850 (conditions: 2001)|
|Population density:||950 Einwohner/km ²|
|number of municipalities:||53|
As the largest city of Portugal with the most important port, which seat of the government, which is highest state and government authorities, six universities and the academy of the sciencesLisbon the economical and cultural center of the country.
Table of contents
the city of Lisbon also and cover 83.84 km correspond to the circle ² surface with 517.802 inhabitants (conditions 1. January 2005).In the catchment area of the city (so-called.Área Metropolitana de Lisboa) among other things with the places Oeiras, Cascais, Almada, Amadora live however with approx. 2.683.000 (conditions 2001) inhabitants more than 25% of the Portuguese population.
The Baixa (dt. Lower part of town)directly of the Rio Tejo is and by the castle mountain with the Castelo de São Jorge, the Alfama and to the hill of the Bairro Alto is framed because of the bank. It is the business and bank quarter of Lisbon.
Lisbon has direct Atlantic climate: Not to hot summers and relatively mild winters. The temperaturesfall only rarely under 0°C. Still more rarely snows are to be registered. The months with highest precipitation values are November until March (>100 mm).
to be found to history further one detailed details also in the article history of Portugal.
- already the Phönizier and the Karthager are the place Alis Ubo (dt. Liebl. Bay) as only large Naturhafen at the iberischen Atlantic coast used, archaeologically this was so far not proven, however Greek settlement traces was not found. After Plinius thatOlder one was Lisbon an establishment of Odysseus.
- Starting from 205 v. Chr. the city under Roman rule Olisipo , 48 was called v.Chr. it receives Roman municipal rights under Julius Cäsar and was as Felicitas Julia principal place of the province Lusitania.
- 719 the city is conquered by Mauren. Lisbon experiences its first bloom time.
- 1147 it succeed reconquista (dt. Back conquest) of the Christians under king cathedral Alfonso Henriques.
- 1256 verlegt König Alfons III seine Residenz von Coimbra nach Lissabon.
- 12. CenturyToward end 12. Century one bears in Lisbon the holy Antonius of Padua, which occasionally also Antonius of Lisbon is called.
- 1499 to 9. September is prepared Vasco for Gama there after its first India journey a triumphaler receipt. Inthe following two centuries, lead increasing trade with the colonies in Asia and South America, in addition, their exploitation to prosperity in Lisbon.
- 16. Century at the beginning of the century is Lisbon with 350.000 inhabitants the largest city that at that timeadmitted world.
- 1569 demand a plague epidemic disease in Lisbon and environment 60,000 human lives.
- 1755 at the 1. November is destroyed Lisbon by a strong earthquake to two thirds (see also earthquakes of Lisbon). According to today's estimations it had the strength8,7 to 9,0. Contemporary sources indicate alone for Lisbon up to 60.000 victims. The vibrations are to be felt in completely Europe and North Africa. The city of the Mark count von Pombal is rebuilt according to plan. Particularly typically for this reconstructionthe Baixa, the lower part of town, is with its roads right-angled put on in the range around the Rua Augusta. Apart from the physical damages, which the earthquake causes, it shakes also the aufklärerischen and theistischen thinking directions of many philosophers, who the reason of theseNatural catastrophe do not see giving and their optimism up. Voltaire wrote quake its Poème as reaction to sur le désastre de Lisbonne (1756).
- 1910 on 5 October. on the balcony of the city hall the first Portuguese republic is proclaimed. King Emanuel II flees in the exile to England.
- 1926 a Militärputsch terminate the republic.
- 1928 António de Oliveira Salazar Minister of Finance and late Prime Minister become.
- During the dictatorship of the Estado Novo from 1926 to 1974 the city continues to grow, it debited to the remaining country is developed.
- 1959 in December become the first Metro line inLisbon opens.
- 1966 a suspension bridge over the Tejo after Almada are finished, which resembles the golden gate bridge in San Francisco. Before the carnation revolution still after António de Oliveira Salazar designated, is called it now Ponte 25 de Abril (dt. Bridge 25.April). Above Almada stands with Cristo Rei besides a large Christ statue with spread arms, which similar sees in Rio de Janeiro.
- 1968 Salazar dies, successor becomes Marcello Caetano.
- 1974 at the end of of April are Lisbon the center of the carnation revolution.
- 1988: Parts of the old town quarter Chiado are destroyed by a fire.
- 1994: Lisbon is culture capital of Europe.
