a locomotive (neulat of. loco motivus, of the place moving), briefly locomotive, is a self-propelled tractor of the railway.

The locomotive consists in principle of in or multipart wing unit, on a chassis and/or. upseveral chassis (for example rotary stands) is stored. The drive engines can be integrated in the wing unit or in the chassis. The driving power is finally converted into a rotation of the wheels, those by unreeling on the rails the locomotive and the attached coursein motion sets and moves.

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distinction after the driving power

common way becomes afterthe driving power first between steam engines, diesel locomotives and electric locomotives differentiated. There were other drives, for example with propellers and rockets in individual test vehicles. Steam engines there are fire lots in limited operating railway facilities, for example within highly combustible ranges of the chemical industry. Rarely occurring hybrid locomotives are diesel electric locomotives, which can take their driving stream also alternatively out of overhead line or bus bar.

steam engines

Dampflokomotive Baureihe 18.201
steam engine series 18,201

steam engines refer their primary energy from the burn of the mostly carried fuels (in former times often peat or wood, then coal (everythingon open rust), as well as coal dust or fuel oil (high speed steam locomotives), as well as after newest building ground corroding (new building steam locomotives) also gasoline - all latters for the enterprise of special burners. They are an advancement of the steam motor vehicles. The fuels needed for the drive become in loading spaces (coal boxes) or tanks upthe locomotive or on attached Schlepptender carried.

The Dampflokomotivkessel heated thereby produces out likewise in Wasserkästen on in the locomotive or in the attached tender steam for the steam engine for carried water. This transfers the movement to the Treibstangen,by a Treibkurbel are connected with the Treibachse.

The steam engine was the original and is enough time prevailing Lokomotivbauart. It is in the USA for the 1960er years, in Switzerland since 1960, in west Germany since 1977 (lastlySteam course, emergency train with locomotive 043,903 of Oldersum BF after Emden German Federal Armed Forces (both East Frisia) and after-concluding disconnection to 26. October 1977, 16:03) and replaced in east Germany since 1988 practically completely by electrical and diesel locomotives. In Asia, for example instill the People's Republic of China , India , Thailand and North Korea, in addition, on some German narrow-gauge railways, steam locomotives (conditions of 2004) are in the regular enterprise.

For description in more detail and special designs, see: Steam engine and steam engine (design)

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Diesel and burn force locomotives

diesel locomotive of the union Pacific Railways

with diesel engines propelled locomotives have an energy production characteristic, which agrees not with the traction power characteristic and must therefore by inserted plants or transmissions be adapted.

With diesel electric drive the diesel engine drives first one Generator on, which produces the electric current for the electrical drive motors.

With Diesel-hydraulic drive the engine movement will transfer to a fluffy torque converter transmission, whose output wave is connected with the wheel drive. Earlier and small diesel locomotives transfer their achievement occasionally also over transmission (Diesel-mechanicalLocomotive). A direct power transmission of slowly running engines over crankshaft-and-connecting-rod drives did not become generally accepted.

For description in more detail and special designs, see: Diesel locomotive

electric locomotives

electric locomotive

electric locomotives (short E-Loks or electrical locomotives) have purely an electric drive contrary tofor example diesel electric or electrical-steam-driven locomotives. Electrical locomotives refer their primary energy usually while driving from overhead lines or from a bus bar over current collectors.

Also the intermittent electrical energy storage in accumulators is common. Locomotives with electrical drive motors, those their river from a generatorrefer, which by a diesel engine is propelled, as diesel locomotives are usually arranged.

Modern electrical locomotives have excluding individual axle drive. The wheel sets with the drive motor are usually in in pairs arranged rotary stands with 2 or 3 wheel sets each summarized, the above structurecarry.

Last conditions of the development are three-phase alternating current drives, which from the change - or direct current of the railway catenary in frequency static frequency changers the three-phase alternating current for the drive of the asynchronous drive motors win. Multi-system locomotives can drive frequencies with this technology with different railway catenary tensions and -. Thus is transnationalTraffic without time-consuming Lokomotivwechsel possible.

For description in more detail and special designs, see: Electric locomotive


Druckluft-Lokomotive am Bergbaumuseum in Bochum
compressed air locomotive at the mining industry museum in Bochum
Köf II the Kampffmeyer mills in Mannheim

Kleinlokomotiven are locomotives with small size and small drive power for easyTasks of ranking. For these different drives are used, so among other things diesel engines, petrol engines and Akku fed electric motors. Also Dampfspeicherlokomotiven and compressed air locomotives as well as the rail tractors are to be counted to the Kleinlokomotiven.

distinction after application purposes

earlier Lokomotivtypen became besidethe drive system also according to express train, passenger train, goods train locomotives as well as ranking and Kleinlokomotiven differentiated. For the Streckenbetrieb however increasingly locomotives are used, which can pull both fast passenger trains and goods trains. A distinction of the newest and strongly standardized locomotives after mode of operation is only within the respective extreme range meeting, thus at very high speeds over 200 km/h or very high course loads. A relating role when these allocations plays also that the old and Lokomotivbestand still ready for operation often still for course services with smaller power demandone uses - thus the former express train racers or goods train locomotives drag today passenger trains with sometimes only 3 or 4 cars.

see also

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