Live country

live country (lettisch: Livonija, estnisch: Liivimaa) is the historical name for a landscape and political unit in the Baltic. The meaning is not always completely uniform over the centuries.

Table of contents

area of the live ones

historische Karte Livlands, vermutlich 15. Jahrhundert
historical map of live country,probably 15. Century

original was it the area of the today nearly become extinct live ones (the last live ones live today however in cure country).

the Middle Ages and early modern times

in the extended sense the entire territory became in the late Middle Ages with live countrythe sword brother medal designates, thus for instance today's Estonia and Lettland. In the closer sense, starting from that the 16. Century generally, designates it the landscape north the Düna (lettisch: Daugava). The area became in 13. Century of the sword brother medal underGuidance of the bishop von Riga, Albert I. originating from Bremen. of Buxhöveden, subjected (and to that extent created as territorial thing only); the medal came up 1237 in the German medal. Differently than in Prussia itself the German medal in live country could - also after the battle of fir mountain 1410 - when the prominent national gentleman Livlands intersperse. This achievement owed the medal to the land masters Johann Freytag of Loringhoven (1483-1494) and Wolter of Plettenberg (1494-1535). Under Plettenberg, which remained catholic as German medal masters themselves,unblutig the reformation became generally accepted in live country starting from 1524. To the fall of old live country 1561 it pointed itself that that had become protest anti-mash the crucial link between the Germans, Esten and Letten of old live country. Protestant ministers contributed extraordinary to the fact that itto an increasing approximation between its peoples came, also culturally. In the different national constructions - and even in the time of the lettischen and estnischen emancipation - this co-operation could be so far never destroyed lastingly.

1561 took shelter, represented throughtheir knight shanks, cure country and live country of Polish sovereignty, in order to secure itself against the Russian threat. For the same reason, likewise represented by their, Estonia and Oesel of Danish sovereignty took shelter to knight shanks. 1620 became the largest part of the country by conquests Gustav Adolfs Swedish, only the area around Dünaburg remained Polish and Polish for live country was called. This is with the today's landscape Lettgallen (lettisch: Latgale) identically.

Russian Baltic Sea province 1721-1919

1721 fell the area by conquests Peterthe large one at Russia and Estonia (the today's northern part of the Republic of Estonia and Kurland one of the three Ostseegouvernements with at that time , which were in each case autonomously administered by the GermanBaltic aristocracy, formed. From 1721 to 1919 existing imperially Russian Baltic Sea- Gouvernement live country with the capital Riga (before the autonomy certain under changing upper rule enjoyed) and the university town Tartu (Dorpat) covered into for instance the today's Südestland (with Dorpat) and northwest Latvia up to the Düna. The lettische partthis forest-rich area is (under the native name Vidzeme) one of the four historical landscapes of this country. It takes the area around Valmiera (Wolmar), Sigulda (Segewold) and Cesis (turns) as well as around the river Gauja (Livländi Aa). Since live country did not have ethnical uniform population, but rather by Esten and Letten, it was inhabited 1919 between Estonia and Lettland was divided. Large-landed property and city middle class (and concomitantly entire intelligence) were throughout German-language,the German group of peoples was resettled however in the course of the Hitler Stalin pact into the area by floats (Warthegau “), of where they were later again driven out.

cities in the today lettischen part of live country

of cities in the today estnischen part of live country

list of the land masters

sword brother medal

1207-1209 Vinno of tubing brook
1209-1236 people vienna von Naumburg to winter places

of German medals

1237-1238 Hermann Balk
1238-1241 Dietrich von Grüningen
1241-1242 Andreas von Felben
1242-1246 Dietrich von Grüningen
1246-1248 Heinrich von Heimburg
1248-1253 Andreas von Felben
1254-1257 Hanno von Sangershausen
1257-1260 Burkhard von Hornhausen
1261 Georg von Eichstädt
1261-1263 Werner von Breithausen
1263-1266 Konradof Mandern
1267-1270 Otto von Lauterberg
1270 Andreas of Westphalia
1270-1273 walter von Nordeck
1273-1279 Ernst von Ratzeburg
1279-1280 Gerhard of Katzenelnbogen
1280-1281 Konrad von Feuchtwangen
1281-1282 Mangold of star mountain
1282-1287 William of Nindorf
1288-1289 Konrad von Hattstein
1290-1293 Balthasar got
to 1295-1296 Heinrich of Dincklage
1296-1298 Bruno
1298-1307 Gottfried of Rogge
1309-1322 Gerhard of Jork
1322-1324 Konrad boiler hat
1324-1328 Reimar Hane
1328-1340 Eberhard von Monheim
1340-1345 Burkhard of three-life
1345-1359 Goswin of Herreke
1360-1364 Arnold of Vietinghoff
1364-1385 Williamfrom Friemersheim
1385-1388 Robin of Eltz
1388-1389 Johann of Ohle
1389-1401 Wennemar of Bruggenei
1401-1413 Konrad von Vietinghoff
1413-1415 Dietrich torque
1415-1424 Siegrfried of countries of Sponheim
1424-1433 Cisse of the rod mountain
1434-1435 franc Kirskorf
1435-1437 Heinrich of Böckeförde
1438-1450 HeinrichVincke of Overberg
1450-1469 Johann of Mengden
1470-1471 Johann Waldhaun of Heerse
1472-1483 Bernhard of the Borch
1483-1494 Johann Friday of Loringhoven
1494-1535 Wolter of Plettenberg (1450-1535)
1535-1549 Hermann Brugsenei
1549-1551 Johann of the Recke
1551-1557 Heinrich of Galen
1557-1559 Johann William of prince mountain
1559-1561 God hard Kettler (1517-1587)


see also

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Livi proverbs - quotations
live country
 

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