|of these articles concerns itself with literature stories as text kind and with the developing of the modern literature historiography. For articles to German literature history see the offers of the portal German literature; for articles for the history of the literature generally see the link offers in the navigation of the roof article literature as well as the portal literature.|
The word literature history (n) (the singular would have “Geschicht” read) 18 is to center. Century a Pluraletantum with the meaning: “Reports from the scholarly world “, since about 1830 again defined as field of the national linguistically fixed excessive quantity, within those the artistically arranged works the clay/tone to indicate.
the history of the literature historiography saves a break with the turn in 19. Century. Those, which wrote between 1750 and 1850 literature history, gave their original topic - the reporting from the sciences - to end 18. Century up, and straight made the article, what applied so far to unscientific, lying outside of the literature: Seal, fictions.
The topic change had the consequence that with that 19. Century the word “literature “to be redefined had. As “range of the linguistic excessive quantity” the definition was arranged in such a way with the fact that the specialized sciences could list further their work in “bibliographies”. In the linguistic excessive quantity took however - so the new thesis of the literature historiography 19. and 20. Century - the linguistic works of art a central place in as the core of the national excessive quantities to explain as the field of the eternally discussed works, the field of the works , so the attempts, outstanding by their aesthetics, why dramas, poems and novels “literature strictly speaking” should be. In the following developing of the literature historiography is to be outlined limited with their topic change carried out of.
of the Polyhistorie to literature history, 1500-1650
the modern literature historiography begins in 16. and 17. Century as the attempt, over the sciences - and that is in 19. Century the “literature “- to refund report. Initially - arising the printing increases hopes existing here - applies the work large works, which are to hold the entire knowledge of the gel honouring SAMness systematically like libraries arranged. The Polyhistorik fails however already in its first beginnings. The problem is thereby arising the natural sciences less. With difficulty the polyhistorischen projects run rather, since they degenerate from the outset into ideological adjustments: Their authors try, philosophically - theological statements about to meet how the knowledge and the cosmos seized with it are arranged. The order projects become immediately as scholastische, backwards-turned burning market, the works come out contentwise with all order efforts hardly over compiling from already existing information. Who wants to serve it, toilsomely he must train himself been busy then with heavy volumes into the order thoughts of the authors, which are available in only few libraries. Criticism at existing knowledge, shoptalks, are in the polyhistorischen works hardly.
With that 17. Three new groups of works meaning win century:
- that alphabetically sort end encyclopedia,
- the bibliographic aligned “Historia Literaria “or “history of the gel honouring SAMness” and
- the literary journal.
The encyclopedia start the inheritance of the Polyhistorik as the work, which offers the knowledge. Universal encyclopedias remain thereby rare projects. The market expands 18 with specialized encyclopedias and starting from at the beginning. Century with small encyclopedias, newspaper or Conversations encyclopedias, which offer knowledge shortly in the portable format, aligned to the newspapers, which provide information rarely to the historical scenes.
The “Historia Literaria” or “history of the Gelahrheit” (today gel honouring SAMness) becomes the bibliographic project. It offers small reference books, which arrange and subdivide the sciences according to all fields of activity and research questions, and point around point note, which works in the respective area of scientists of which nation writes, which is most important. These reference books are bought primarily by students and beginning scientists, who can set footnotes after them in their own scientific work.
The literary journal becomes in the second half 17. Century to the racer on the book market. In monthly expenditures it offers to overview of the most important scientific new publications and - when scientific adjustment - inventions. The reports offer excerpts from the discussed works including side data to important quotations. To the individual numbers the subscriber usually receives a register, which makes it for it possible, at the end of the yearly its scientific journal as specialized encyclopedia to used. Career makes the literary journal around 1700 above all, since it develops for the carrier of a continued Raisonnements over current debates of the research, and public debates from politics and religion area offers.
In the course 18. Century open the most important literary journals the range that belles lettres, which becomes thereby a central field in the exchange over literature.
the triumphant advance that belles lettres, 1600-1750
the book market subdivided itself early into two ranges: that the literature for the scholars and the publications for the broader reading public, which required Gebetbücher, holy life, popular histories, above all however newspapers. Both ranges were distinctive in the Design clearly from each other. On latin the literature in the four sciences theology, jurisprudence, medicine and philosophy appeared precious and finely printed, particularly. In dearless set publications equipped with simple woodcuts against it the cheap mass-produced goods spoke the public on.
