Lithium chloride

Structural formula
general
name lithium chloride
other names no
sum formula left Cl
CAS number 7447-41-8
short description white powder
characteristics
mol mass 42.39 g mol
state of aggregation firmly
density 2.07 g/cm ³
melting point 614 °C
boiling point 1360 °C
steam pressure 1.33 h Pa (547 °C)
solubility well in water (832 g/L with 20 °C)
of safety references
of Gefahrensymbole
Xn
injurious to health
R and S-sentences

of R: 22-36/38
S: -

MAK -
LD 50 (rat orally) 526 mg/kg
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs. If not differentlynoted, the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Lithium chloride LiCl, the lithium salt of the hydrochloric acid forms colorless, strongly hygroscopic crystals with a melting point of 610°C and a density of 2,07 g/cm 3.
Beside the water-free lithium chloride still different hydrates exist,admits is LiCl · n H 2 O with n= 1, 3 and 5.

characteristics

lithium chloride solutions are strongly hygroscopic. They reduce the water vapour pressure over approx. 90%. From concentrated aqueous solutions water-free lithium chloride crystallizes only at temperatures upfrom 98°C. At lower temperatures one receives one of the hydrate forms. The solubility in water amounts to approx. 450 g LiCl/kg solution. Gaseous lithium chloride forms planar rings from several lithium chloride molecules (the, trichloroethylene and Oligomere).
Lithium chloride solutions are very corrosive. To the handling more concentratedSolutions are to be selected suitable materials. Lithium chloride solutions damage also concrete.

representation

the production of lithium chloride takes place via conversion aqueous lithium hydroxide - or lithium carbonate solution with hydrogen chloride and following concentration and drying process.
Technically relevantly is at present onlythe conversion of lithium carbonate with hydrochloric acid with following restricting under crystallization of lithium chloride in vacuum evaporators.

LiOH + HCl → LiCl + H 2 O
left 2 CO 3 + 2 HCl → 2 LiCl + H 2 O + CO2

use

  • basic material for the production of lithium (fusion electrolysis)
  • ways of the strongly hygroscopic effect as drying agents, also to the space dehumidifying
  • fluxing agent in the soldering and welding engineering
  • dew point sensor or - hygrometers. The electrical conductivity depends strongly on the water concentration.
  • Tracer (indicator) in chem. Processes and in the soil
  • fire extinguishing agent for lithium fires
  • of salt baths for the thermal treatment and the destruction of oxide coatings of metallic materials
  • de-icers, also for flying applications (aircraft anti- more icier)
  • textile production (someone knows exactly for which?)
  • Cooling baths, solutions with 25% -30% LiCl are liquid also with -70°C
 

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