- 1998: For completion altogether over 17 km motorway bridge Ponte Vasco is enough for Gama over the Tejo there on the occasion of the world exhibition EXPO '98.
by the situation at the Tejo was Lisbon long time of the south from only by vehicular traffic directly from Alcochete, Montijo, to reach Seixal and in particular Barreiro. Became accordingly early at the points of river close in Vila Franca de Xira in the north and Almada at the southern Tejoufer of the bay bridges built. The Ponte 25 de Abril (<math> 1013 m< /math> Span and <math> 2287 m< /math> Length) connected for the first time Lisbon with Almada on the Tejo south side. Starting from 1999 leads below thatAutoroadway also a railway connection. The a2 continue to lead then into the eastern interior and/or. to Madrid/Spain. With the Ponte Vasco Gama gives it up there since 1998 a direct motorway connection (A12/IP1) over the bay between Moscavide/Sacavémthe right and Montijo/Alcochete, and/or. Setúbal with its industries on the left side of the Tejo.
The international airport Lisbon Portela is appropriate for 6 km north of the center and in the extension of the motorway A12.
The ÖPNV becomes mainly of the Carris (Companhia DOS Carris de Ferro de Lisboa)and the Metropolitano de Lisboa taken over. The Carris serves over 100 Buslinien and not least several streetcars. Among them is also the line 28. Traffic partly becomes with historical cars (pt. Eléctricos) undertaken. Besides it operates inthe city four Elevadores (dt. Elevators): three endless rope haulage systems and a perpendicularly driving elevator, the Elevador de Santa Justa. The Metro serves four lines, which partly lead beyond the city.
education and science
Lisbon are beside Coimbra the most important university town in Portugal and have several universities:
- Universidade de Lisboa (based 1290) belongs to the oldest universities in Europe
- Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (based 1931) technical University of
- Universidade new factsde Lisboa (based 1973) the third national University of
- Universidade Católica Portuguesa Lisboa (based 1968) catholic private-university
- Universidade Lusíada de Lisboa (based 1986) private-university
- Universidade Internacional de Lisboa (based 1984) private-university
- Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa private-university
Lisbon there are museums numerous museums, under it:
- Museu de Calouste Gulbenkian - Gulbenkian museum
- Museu Escola of the Artes Decorativas - museum for applied art
- Museu Nacional DO Azulejo - tile museum
- Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga - national art gallery
- Museu there Marinha - naval museum
- Museu Nacional DOS Coches - Kutschenmuseum
- Museu DO Chiado - modern trend art
- Museu Nacional de Arqueologia - archaeology museum
- Museu there Carris - streetcar museum Lisbon
- Museu DO Design - Design museum Lisbon
- Museu de electricidade - electricity museum in an old coal-fired power station on the Tejo bank
- Teatro Municipal de São Luiz - urban theatre in the quarter Chiado directly beside the opera São Carlo
- Teatro Nacional Dona Maria II - national theatre Dona Maria at the Lissabonner Rossio
- Teatro Nacional de São Carlo - the Lissabonner operain the quarter Chiado
- Teatro there Trindade - classical theatre in the quarter Chiado
- Teatro there Cornucópia - experimental theatre in the quarter Bairro Alto
- Teatro Camões in the Parque the Nações in the quarter Oriente
- Casino Estoril - gaming house in Estoril (revue theatre and concerts)
in the stages Luz and José Alvalade XXI. several plays of the football European championship took place 2004 .
- José Alvalade stadium of the football club Sporting Clube de Portugal (see: Sporting Lisbon), (venue of the football European championship 2004)
- Estádio there Luz of the football club Sport Lisboa e Benfica (see: Benfica Lisbon), (venue of the football European championship 2004) has 65,000 spectator places and was venue for the final of the European championship 2004.
At the end of December 2005 began the well-known Rallye Dakar for the first time in the capital of Portugal.
Lisbon is subdivided in 53 municipalities (freguesias), which are assigned to four districts (bairros) again for administrative reasons:
- 1. Bairro: Castelo, Coração de Jesus, Encarnação, Graça, Madalena, Mártires, Mercês, Pena, Sacramento, Santa Catarina, Santa Engrácia, Santa Justa, Santiago, Santo Estêvão, São Cristóvão e São Lourenço, São José, São Mamede, São Miguel, São Nicolau, São Paulo, São Vicente de Fora, Sé, Socorro
- 2. Bairro: Ajuda, Alcântara, Anjos, Lapa, Prazeres, Santa Isabel, Santa Maria de Belém, Santo Condestável, Santos o Velho, São Francisco Xavier
- 3. Bairro: Alvalade, Ameixoeira, Benfica, Campo Grande, Campolide, Carnide, Charneca, Lumiar, Nossa Senhora de Fátima, São Domingos de Benfica, São João de Brito, São Sebastião there Pedreira
- 4. Bairro: Alto DO Pina, Beato, Marvila, Penha de França, Santa Maria DOS Olivais, São João, São João de Deus, São Jorge de Arroios
objects of interest
- Torre de Belém (world cultural heritage)
- MosteiroDOS Jerónimos - Sé Catedral (cathedral in Lisbon
- ) Convento DO Carmo with the 1389-1423 of
- Nuno Álvares Pereira church (Igreja DO
- Carmo) established Hieronymus monastery in Belém ( world cultural heritage) to Padrão DOS Descobrimentos (monument of the discoveries)
- Alfama (old town quarter)
- Miradouros (Lookout points)
- Bairro Alto (tavern quarter)
- Castelo de São Jorge (castle plant)
- center Ciência Viva (Science center)
- Eléctrico 28 (the longest of the few remaining old strassenbahnlinien)
- Elevador de Santa Justa (elevator, which connects upper and lower part of town)
- Museu Calouste Gulbenkian (collection of theBritish oil billionaire of Armenian descent from Istanbul Calouste Gulbenkian)
- Oceanário de Lisboa - the second largest sea aquarium of the world (builds 1998) Torre Vasco
- to the world exhibition there Gama
of sons and daughters of the city
- Antonio ofCrato, Portuguese noble, which proclaimed itself 1580 even to the king of Portugal, its requirement for throne however not against the Spaniards to intersperse could.