With that 17. Century develops a new, third market, for that that belles lettres. The name is already program: the publications ordered here belong to the sciences, the literature to the elevated market segment, to that lettres, - meanwhile not to the pedantischen academic gel honouring SAMness, but to a field, which is characterised rather by its convenience, by taste and requirement. Fine copper passes are here instead of cheap woodcuts required French and elegant modern national languages, instead of scholar latin or abgeschmackter language from the low bibliography. To the market belles lettres current scandalous histories, novels, Memoires, reports on a journey, journals belong to that. The public is aristokratisch, civil urban, it covers the women, the academic gel honouring SAMness is refused to who, and which scholarly reader, that has interests in the current happening beside its subject still.
The new market ranked in English under the French word or under the word “polite literature”; in Germany it is in outgoing 17. Century the range “knowledge-created”, starting from center 18 galanten. Century: the range of the “beautiful sciences”, or, more elegantly, the “beautiful literature”.
The literature discussion stands for the new market at the beginning 18. Century still with caution opposite. The journal de Sçavans or it nacheifernd the German Acta Eruditorum are scientific journals. It determines clearly however with the boom of the journal market, that end 17. Century, the tendency appears, to satisfy the expanding readership. For this purpose the more popular sheets permit regularly individual reviews of publications from the range that belles lettres, which do not belong to the literature in the current sense, however broader interest also the scholar shank to stress to be able. Thus the German Acta Eruditorum rezensieren 1713 completely uninhibited the scandalous Atalantis Delarivier Manley's, an exposure book of alleged machinations of the last Londoner administration camouflaged as novel. The new discussion article wins however only in the second half 18. Century Kraft, when the poetry conquers national led discussions.
the poetry becomes the subject of the national literature debate, 1720-1780
the “belles lettres “is only indirectly a forerunner of our current literature. In German their market with the market of barking trichloroethylene TIC lives away, and marks the most important differences: One can speak of the “literatures” of the nations, it gives however only one barking trichloroethylene TIC. Literature discussed of literary critics and literature Popes. Barking trichloroethylene TIC remained against it a market without secondary discourse. Barking trichloroethylene TIC encloses the literatures, but offers it infinitely much more - almost everything that stresses broader interest, is in the book trade barking trichloroethylene TIC.
Our current conception of literature develops, as after 1720 the national poetry - it does this initially particularly in Germany - which draws interest of the gel honouring SAMness on itself.
Poetry is in 17. and 18. Century little more than the range of the bound language. In the process 17. Century developed the opera in its play forms of the Italian and the French style for the central place of poetic production. Lyric poetry was published, in order to be toned. In addition came, despised from everyone, the taste had, which Panegyrik and the entire commercial poem production, which were given to funerals, weddings and anniversaries in order. At the beginning 18. Century sees one the poetry earliest in a crisis - corrupts everywhere, where she is given written in order, and scandalously, where she offers herself to the opera enterprise and the galanten song seal. The 1720er and 1730er experience a substantial criticism at the operas, straight from taught side. In the interest of the public moral Gottsched and its Mitkritiker demand a reorientation of the poetry in the German-speaking countries, in which the aristotelische Poetik is to come to the course. The opera, the song, the CAN-done thereby is not abolished, however it is specified that the public exchange does not apply for these ranges - he applies, and the authors of current journals, since they have public, can specify this - a poetry, which serves the nation, large conscious authors brings out, important discussions permits.
The result is in the process 18. Century a division in two parts of the market: On the side the market that insists belles lettres away, it develops as international market of barking trichloroethylene TIC. On the other side can do it authors in the process 18. Century increasingly risk to write “fastidious” seal seal, which sells itself only in the moment, in which the criticism discusses it and recommends its reading. A publicly discussed poetry develops in relation to a market, which is left the Trivialisierung.
The “fastidious”, on social attention requirement raising seal gains significance, when the first generation of the critics, which demanded still the back meditation on Aristoteles, yields a second generation, which places itself to the new civil drama and above all the novel openly. If one discussed poetry so far primarily on the question, as perfectly generic rules were kept, then 18 comes in the second half. Century many more explosive discussions up that one the Pierre Daniel guard 1670 still, without finding hearing thereby, with his Traitté de l'origine of the novel into the area placed, when it suggested reading novel and poetry fundamentally as fiktionale productions and thus as mirror images of the current customs of a nation.
