Livorno

of these articles treats the city Livorno in the Toskana. There is also the municipality Livorno Ferrari in the Italian province cellos.
Livorno
State of Italy
region Toskana
province Livorno (left)
geographical layer of 43° 33 ' N 10° 19 ' O
height of 3 m u. M.
Surface 104 km ²
Inhabitant 160,649 (2005)
population density 1544 Einw. /km ²
postal zip code 57100
preselection 0586
ISTAT - code 049009
Fiskal code E625
name of the inhabitants Livornesi or Labronici
protection patron Julia of Korsika
Website Livorno

Livorno is the capital of the Italian province of the same name Livorno (ABC Left) in the region Toskana. To Have Tyrrheni sea convenient city 160,649 inhabitants (conditions to 31. May 2005) and possesses one of the largest Italian ports. In the English linguistic area Livorno under the name putting horn is well-known.

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work on] Geografie, approx. in the coastal plain south for the delta of the river. 20 km southwest from Pisa. In the north and the east Livorno borders on the municipalities Pisa and Collesalvetti, in the south, wherethe hills of the Colline livornesi and a rocky Steilküste begin, at rosy nano Marittimo. To the municipality Livorno belongs also the small holidays place Quercianella and the island Gorgona.

history

the beginnings

a first military settlement in the proximity of thetoday's port originates from Roman time. The old names of the place (Liburna, Liorna, Livorna) are probably derived from the Roman type of warship dear urn . Livorno was mentioned 1017 for the first time, and belonged the next centuries to the sea-republic Pisa. In this time was thatPlace a small fishing village and Vorposten for the defense of the Pisaner of port (postage Pisano). By its gradual sand silting Livorno became then ever more important. The place was destroyed several times with wartime situations, so 1284 of the Genuesern after the victory over the Pisaner in that Sea-battle with Meloria, a small island before the city. When the French king sold 1405 Pisa to the Florentiner, it kept first Livorno, sold it then however 1407 for 26000 Dukaten to the Genueser, which resold it again 1421 at Florenz.

Livorno and the Medici

the Florentiner, for which Livorno represented an important point of entrance to the sea, began with the development of the port. Between 1518 and 1534, after order of the cardinal and later Pope Giulio de Medici and Plänen von Antonio developed for Sangallo the harbor basin there Darsena Vecchia and the fortress Fortezza Vecchia.

Livorno remained however insignificant, the place had 1551 straight once 749 inhabitants. The coastal region at the northern end of the Maremma was relatively inhospitable, because there was still sump areas and it herrschete the malaria. Preferably convicts becameafter Livorno ships.

Historical map of Livorno (17. Century)

among the Grand Dukes Cosimo I. and Francesco I. the place was put on starting from 1571 as “ideal city”. Planning well-known architects of the time were assigned such as Bernardo Buontalenti and Alessandro Pieroni. The result was a city with right-angled oriented roads, surround by a hexagonal barrier plant and water ditches. The sumps in the surrounding countryside were put drying and built between Livorno and Pisa a navigable channel. For the defense of the coast before Piratenüberfällen of the Korsaren the step Hans medal was created, and its fleet inLivorno stations.

the Leggi Livornine

between 1590 and 1603 was issued the “Leggi Livornine”, called also “Costituzione Livornina”. These laws planned immunity, privileges and liberties for dealers of any origin, above all however guaranteed them to faith liberty. By this tolerance edict Livorno becamewith the time by settlement of most diverse subpopulations to a kosmopolitischen and multi-religious city. Each group put on own cult places and organized themselves in protections of interests, which so mentioned „nazioni “, from which there were altogether nine: Jew, Greek, Englishman, dutchman and German, Frenchman, Syrian Maroniten, Armenian,Muslim and Waldenser. The sephardischen Jews originating from Spain and Portugal did not have to live in Livorno, as at other places in Europe, in a Ghetto.

of 17. Jh. up to the present

Livorno was explained 1675 as a free port. Thus those experiencedCity one approx. 200 years continuous economical bloom. Thus Livorno became among other things most important trade post of the Englishmen at the Mediterranean. Apart from the trade, particularly with the countries of the Levante and the Maghreb, the handicraft flowered. Livorno was for example a center of the gold forging handicraft andthe treatment of Korallen. The city grew also outside of the original fortifications, above all southward. By the tolerant climate of the city Livorno also a center of the publishing trade became favoured; thus here the work Dei became delitti e depression pene by Cesare Beccariaanonymous shifts (1764), and 1770 the first volume of the Italian expenditure of the Encyclopédie printed.