- Johann I. (Portugal), king of Portugal
- Dionysius (Portugal), king of Portugal
- Manuel I. (Portugal), kingPortugal
- Michael I. (Portugal), king of Portugal from the house Braganza and governed II. from 1828 to
- 1834 Emanuel. (Portugal), last king of Portugal (1908-1910)
- Johann II. (Portugal), king of Portugal
- Johann III. (Portugal), king ofPortugal from the house advice
- Johann V. (Portugal), king of Portugal from the house Braganza
- Ludwig I. (Portugal), king of Portugal from 1861 to 1889
- Peter II. (Portugal), regent and from 1683 to his death kingby Portugal
- Peter IV. (Portugal), king of Portugal, emperor of Brazil
- Peter V. (Portugal), king of Portugal
- Sebastian I. (Portugal), king of Portugal
- Américo Tomás, admiral, Portuguese president (1958 to 1974)
- António Guterres, Portuguese politician and former Prime Minister Portugals
- António José de Sousa one oil de Menezes Severim de Noronha, important liberals Portuguese statesman and general, hero of the Miguelistenkrieg, cartistischer politician and leader of the regeneration party
- António Maria de Fontes Pereirade Melo, Portuguese politician and statesman from the time of the Portuguese monarchy
- António OSCAR de Fragoso Carmona, president of Portugal from 1926 to 1951
- António Vitorino, until November 2004 European Union commissioner for law and internal
- Hernandogildo Augusto de BritoCapello, Portuguese officer and Africa researcher as well as between 1886 and 1891 governor of Angola
- Jorge Sampaio, Staatspräsident von Portugal
- José Manuel Inácio there Cunha Faro Menezes Portugal there Gama Carneiro e Sousa, Portuguese military and politician
- Marcello Caetano, Portuguese dictator
- Pedro Santana Lopes, Portuguese politician and prime minister
- Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello, Marquês de Pombal, Premierminister under king Josef I.
- Vasco Gonçalves, Portuguese military officer and politician
- Antonius of Padua(1195-1231), Franziskaner and holy
- Johannes XXI. (Pope) (around 1205-1277), Pope
- Francisco de Almeida (around 1450-1510), sailor
- Duarte Pacheco Pereira (around 1469-1533), sailors, astronomer and geo count
- Luis Frois (1532-1597), Jesuit and Missionar
- António Vieira (1608-1697), catholic theologian, Jesuit and Missionar
- Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), composer and Cembalist, lived composer Karl Robert von
- Nesselrode (1780-1862 ), Russian diplomat and statesman Francisco
- d'Andrade (1859-1921 ) on 1719-1728 in Lisbon
- Manuel DO Nascimento ( 1734-1819), poet and medal man Marcos António
- Portugal ( 1762-1830), opera singers
- Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935), poetsand writer
- Maria Elena Vieira there Silva (1908-1992), painter and Grafikerin
- Amália Rodrigues (1920-1999), Fado singer
- Carlos DO Carmo (* 1941), Fado singers
- Emmanuel Nunes (* 1941), composer
- António Lobo Antunes (* 1942), writer
- Antonio Damasio (* 1944), neuro scientist
- Paulo de Carvalho(* 1947), singer of popular music
- Pedro Calapez (* 1953), painter
- Joaquim de Almeida (*1957), Portuguese-US-American actor
- Lucia Moniz (* 1976), singer and actress
- Maniche (* 1977), football players
of twin cities
Lisbon maintains partnerships between cities with the following cities:
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Lisbon - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Commons: Lisbon - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- side of the city administration (Portuguese)
- city plan Lisbon
- photo of Lisbon
- tile museum (Portuguese)
- side over Lisbon (German)