Had itself the novel end 17. Century to the most important medium the chronique scandaleuse develops, then can do the scholarly criticism 18. Century of novels demand, which reform the customs, novels, which tie at Samuel Richardsons Pamela.
Public attention wins the poetry discussion in scholarly journals in the second half 18. Century particularly in Germany, where it offers the best national debate field. Germany is territorially and konfessionell splintered; there is no broader supraregional functioning debate field except the scholarly nevertheless discussion elitären thereby. Here the demand excites itself after a German seal, which separates from the French, the English imitated and then also still from this emancipated, public explosiveness in the struggle for national identity.
national literature history redefines itself, 1780-1850
end 18. Century is the antiquated literature historiography in a crisis: The sciences align themselves now increasingly on the modern natural sciences, which recapitulation of old authorities generic term-oiled, at the same time the public literature discussion changed themselves: it applies almost exclusively for novels, dramas and poems.
The result of the development appears in last literature stories of old style, approximately in the sketch of a history of the language and literature of the Germans of the oldest times up to Lessings death of Erduin Julius cook, 1 (Berlin: Publishing house of the Königl. Material school book action, 1795). Like the old works of the Historia Literaria is the late literature history 18. Century a bibliography, which arranges and subdivided according to sections. The sciences take however now only little place. The “beautiful literature” with the kinds of the seal conquered the work.
With the history of the poetic national literature of the Germans of Dr. G. G. Gervinus. First Theil. Of the first traces of the German seal to toward end 13. Century (Leipzig: W. Angel man, 1835) is transferred the old project into the new: The literature of the nation is according to title her delivered seal, the new literature connoisseur supplies however, like it to the Vorrede open, no more bibliography, but an interpreting narration in addition, like the seal in the different epochs of the nation unfolded - in the Middle Ages initially in the yards, then increasingly corrupted by the monks, in the human controls from scholars, finally in 18. Century releases by a initially taught, then however rapidly to it-learning criticism…
New literature history supplies discussion material, their topic is the character of the nation under changing cultural and political Bediungungen - and it finds retorts of all political groups of interests, which must immediate penetrate on their own representation of literature history, if they want to ensure that their topics are publicly discussed.
In the background of modern literature history the modern national state, to that the literature of the nation starting from center of the century, is located which to largest poets of the nation and the crucial epochs of its history public attention in the cultural life assures as in all institutions of the education. At the latest with the fact that the texts of the national seal in 19. Century in the public public education the functions win, to the so far religious texts seemed alone cut (to be interpreted and discussed to give to individual meditation and adjustment cause), the literature a new function won: It is the field, on that almost any question of the societyto be treated can, and into the school teaching inside will be treated - a field, which cannot leave a social group unconsidered. Crucially it concerns to determine the canon of the literary works from now on and specify their discussion. The contest concerning this takes place between authors, who offer themselves to different literature promotion and different handling literature, it takes place in the media in argument with the literature - older and more again, national and more internationally -, it takes place within the academic range between the different schools of the literature criticism, which supply in the long run the society with sample discussions.
problems of an adjustment of the literature historiography
of the use of the topic change, which made dramas, novels and poems “literature”
the topic change, in which the literature discussion got involved, by turning to dramas, novels and poems, carried public Desideraten calculation, it changed the book market, above all however permitted it the literature science one decided broader communication with the society.
the Entskandalisierung of the poetry and novel production
the turn of the scientific debate for poetic production and for novel production took place particularly in reform offers. Current poetry production seemed to have gotten the scientific discourse of the 1730er off the path, the Aristoteles gave. Gottscheds fellow combatants avoided it, the operas more decided than place of the custom purge to brandmarken. They demanded however a drama, which would have completely own meaning, discussable statements made, that were brought out from conscious with civil names admit becoming authors. Unreformierbar seemed at the same time still the novel. With the end 17. Century it had gone into the scandal business. Stood also here in the middle 18. Century the discussion of better and conscious written novels in the area. Which could not be abolished - opera production and the production of scandalous novels - could (so the new beginning) successfully in the public attention is down-reduced as one each debate unworthy trivial production, for which in relation to the view had to apply selected the high works of art.