Starting from 1830, after the occupation of Algiers by the Frenchmen, the North Africa trade breaks in. After the connection at Italy the city 1865 loses the free port, which a further drastic reduction of the tradecaused. The economic basis of the city becomes with the time the industry and the tourism: the city became, after English model, the first seaside resort of Italy.

1921 were created the communist party of Italy in Livorno. In II. World war bombarded the US Air Force the city substantial. The heavyDamage by these air raids was repaired never again completely. The town centre was modern again-established into the 1950er years.

economics and infrastructure

ferry in the port of Livorno

Livorno possess one of the most important ports of Italy. The northern part is commercial port, particularly for mineral oil,Container and car. In the southern part, in the proximity of the old part of town, old postage Mediceo, today driving port with connections after Korsika , is Sardinien, unites islands of the Toskani archipelago such as Capraia and to North Africa, as well as point of application for large cruise ships.

The cityalso a long tradition in shipbuilding has, threw CAN animals Navale Orlando 1865 was based. The enterprise Benetti builds megayachts on the area today. In the north of the city is an oil refinery of the Italian company ENI. Further branches of trade are mechanical industry andAutoancillary industries (the enterprise Bizzarini built in Livorno into the 1960er year also car).

By Benedetto Brin the created and in the year 1881 opened naval academy Accademia Navale trains cadets of the Italian navy . Symbol of the academy is the sail school ship Amerigo Vespucci.

sport

Most important association of the city is the soccer club AS Livorno, to which its Heimspiele established in 1933 Stadio Armando Picchi deliver. Other popular kinds of sport are basketball, baseball and fencing (from Livorno several fencing olympia winners come).

culture and objects of interest

townscape

borough VeneziaNuova

Livorno has in 2. World war a large part of its historical built volumes lost, yet is still good the city plant established under the Medici to recognize. The old part of town is enclosed of the fortress ditch Fosso material one, and becomes by the main shopping street V provided with arcades ia Grandedivided. The borough Venezia Nuova (1629 put on) possesses still many old buildings (under it former depots) and is from channels reminding of Venice pulled through. Further buildings are bark Epoque received, above all mansions at the bank promenade Viale Italia in the southern quarters Ardenza and Antignano.

churches and synagogs

cathedral of Livorno
synagog
  • Duomo San Francesco di Assisi - the cathedral of Livorno is in the center of the old part of town because of the Piazza Grande. It was established 1594-1606 by Bernardo Buontalenti and Alessandro Pieroni and in 18. Jh.extended. After destruction in 2. World war was again developed the cathedral after original plans.
  • Chiesa di San Giovanni Battista - 1624 of Gianfranceso Cantagallina on a building of predecessors from that 13 Jh. built.
  • Chiesa di Santa Caterina - Dominikanerkirche in the borough Venezia Nuova on octagonal sketch (1720).Cover painting Incoronazione della Vergine (Marienkrönung) of Giorgio Vasari.
  • Chiesa di San Ferdinando, also Chiesa della Crocetta mentioned. Beautiful church from that 18. Century, marble decorations of Giovanni Baratta
  • Chiesa della Madonna del Soccorso - in 19. Jh. established Votivkirche
  • Chiesa di San Jacopo inAcquaviva - which became church 1666 on the remainders of a Roman Augustinerkirche delighted.
  • Santuario di Montenero - the monastery plant from that 18. Jh. lies on a hill above the city. Them are since that 14. Jh. Pilgerstätte and accommodates a well-known Madonna picture (Schutzheilige of the Toskana).The church accommodates an interesting collection of Votivbildern. From the free area one has a beautiful view of the city.
  • Synagog - building from the 1950er years, as replacement for in 2. World war destroyed old synagog (1603).

