From view of the capitalist the purchase of worker pays and other means of production only, if afterwards by the sales of the produced goods more moneys one takes, than originally for worker and means of production one spent. Since the workers of the sales of their worker must live, is posed to them after Karl Marx surely that the workers of work contracts are received, with whom at wages is only entitled, what it to the life to need.
Of view of the capitalists now an optimization problem consists. As the goods are to be exchanged (exchange value), are the weak situation of the workers as profitable ones as possible for the capitalists to be used. The answer to carries the work value teachings out according to which all goods exchange themselves mutually in relation to the work time, which is normally necessary for their production.
Thereby three dimensions of the exploitation of the hired hands arise as a result of the capitalists:
- Production: The occupation of hired hands pays only, if of the produced goods a part with the capitalists, which remains to multi-product.
- Work time: The occupation of hired hands pays only, if the hired hands work not only for the production of the products needed by them (necessary work time), but beyond that free of charge also for the capitalists. However this gratuity is masked, not so easily visibly in capitalism, since the wages cover vordergründig the whole work time.
- Worth: The occupation of hired hands pays only, if from the created value a part remains as increase in value with the capitalists.
Worth to create only the “free” hired hands can. Slaves (unfree work) against it as private property of capitalist (for instance negro slaves in the US Southern States 19. Century) can only deliver like machines (constant capital) their value by “wear” to the produced goods gradually. The increase in value can only by the difference between the value of the worker (wages, variable capital), who is sold by the “free” hired hands, and for which altogether created original value (creation of value) develop.
In „the civil “ economic science hired hands appear as employees, called up to the introduction of the European system of the economical Gesamtrechnungen 1995 in the FRG in the year 1999 still „dependently persons employed “.