Actually reached into the new, literaturable poetry and novel production with outgoing 18. Century mechanisms of the responsibility: Authors placed themselves behind their works and laid claim on the fame the customs of their nation with their works to have improved. The culture enterprise of the new nations gave to morally valuable production new value, whether it let pupils write now over the large seal of meditation essays or institutions like the Literaturnobelpreis justified, with which authors is appreciated, who work as the “conscience of their nation”.
Scandal production actually left the opera like the novel. Their new medium became the journalism, which received its own field with the boulevard press. That was not the end of scandalous novels, dramas and poems - the new scandals of the literature are however completely different: Young authors revolt now against festgefahrene moral conceptions, against old Ästhetiken and outdated art conceptions, them are part of the struggle for responsibility in the literary life. The scandalous novel early 18. Century lives much rather in the exposure journalism as in the novel 20. and 21. Century away. The market reform, on which it foresaw the early literature discussion, actually came off.
the birth of the literature from the spirit of the secondary literature
the modern literature science is based on the self picture that it is an observing, analyzing, scientific, secondary discourse. The literature exists (so the common statement of the literature criticism) already much longer than the literature science, it exists since beginning of mankind, since the first excessive quantities, which happened still verbally. It ran finally in the “literary kinds “into the literature of the present inside - so the established view. The secondary discourse turns under keeping to scientific distance of the literature . Actually it might be different: The works developed in completely different fields and were at the end, into which 1760ern verschollen to a large extent. The literature science specified, which literature should be. It created the literatures, which we examine today. The large tradition lines, which exist today, had thereby in 19. Century to be again justified: The “literature of the Middle Ages” was lost, the novels and dramas of the “baroque” was at the beginning 19. Century unknown. The past of the literature had to be reconstructed. And in the present the interference ran still many more drastically: The literature review decided in open controversy over it, which works of the present and recent past should be discussed as literature, and which kinds thereby became the literary kinds.
That the literature science defined the literature to own use, in order to win thereby a broadly discussable topic, is a delicate statement. If like that is, then all attempts are to see simple on the literature and seize, what literature is actually and distinguishes, not what they give. They are then actually attempts to specify from the field of the sciences out what literature should be, and which with it adequate-proves to be made is - interactions of the Literarurkritik with the book market, with authors and with the society, which reads books and takes up discussions. The uncomfortable solution explains however then also, why each literature definition draws immediately contradiction of the public on itself, which must protect here most varied interests in the literature debate.
by problems in handling “literature”, since 1750 “
fastidious one” literature, which was created since 1750, was written addresses aimed the criticism, it differs fundamentally from preceding production at novels, dramas and poems. We have with it the modern literature referring to how them want to be discussed. To what the authors did to reach in order to kindle discussions, comes, do which the publishing houses, in order the literature criticism. Fastidious literature sells itself primarily over the secondary discourse. Trivial novels can do without each public debate. A modern novel, a young dramatist are against it nothing if they do not succeed in pulling reviews on itself and them won, if they find a broad appreciation in the feuilleton. A more complete literature history of the modern trend will seize the complete literary life, which gives functions in the social life to the individual piece and the individual novel: Existence on the book market, acknowledgment in the press, treatment in schools and literaturwissenschatlichen seminars of the universities.
by problems in handling “literature”, those before 1750 was written
problematic to remain our reconstructions of literature history. Most connections, which establish it, might earn a renewed questioning.
there were not the today's literary kinds
the concept of the literary kinds in the research to ask will be carefully again. The fact that drama, Epos and lyric poetry the three large fields of the literary excessive quantity are passes the historical consistency of the excessive quantity. One can postulate this in the view of Aristoteles, but goes one thereby into a follow-up of the scholarly criticism 17. and 18. Century - a criticism, which exactly changed the market with these setting.
the national literatures our investigation
of the national literatures and the comparison of the literatures are existed not complete doubtful by the Komparatistik. The authors examined by us hardly knew the works of their literature 1750 ago. Far more fairly one is regarded production 1750 ago if one it, as one would regard the production of barking trichloroethylene TIC today: when a only one international current production, which found national developments, in which however in the long run everywhere international commodity into translations beside native books into the displays came. The authors wrote for this market and supplied, which it did not offer at the place of the publication hopefully so yet comparably.