fortifications

Fortezza Vecchia
Fortezza Nuova
  • Fortezza Vecchia - fortress in the proximity of the old Medici port (1521-1534) - in the center of the fortress lies the Mastio di Matilde, around the year 1077 a cylindrical awake tower established under Mathilde of Canossa on remainders of a building from Roman time. In 14.Jh. around the tower a square bastion was built, the Quadratura dei for Pisani. Around 1534 the today still existing five-angular building of bricks was completed (architect: Antonio there Sangallo the younger one), which includes the previous buildings in itself. The fortress became strong in the 1943 by bomb attacksdamaged, and serves today, after extensive restoration measures, cultural meetings and concerts.
  • Fortezza Nuova (fortress, 1590) - which fortification became between 1590 and 1600 established. On the inside is today a park plant.


other buildings and objects of interest

monument Quattro Mori
Terrazza Mascagni
  • Monumento aiquattro Mori - the “monument of the 4 carrots” is the landmark of the city. It consists stony back-ups of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I. of. (1595, of Giovanni Bandini) and four bronze figures, the caught Piraten in chains represent (1623 - 1626, of Pietro Tacca).
  • Torredel Marzocco - tower on octagonal sketch in port proximity, for which 1439 were built of the Florentinern as indication of its new power.
  • Teatro Goldoni - urban theatre (1843 -1847).
  • Cisternone - in the neoklassizistischen style of established water reservoirs (1828, most important building of the architect Pasquale Poccianti)
  • Terrazza Mascagni- Would sea-ester-eat at the uferstrasse Viale Italia (1928 put on as Terrazza Ciano).
  • Mercato Centrale - large market hall in the city centre, 1894 establishes.


museums

  • Museo Civico G. Fattori - the museum in the mansion Mimbelli (1865) accommodates an important art collection with works of the Macchiaioli.
  • Museo Ebraico Yeshivà Marini - Jewish museum, cult articles from in 2. World war destroyed old synagog.
  • Museo Mascagnano - museum with certifications from the life of the composer Pietro Mascagni.
  • Museo Provinciale di Storia Naturale del Mediterraneo - natural history museum
  • Acquario Comunale Diacinto Cestoni -Sea aquarium, at present (2006) because of change closed.

regular meetings

Effetto Venezia
  • Fiera di Sant'Antonino - quarter celebration (around the 13. June)
  • Effetto Venezia - a large city celebration with cultural meetings, which annually at the end of of July - at the beginning of of August in the quarter of Venezia Nuova takes place.
  • Rudder competitionsin the summer, which is delivered between boats of the individual boroughs:Coppa Risi'atori (second June Sunday) - Coppa Barontini (last June Sunday) - Palio marine aero (second July Sunday)

partnerships between cities

Livorno maintains with the following cities partnerships between cities:

Culinary specialities

the kitchen of the city Livorno offers above all fish courts. It was affected also by the different subpopulations, in the city mixed itself. Most well-known court is fish-pots Cacciucco. Far specialities are Bordatino (vegetable-pot with Polenta), Riso aluminium nero seppia(Black Risotto with Sepien), Baccalà and Stoccafisso (stick fish). Triglie alla Livornese are Rotbarben in a Tomatensauce peppered with Peperoncino. A popular intermediate meal is the Torta di Ceci, who is sold like Pizza. The Roschette (Kringelgebäck) was originally a Jewish Passahgericht. A furthertypical speciality of the city is the Ponce alla Livornese, a strong coffee with Rum.

sons and daughters of the city

other

  • the inhabitants of Livorno is after-said a certain friendliness and tolerance,which is to be surely led back on the multi-cultural past of the city. In completely Italy “linguaccia the livornese” (in a general manner “bad tongue”) is famous notorious, which takes a sheet rarely before the mouth. Expression of this attitude is above all those supraregional well-known sow-Irish magazine IL Vernacoliere.
  • After thatalso a well-known chicken race is designated English name of the city (putting horn ).

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Commons: Livorno - pictures, videos and/or audio files



coordinates: 43° 33 ' 0 " N, 10° 18 ' 53 " O

 

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