Lithografie

of negatives Steinplatte and positive casting of a map of Munich
Litografi press in the national office for measurement and geo information Munich
Lithografie mit Christoph Martin Wielands Geburtshaus
Lithografie with Christoph Martin of how/as country birth house

as Lithografie and/or. Lithography (v. altgriech.: lithos λίθος = stone + graph in γράφειν = write) are designated:

  • The stone designas artistic output product for duplication by means of photolithography procedure (this belongs to the photolithography - procedures)
  • the photolithography as the result of this duplication
  • photolithography procedure relating to crafts or the machine actually; in the short form this likewise as photolithography designates

a Lithograf is a person, as Stone draughtsman (artistic part) or stone printer (part relating to crafts) in the production of Lithografien is involved or both parts takes over.

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technology

Martha Washington, Ehefrau George Washingtons, Lithographie, 1864
Martha Washington, Ehefrau George Washington,Lithography, 1864

the design which can be printed is applied with a fetthaltigen substance on the particularly prepared (polished, roughened and degreased) fine pored limestone (z. B. Lithokreide or - india ink). To stabilize around the fetthaltige design on the stone and those not to printing portions for the colorto make insensitive, the stone with talc is over-wiped (with it it in such a way specified corrodes possible will to arrive at all free places). Subsequently, corrode (usually a mixture from rubber Arabicum and nitric acid) laid on. This reacts now on the unprotected reason to thatDesign. Subsequently, the stone covered with rubber Arabicum, which is then polished down by the design, however in the unbezeichneten places in the stone remains.

If the stone is dried, the color with a fetthaltigen solvent (turpentine, lamp oil o becomes. A.) washed, so thaton the stone the design only as Fettgrund stays, on which the likewise fetthaltige printer color is laid on. The design repels the water (is thus hydrophob) and binds the color (is lipophilic), during the stone the water by in it the depositedHolds rubber remainders and assumes therefore no color. As is the case for all direct pressure-graphic techniques such a mirror-image casting of the design develops.

The mirror-image casting can be avoided however by a special technology: For the transmission of the design on the stone thereby a special paper is used. Upthis takes place the design with lithografischer chalk or india ink on the paper and afterwards to the stone is transferred. This technology is called also Papierlithografie or Autografie. In the science of the graphic techniques it already gives, those to representative the reprint Lithografie as border line of the original diagramregard (see also diagram, chapter original and reproduction). Many artists availed themselves however the Umdruckpapiers, beside Daumier and Toulouse Lautrec also Nolde, bar-laugh, Matisse and Kokoschka. This technology entails however a quality loss in the print format.

After the use that can Stone, a fine-grained limestone, by sanding off to be usually reused. In Germany limestone from the area is often used by Solnhofen (Bavaria, Frankish law).

Further subspecies of the Lithografie are the brush Lithografie, the feather Lithografie and the chalk Lithografie.

history

Gargantua(Lithografie of Daumier)

the technology of the photolithography was invented 1798 by Alois Senefelder. Since 1803 this technology in France lithography was called. First the photolithography was used only for not-artistic purposes such as text and Notendruck. The music publisher Johann Anton André made of open brook at the Main arrangedthe use of the Lithografie for the duplication of bildnerischen representations. It introduced thereby the development of the artist Lithografie.

The Lithografie was fast taken up by the artists at that time, because of all graphic procedures it comes the “handwritten” work next. Neither the artist needs special chemical, Nor he must overcome knowledge (as with erasure or Aquatinta) as for instance with the copper pass with tool resistances of the material. Beyond that the Lithografie was in connection with Druckpressen an economic mass compression matter, which permitted duplications in almost unlimited number.

The Lithografie did not become thereforeonly fast to the autonomous art form, which permitted it to the painter and draughtsman to retain the original character of the design; it was also for the press in the times before the photography a fast medium to show current Zeitgeschehen graphically. One first, this medium therefore, was Honoré Daumier, the caricatures published over its in critical magazines took up the political conditions of approx. 1830 to 1872 attacked.

Chromolithografie aus Meyer's Konversationslexikon
Chromolithografie from Meyer's encyclopedia

1837 patented the French Lithograph Godefroy angel man a colored form of the Lithografie under the name Chromolithografie, tointo the 30's 20. Century the usual procedure for high-quality colored illustrations to be should. So high-quality the Chromolithografien is so complex also - after the photolithography the probably best compression matter at all - is also their execution. That picture colored which can be printed became inup to 21 basic colours divides and afterwards in just as many steps (described like further above) one above the other printed. The result is only limited a practically raster-free picture, in its dissolution by the accuracy, with which the Farbsteine were worked on, that by the color quality almost to genuine Ölfarbenapproaches. Large publishing house houses like bibliographic Institut Leipzig and Vienna employed 19 toward end. Century enormous departments, which were busy alone with this highest art form of the Lithografietechnik.

The Lithografie was taken up rapidly also by the advertisement. Under this new, low-priced technology advertisement posters beganto change and advertising pillars the townscape. French artists played a prominent role for the development of the early posters and among them above all Toulouse Lautrec. It preferred large sized sheets, connected with a Kolorierung of few Farbsteinen in yellow, red and blue, those, which can be handled easilyalso of the distance attractively worked.

The triumphant advance of the poster produced a need of specialists, from whom around the turn of the century the occupation of the Plakatgestalters and diagram designer developed.

Since the Lithografie with arising until today usual offset printing, a photolithography - procedure, became extinct, are above all Chromolithografien today desired collecting objects, which achieve partial enormous prices in form of whole books.


modern trend procedure

the lithografische procedure was developed further for the printing by introduction of the photolithography and the Granolithografie.

Also different ranges of the technology use modified lithografische procedures. Sotoday for example electronics without “printed circuits” (printed circuit boards) or microelectronics without photolithography is hardly conceivable. The photolithography for microelectronics can be arranged into the ranges optical Lithografie , EUV Lithografie , Röntgenlithografie as well as electron and Ionenlithografie.

Also in development departments far becomes modified lithografische procedureslike the Stereolithografie z. B. for the purpose of the rapidly of prototyping assigned.


external ones left

http://www.theodesmedt.be

acquaintance Lithografen

see also

Commons: Category: Lithography - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)