poetry 1750 ago was not, which literature us is today
a renewed study of poetry production 1750 ago to the music-oriented fields central value will give, and on the search for the “literature term of the baroque” do not do this, which was subject allegedly to a opera-hostile “literature term of the clearing-up” at the end. There was a market on that the opera as poetry opposite flourished and this a scholarly criticism, which regarded the opera with distance, and one should shrink from oneself, the market for “still baroque” and the criticism 17. and 18. To judge century for “already enlightened”. The unparteiischere line of sight will seize, as the literature science formed the society-far perception of the market.
the novel belonged 1750 ago neither to the poetry nor to the literature
the novel belonged 1750 ago neither to the poetry nor to the literature - it was part of the “historical writings” and in its current production that belles lettres their virulentester and most scandalous partitions. As the novel on the discussion nature to moved, is for 18. Century ununtersucht still to a large extent, which functions before it fulfilled, when it affrontierte still to a large extent the literary discussion nature, not less.
which determined before 1750 public arguments, our exchange over
dramas, novels remains to a large extent unconsidered and poems created a new place of social controversy - with large success. Literature in the new sense displaced weightiest production, theology, on the book market as in the general discussions. The exchange over dramas and poems developed with largest dynamics in late 18. Century in Germany. It won in the nationalism of the German romance weight. France adopted the new literature debate after the French revolution as the civil state worthy. German and French literature scientists offered finally first stories of the English literature in the new cut to England - the nation, which had unbroken national discourses, did not see long time a cause to change the meaning of the word “literature”.
Modern literature history became generally accepted internationally and created the national philologies and it existing today inspired parallel establishments: The art again defined as field of the forming arts, the music got involved in a contest of national clay/tone art, that in the second half 19. Century was inflamed.
More careful handling literature history will have to face will apply for the public life before 1750 and its completely own topics, and the literature criticism critically: It changed the market, to which it turned, and it created essentially only the field, which employs us today as the literature.
literature stories in the transition
- Jacob peace-smell Reimmanns attempt of an introduction into the Historiam Literariam (resounds: Rengeri bookshop, 1708).
- Cure TZE guidance for the history of the Gelahrheit [...] of God-dear lug, 1 (resounds: New bookshop, 1718).
- Johann Andreas Fabricius, M. Johann Andreä Fabricii, [...] outline of a general history of the gel honouring SAMness (Leipzig: Feasting man, 1752).
- Sketch of a history of the language and literature of the Germans of the oldest times up to Lessings death of Erduin Julius cook, 1 (Berlin: Publishing house of the Königl. Material school book action, 1795).
- Ludwig Wachler, manual of the history of the Litteratur (Leipzig: J.A. Barth, 1833).
- Introduction and history of the old Litteratur.
- History of the Litteratur in the Middle Ages.
- History of the newer Nationallitteratur.
- History of the newer gel honouring SAMness.
- History of the poetic national literature of the Germans of Dr. G. G. Gervinus. First Theil. Of the first traces of the German seal to toward end 13. Century (Leipzig: W. Angel man, 1835).
- Lectures on the history of the German national literature of Dr. A. F. C. Vilmar, 2. Aufl. (Marburg Leipzig: Elwert' university bookshop, 1847).
literature to the topic
- January Dirk Mueller, “literature historical/literature historiography”, in: Realization of the literature. Theories, concepts, methods of the literature science hrsg. v. D. Harth and P. Gebhardt (Stuttgart 1983), S. 195-227 (2.Aufl.1989).
- Michael S. Batts, A History OF Histories OF German Literature [=Canadian Studies in German LANGUAGE and Literature, 37] (New York/Berne/Frankfurt A. M. Paris, 1987). [This book is written still in the old thought that there was the literature exactly the same, as she appears to us today, and that the people before that 19. Century on the idea did not only come to notice they also evenly in such a way like it since literature stories 19. Century one represents finally correctly.]
- Jürgen Fohrmann: Project of German literature history. Emergence and failure of a national poetry historiography between human and German Empire of (Stuttgart, 1989).
- Olaf Simons: March from Europe or the novel, before it became literature (Amsterdam Atlanta, 2001), S. 85-94 and S.115-193.